speech articulation tests


Summary: Tests of accuracy in pronouncing speech sounds, e.g., Iowa Pressure Articulation Test, Deep Test of Articulation, Templin-Darley Tests of Articulation, Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation, Screening Speech Articulation Test, Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale.

Top Publications

  1. Morris H, Ozanne A. Phonetic, phonological, and language skills of children with a cleft palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2003;40:460-70 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the language, phonetic, and phonological skills at age 3 years of two groups of young children with a cleft palate, with different expressive language proficiency at 2 years of age...
  2. Roy N, Nissen S, Dromey C, Sapir S. Articulatory changes in muscle tension dysphonia: evidence of vowel space expansion following manual circumlaryngeal therapy. J Commun Disord. 2009;42:124-35 pubmed publisher
  3. Persson C, Lohmander A, Elander A. Speech in children with an isolated cleft palate: A longitudinal perspective. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2006;43:295-309 pubmed
    ..To describe articulation and speech symptoms related to velopharyngeal impairment in children born with an isolated cleft palate...
  4. Skodda S, Visser W, Schlegel U. Vowel articulation in Parkinson's disease. J Voice. 2011;25:467-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, some aspects of altered speech performance in PD seem to feature some gender-specific patterns, which justify further investigation. ..
  5. Padovani M, Gielow I, Behlau M. Phonarticulatory diadochokinesis in young and elderly individuals. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2009;67:58-61 pubmed
    ..The young adults group presented with higher diadochokinesia rate in adults in all speech tasks while the elderly adults group had a worse intensity control. ..
  6. Dilley L, Pitt M. A study of regressive place assimilation in spontaneous speech and its implications for spoken word recognition. J Acoust Soc Am. 2007;122:2340-53 pubmed
    ..Implications for theories of word recognition are discussed. ..
  7. Elordieta G, Calleja N. Microvariation in accentual alignment in Basque Spanish. Lang Speech. 2005;48:397-439 pubmed
    ..The continuum of tonal target alignment is observed in LS, VS, and MS, and the difficulties in identifying a "starred" tone lead to a discussion of the suitability of the starred tone notation. ..
  8. Plug L, Ogden R. A parametric approach to the phonetics of postvocalic /r/ in Dutch. Phonetica. 2003;60:159-86 pubmed
  9. Berent I, Lennertz T, Jun J, Moreno M, Smolensky P. Language universals in human brains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:5321-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that language universals are neither relics of language change nor are they artifacts of generic limitations on auditory perception and motor control-they reflect universal linguistic knowledge, active in speakers' brains. ..

More Information


  1. Rosen K, Kent R, Duffy J. Lognormal distribution of pause length in ataxic dysarthria. Clin Linguist Phon. 2003;17:469-86 pubmed
    ..The robustness of the lognormal distribution across pause types strongly supports this distribution as a viable and useful method of analysis. We hope this work will encourage others to consider the lognormal distribution. ..
  2. Lewis F. Treating Parkinsonian speech: development of a feedback rating scale using a case study. Percept Mot Skills. 2005;101:648-50 pubmed
    ..A case study presents a method for improving volume and articulation of speech of a patient with Parkinson's disease by focusing on perceptual aspects of speech. ..
  3. Thibeault M, Menard L, Baum S, Richard G, McFarland D. Articulatory and acoustic adaptation to palatal perturbation. J Acoust Soc Am. 2011;129:2112-20 pubmed publisher
  4. Chapman K, Graham K, Gooch J, Visconti C. Conversational skills of preschool and school-age children with cleft lip and palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 1998;35:503-16 pubmed
    ..Therefore, craniofacial team evaluations should include examination of conversational competency, particularly for children who are demonstrating difficulty with other aspects of speech, language, or social development. ..
  5. Lohmander Agerskov A. Speech outcome after cleft palate surgery with the Göteborg regimen including delayed hard palate closure. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg. 1998;32:63-80 pubmed
  6. Denne M, Langdown N, Pring T, Roy P. Treating children with expressive phonological disorders: does phonological awareness therapy work in the clinic?. Int J Lang Commun Disord. 2005;40:493-504 pubmed
    ..Until such information is available, clinicians might want to take a cautious approach and combine therapies that target phonological awareness with more traditional approaches, that target speech production more directly. ..
  7. Robert D, Bianco Blache A, Spezza C, Verschueren A, Pouget J, Giovanni A. [Assessment of dysarthria and dysphagia in ALS patients]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2006;162:445-53 pubmed
  8. Troitskaia L. [Logopedic disorders in children with epilepsy]. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2005;105:14-7 pubmed
    ..Characteristics of the disorders correlated with severity of mental retardation of the child and the disease severity. ..
