Summary: A facial expression which may denote feelings of pleasure, affection, amusement, etc.

Top Publications

  1. Patel R, Richards P, Inglehart M. Periodontal health, quality of life, and smiling patterns--an exploration. J Periodontol. 2008;79:224-31 pubmed
    This study explored whether periodontal health/disease affects psychosocial outcomes in smiling patterns of particular subjects and their smile-related quality of life...
  2. Falkenberg I, Bartels M, Wild B. Keep smiling! Facial reactions to emotional stimuli and their relationship to emotional contagion in patients with schizophrenia. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2008;258:245-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, 1976) and were asked to pull their lip corners up or down (like in smiling or showing a sad face) according to the direction of two arrows that were presented simultaneously...
  3. Calvo M, Fernández Martín A, Nummenmaa L. Perceptual, categorical, and affective processing of ambiguous smiling facial expressions. Cognition. 2012;125:373-93 pubmed publisher
    ..a face with a smile but non-happy eyes likely to be interpreted as happy? We used blended expressions in which a smiling mouth was incongruent with the eyes (e.g...
  4. Janson G, Branco N, Fernandes T, Sathler R, Garib D, Lauris J. Influence of orthodontic treatment, midline position, buccal corridor and smile arc on smile attractiveness. Angle Orthod. 2011;81:153-61 pubmed publisher
  5. Korb S, Grandjean D, Scherer K. Timing and voluntary suppression of facial mimicry to smiling faces in a Go/NoGo task--an EMG study. Biol Psychol. 2010;85:347-9 pubmed publisher
  6. Van der Geld P, Oosterveld P, Berge S, Kuijpers Jagtman A. Tooth display and lip position during spontaneous and posed smiling in adults. Acta Odontol Scand. 2008;66:207-13 pubmed publisher
    To analyze differences in tooth display, lip-line height, and smile width between the posed smiling record, traditionally produced for orthodontic diagnosis, and the spontaneous (Duchenne) smile of joy.
  7. Al Jabrah O, Al Shammout R, El Naji W, Al Ajarmeh M, Al Quran A. Gender differences in the amount of gingival display during smiling using two intraoral dental biometric measurements. J Prosthodont. 2010;19:286-93 pubmed publisher
    ..the relationships of these two intraoral dental biometric measurements with the amount of gingival display during smiling. A total of 61 men and 66 women were included in this study...
  8. Werheid K, McDonald R, Simmons Stern N, Ally B, Budson A. Familiar smiling faces in Alzheimer's disease: understanding the positivity-related recognition bias. Neuropsychologia. 2011;49:2935-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The recognition bias for positive faces persisted. This pattern supports the view that the positivity-induced recognition bias represents a compensatory, gist-based memory process that is applied when item-based recognition fails. ..
  9. Van der Geld P, Oosterveld P, Kuijpers Jagtman A. Age-related changes of the dental aesthetic zone at rest and during spontaneous smiling and speech. Eur J Orthod. 2008;30:366-73 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study were to analyse lip line heights and age effects in an adult male population during spontaneous smiling, speech, and tooth display in the natural rest position and to determine whether lip line height follows a ..