  9. Samuelsson C, Nettelbladt U. Prosodic problems in Swedish children with language impairment: towards a classification of subgroups. Int J Lang Commun Disord. 2004;39:325-44 pubmed
    ..The results indicate a possible differentiation into two different subgroups, one with primarily phonetic and/or linguistic problems, the other with prosodic problems at discourse level possibly related to pragmatic problems. ..
  10. Saltuklaroglu T, Kalinowski J, Dayalu V, Guntupalli V, Stuart A, Rastatter M. A temporal window for the central inhibition of stuttering via exogenous speech signals in adults. Neurosci Lett. 2003;349:120-4 pubmed
    ..In contrast, endogenous (single source) inhibitory techniques require speech flow to be interrupted and go 'off-line' to derive the mirror neuronal. ..
  11. Ben David A, Ezrati R, Stulman N. Acquisition of /s/-clusters in Hebrew-speaking children with phonological disorders. Clin Linguist Phon. 2010;24:210-23 pubmed publisher
    ..There were no differences in the correct productions between the productions of SSP-violating clusters and the SSP-following clusters. ..
  12. Mochida T, Gomi H, Kashino M. Rapid change in articulatory lip movement induced by preceding auditory feedback during production of bilabial plosives. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13866 pubmed publisher
    ..The timing- and context-dependent effects of feedback alteration suggest that the sensory error detection works in a temporally asymmetric window where acoustic features of the syllable to be produced may be coded. ..
  13. Marino V, Williams W, Wharton P, Paulk M, Dutka Souza J, Schulz G. Immediate and sustained changes in tongue movement with an experimental palatal "fistula": a case study. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2005;42:286-96 pubmed
  14. Lohman P. Oral cavity awareness in nonnative speakers acquiring English. Percept Mot Skills. 2008;106:821-9 pubmed
    ..Training methods employed to teach English and slight dialectal variations may account for the significant differences seen in the two groups of nonnative speakers. Further study is warranted. ..
  15. Lam J, Tjaden K, Wilding G. Acoustics of clear speech: effect of instruction. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2012;55:1807-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Results have implications for direct comparison of studies using different instructions for eliciting clear speech. Results also have implications for optimizing clear speech training programs. ..
  16. Walker J, Archibald L. Articulation rate in preschool children: a 3-year longitudinal study. Int J Lang Commun Disord. 2006;41:541-65 pubmed
    ..The data should assist the clinician in the assessment and diagnosis of rate and in rate modification management. Caution should be exercised in generalizing the results of the study in view of the small sample size and other factors. ..
  17. Rance G, Barker E. Speech perception in children with auditory neuropathy/dyssynchrony managed with either hearing AIDS or cochlear implants. Otol Neurotol. 2008;29:179-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Cochlear implantation can offer useful hearing in subjects with AN/AD-type hearing loss. However, expectations for this group may need to be lower than for patients with peripheral (cochlear) loss. ..
  18. Shriberg L, Strand E, Fourakis M, Jakielski K, Hall S, Karlsson H, et al. A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech From Speech Delay: III. Theoretical Coherence of the Pause Marker with Speech Processing Deficits in Childhood Apraxia of Speech. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2017;60:S1135-S1152 pubmed publisher
    ..Results support the hypotheses of core representational and transcoding speech processing deficits in CAS and theoretical coherence of the PM's pause-speech elements with these deficits. ..
  19. Ward D. Intrinsic and extrinsic timing in stutterers' speech: data and implications. Lang Speech. 1997;40 ( Pt 3):289-310 pubmed
    ..This finding calls into question the notion that phase angle analyses reflect purely intrinsic timing phenomena. ..
  20. Miller N, Allcock L, Jones D, Noble E, Hildreth A, Burn D. Prevalence and pattern of perceived intelligibility changes in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007;78:1188-90 pubmed
    ..Patients' own perceptions of the extent of change do not necessarily reflect objective measures. ..
  21. Kondo Y. Within- word prosodic constraint on coarticulation in Japanese. Lang Speech. 2006;49:393-416 pubmed
    ..Coarticulation is observed to be the product of a complex process of constraint interaction. ..
  22. Wren Y, McLeod S, White P, Miller L, Roulstone S. Speech characteristics of 8-year-old children: findings from a prospective population study. J Commun Disord. 2013;46:53-69 pubmed publisher
    ..1997) lifespan database. The reader will also recall information on how typically and atypically developing children differ on a range of measures across different types of speech sample. ..
  23. Gebska M, Wojciechowska A, Zyzniewska Banaszak E. [Principles and methods of rehabilitation of patients with occupational voice disorders]. Ann Acad Med Stetin. 2011;57:78-84 pubmed
    ..The situation differs in singers, who rarely suffer from voice disorders thanks to special properties of their voice organ, as well as to many years of training and perfecting of voice emission techniques. ..
  24. Ratynska J, Szkiełkowska A, Markowska R, Kurkowski M, Mularzuk M, Skarzynski H. Immediate speech fluency improvement after application of the Digital Speech Aid in stuttering patients. Med Sci Monit. 2012;18:CR9-12 pubmed
    ..9% of patients during reading, in 66.6% during dialogue, and in 63.9% during monologue. The results show that the DSA is an effective tool for immediate disfluency reduction in stutterers. ..
  25. Schierano G, Mozzati M, Bassi F, Preti G. Influence of the thickness of the resin palatal vault on the closest speaking space with complete dentures. J Oral Rehabil. 2001;28:903-8 pubmed
    ..As hypothesized by Clemençon thickening the resin palatal vault could be a useful procedure to increase the VDO, in cases in which it is too low from the aesthetic stand point. ..
  26. Xu J, Chen H, Tan W, Lin J, Wu W. The square flap method for cleft palate repair. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2007;44:579-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The technique presented has been effective, with the advantages of palatal closure without tension, good muscular reconstruction, and sufficient lengthening of the soft palate. ..
  27. Dahlgren Sandberg A. Reading and spelling abilities in children with severe speech impairments and cerebral palsy at 6, 9, and 12 years of age in relation to cognitive development: a longitudinal study. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2006;48:629-34 pubmed
    ..Such studies might also clarify the importance of articulatory abilities in early literacy acquisition. ..
  28. Nguyen N. A MATLAB toolbox for the analysis of articulatory data in the production of speech. Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput. 2000;32:464-7 pubmed
    ..The scripts can also be used in a noninteractive way, as stand-alone MATLAB commands. Output data can be imported into any standard spreadsheet. EMATOOLS is freely available from www.lpl.univ-aix.fr/nguyen/ematools.html. ..
  29. Bunton K, Leddy M. An evaluation of articulatory working space area in vowel production of adults with Down syndrome. Clin Linguist Phon. 2011;25:321-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Although generalizations are limited by the small number of participants, findings warrant further investigation of the underlying articulatory characteristics of speech production for individuals with Down syndrome. ..
  30. Bianchini E, de Andrade C. A model of mandibular movements during speech: normative pilot study for the Brazilian Portuguese language. Cranio. 2006;24:197-206 pubmed
    ..This study allowed for the delineation of a profile of the mandibular movements during speech in asymptomatic individuals. ..
  31. Park J, Kim S, Kim H. Acoustic effects of carbamazepine in benign rolandic epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2005;7:468-71 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that BRE patients treated with carbamazepine should be monitored for language and speech problems. ..
  32. Fletcher J. An EMA/EPG study of vowel-to-vowel articulation across velars in Southern British English. Clin Linguist Phon. 2004;18:577-92 pubmed
    ..The velar stops showed a high level of coarticulation with flanking /i/ vowels, supporting earlier claims by Fowler and Brancazio, that this consonant is 'less' resistant to coarticulatory pressures than others in English. ..
  33. Kaburagi T, Honda M. Electromagnetic articulograph based on a nonparametric representation of the magnetic field. J Acoust Soc Am. 2002;111:1414-21 pubmed
    ..Experimental results show that the error in estimating the receiver position is less than 0.1 mm for a 14 x 14-cm measurement area, and this error can be further reduced by using a spline-smoothing technique. ..
  34. Yavas M. Epilogue. Clin Linguist Phon. 2010;24:239-41 pubmed publisher
    ..While in correct production of the targets more variation was observed among language groups, more uniform behaviour was found across languages in cluster reductions, which were the most common processes in erroneous productions. ..
  35. Van Lierde K, van Borsel J, Moerman M, Van Cauwenberge P. Nasalance, nasality, voice, and articulation after uvulopalatopharyngoplasty. Laryngoscope. 2002;112:873-8 pubmed
    ..Because of removal of effective velar length, articulation problems of the uvular /R/ can occur in the Dutch language...
  36. Patel K, Sullivan S, Murthy A, Marrinan E, Mulliken J. Speech outcome after palatal repair in nonsyndromic versus syndromic Robin sequence. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2012;130:577e-584e pubmed
    ..The authors prefer pharyngeal flap for velopharyngeal insufficiency in patients with Robin sequence, whether syndromic or nonsyndromic, without retrognathism or signs/symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea. ..
  37. Bianchini E, Paiva G, de Andrade C. [Mandibular movements in speech: interference of temporomandibular disfunction according to pain indexes]. Pro Fono. 2007;19:7-18 pubmed
  38. Kohler K, Niebuhr O. On the role of articulatory prosodies in German message decoding. Phonetica. 2011;68:57-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are discussed in a plea to base future speech perception research on a paradigm that makes the traditional segment-prosody divide more permeable, and moves away from the generally practised phoneme orientation. ..
  39. Jindra P, Eber M, Pesak J. The spectral analysis of syllables in patients using dentures. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2002;146:91-4 pubmed
    ..In case of wrong denture construction the acoustic changes may continue, resulting in the patient's stress load dependent upon sex, age, psychic condition and seriousness of the problem. ..
  40. McGowan R, Nittrouer S, Manning C. Development of [j] in young, midwestern, American children. J Acoust Soc Am. 2004;115:871-84 pubmed
    ..Two lingual constrictions could be difficult for young children to produce. ..
  41. Rocławski B. [The tongue in the formation of articulated speech]. Ann Acad Med Stetin. 2006;52 Suppl 3:23-30 pubmed
    ..This article contains comments to the subchapter "The tongues in the formation of articulated speech" from the tetextbook of Prof. Zofia Knychalskiej-Karwan entitles "The tongue. Physiology and pathology". ..
  42. Kaburagi T, Honda M. Dynamic articulatory model based on multidimensional invariant-feature task representation. J Acoust Soc Am. 2001;110:441-52 pubmed
    ..Finally, the capability of the model for predicting actual articulatory movements is quantitatively investigated using empirical articulatory data. ..
  43. Hurkmans J, Jonkers R, Boonstra A, Stewart R, Reinders Messelink H. Assessing the treatment effects in apraxia of speech: introduction and evaluation of the Modified Diadochokinesis Test. Int J Lang Commun Disord. 2012;47:427-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate the validity and utility of the instrument as a supplement to speech tasks in assessing speech improvement aimed at the level of planning and programming of speech. ..
  44. Prathanee B, Lorwatanapongsa P, Makarabhirom K, Suphawatjariyakul R, Manochiopinig S, Thinnaithorn R. Reliability of perceptual assessment for resonance disorders in patients with cleft palate. J Med Assoc Thai. 2012;95 Suppl 11:S73-9 pubmed
    ..Reliabilities of perceptual assessment of resonance varied widely but it appears that listening skill might be directly related to experiences. Training programs for critical listening skills are needed. ..
  45. Chen Y, Wang G, Yu L, Wu Y, Tian X. [The evaluation of the Chinese intelligibility of patients with velopharyngeal incompetence]. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2003;38:169-72 pubmed
    ..2) Of misarticulation of VPI, the cleft palate is the worst, in turn the others are the congenital velopharyngeal incompetence, the post-pharyngoplasty VPI and the post-palatoplasty VPI. ..
  46. Yunusova Y, Green J, Mefferd A. Accuracy assessment for AG500, electromagnetic articulograph. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2009;52:547-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The performance of the system was judged as adequate for speech movement acquisition, provided that specific steps are taken for minimizing error during recording and for validating the quality of recorded data. ..
  47. Rochet Capellan A, Schwartz J. An articulatory basis for the labial-to-coronal effect: /pata/ seems a more stable articulatory pattern than /tapa/. J Acoust Soc Am. 2007;121:3740-54 pubmed
    ..They are discussed in relation with the so-called LC effect that is the preference for L(a)C(o) associations rather than C(o)L(a) ones in CV.CV disyllables in both world languages and infants' first words. ..
  48. Louzada T, Beraldinelle R, Berretin Felix G, Brasolotto A. Oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis in dysphonic women. J Appl Oral Sci. 2011;19:567-72 pubmed
  49. LOFQVIST A, Sahlen B, Ibertsson T. Vowel spaces in Swedish adolescents with cochlear implants. J Acoust Soc Am. 2010;128:3064-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the results of an identification test showed that the listeners made more confusions of the vowels produced by speakers who had a small mean distance in the F1-F2 plane between all the vowels. ..
  50. Mota H, Keske Soares M, Bagetti T, Ceron M, Filha M. [Comparative analyses of the effectiveness of three different phonological therapy models]. Pro Fono. 2007;19:67-74 pubmed
    ..No significant statistical difference was found between the models ..
  51. Li J, Zhang F, Chen Y, Wang G. [The change of F2 and B2 in patients with complete denture]. Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue. 2004;13:259-61 pubmed
    ..There is a definite regularity of speech articulation after restored with complete denture. CSL helps us to analyze speech articulation by visual accessing and provides basic theory of evaluation in clinical dental prosthetics. ..
  52. AVila C, Gonzalez J, Parcet M, Belloch V. Selective alteration of native, but not second language articulation in a patient with foreign accent syndrome. Neuroreport. 2004;15:2267-70 pubmed
    ..Results were interpreted as showing that different brain areas control articulation of L1 and L2 learnt after a critical period. ..