More Information


  1. Schabel B, McNamara J, Franchi L, Baccetti T. Q-sort assessment vs visual analog scale in the evaluation of smile esthetics. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2009;135:S61-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Orthodontists and parents of orthodontic patients agreed with respect to "attractive" and "unattractive" smiles. Men and women agreed poorly with respect to "attractive" and "unattractive" smiles. ..
  2. Zange S, Ramos A, Cuoghi O, de Mendonca M, Suguino R. Perceptions of laypersons and orthodontists regarding the buccal corridor in long- and short-face individuals. Angle Orthod. 2011;81:86-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Images of eight smiling individuals were modified to create five sizes of dark spaces in the buccal corridors (2%, 10%, 15%, 22%, and 28%)..
  3. Papa A, Bonanno G. Smiling in the face of adversity: the interpersonal and intrapersonal functions of smiling. Emotion. 2008;8:1-12 pubmed publisher
    This study examined hypothesized interpersonal and intrapersonal functions of smiling in positive and negative affective contexts. Smiles were measured during a lab-based monologue task following either happy or sad emotion-evoking films...
  4. Sawyer A, See M, Nduka C. Quantitative analysis of normal smile with 3D stereophotogrammetry--an aid to facial reanimation. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2010;63:65-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Proportions of our study group with corner-of-the-mouth, canine and full-denture smiles were consistent with Rubin's study. ..
  5. Johnston L, Miles L, Macrae C. Why are you smiling at me? Social functions of enjoyment and non-enjoyment smiles. Br J Soc Psychol. 2010;49:107-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are discussed in terms of the social functions of facial expressions. ..
  6. Desai S, Upadhyay M, Nanda R. Dynamic smile analysis: changes with age. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2009;136:310.e1-10; discussion 310-1 pubmed publisher
    ..As a person ages, the smile gets narrower vertically and wider transversely. The dynamic measures indicate that the muscles' ability to create a smile decreases with increasing age. ..
  7. Al Johany S, Alqahtani A, Alqahtani F, Alzahrani A. Evaluation of different esthetic smile criteria. Int J Prosthodont. 2011;24:64-70 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the existence of different esthetic smile criteria as determined on the smiles of celebrities, which were considered by lay people to be beautiful...
  8. Abu Alhaija E, Al Shamsi N, Al Khateeb S. Perceptions of Jordanian laypersons and dental professionals to altered smile aesthetics. Eur J Orthod. 2011;33:450-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A smiling photograph of a female dental student was selected and digitally manipulated to create changes in buccal corridor ..
  9. Mehu M, Dunbar R. Relationship between smiling and laughter in humans (Homo sapiens): testing the power asymmetry hypothesis. Folia Primatol (Basel). 2008;79:269-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This partly supports the power asymmetry hypothesis and suggests that in men, deliberate smiles could play a role in the regulation of hierarchical relationships. ..
  10. Roden Johnson D, Gallerano R, English J. The effects of buccal corridor spaces and arch form on smile esthetics. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2005;127:343-50 pubmed
    ..Photographs of 10 untreated women served as a control sample. All photographs showed the subjects smiling. The photographs were digitized and evaluated for BCS...
  11. Isiksal E, Hazar S, Akyalcin S. Smile esthetics: perception and comparison of treated and untreated smiles. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2006;129:8-16 pubmed
    ..plastic surgeons, artists, general dentists, dental professionals, and parents used a 5-point scale to rate smiling photographs of 25 extraction, 25 nonextraction, and 25 untreated control subjects...
  12. VanSwearingen J, Cohn J, Bajaj Luthra A. Specific impairment of smiling increases the severity of depressive symptoms in patients with facial neuromuscular disorders. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 1999;23:416-23 pubmed
    ..may elevate the risk for depression, with patients experiencing a reduced physiological feedback associated with smiling as well as the social consequences of the inability to communicate positive emotion...
  13. van der Geld P, Oosterveld P, van Waas M, Kuijpers Jagtman A. Digital videographic measurement of tooth display and lip position in smiling and speech: reliability and clinical application. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2007;131:301.e1-8 pubmed
    Tooth display and lip position in smiling and speech are important esthetic aspects in orthodontics and dentofacial surgery...
  14. Bazhenova O, Stroganova T, Doussard Roosevelt J, Posikera I, Porges S. Physiological responses of 5-month-old infants to smiling and blank faces. Int J Psychophysiol. 2007;63:64-76 pubmed
    ..respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)) were monitored in 5-month-old infants during the replacement of an adult's smiling (SF) with a blank face (BF) in a face-to-face setting...
  15. Sarver D, Ackerman M. Dynamic smile visualization and quantification: part 1. Evolution of the concept and dynamic records for smile capture. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2003;124:4-12 pubmed
    ..In part 1, we discuss the evolution of smile analysis and review the dynamic records needed. In part 2, we will review smile analysis and treatment strategies and present a brief case report. ..
  16. LaFrance M, Hecht M, Paluck E. The contingent smile: a meta-analysis of sex differences in smiling. Psychol Bull. 2003;129:305-34 pubmed
    The authors present a meta-analysis of sex differences in smiling based on 448 effect sizes derivedfrom 162 research reports...
  17. Moore T, Southard K, Casko J, Qian F, Southard T. Buccal corridors and smile esthetics. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2005;127:208-13; quiz 261 pubmed
    ..Full-face color slides of 10 randomly selected smiling subjects (5 women, 5 men) were digitized...
  18. Owens E, Goodacre C, Loh P, Hanke G, Okamura M, Jo K, et al. A multicenter interracial study of facial appearance. Part 1: A comparison of extraoral parameters. Int J Prosthodont. 2002;15:273-82 pubmed
    ..Additional research with larger patient populations would be needed to confirm or refute these trends. ..
  19. Richman D, Gernat E, Teichman H. Effects of social stimuli on laughing and smiling in young children with Angelman syndrome. Am J Ment Retard. 2006;111:442-6 pubmed
    The effects of social stimuli present and absent on laughing and smiling in 2 young children with Angelman syndrome were assessed via a multielement design...
  20. Maulik C, Nanda R. Dynamic smile analysis in young adults. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2007;132:307-15 pubmed
  21. Parekh S, Fields H, Beck M, Rosenstiel S. Attractiveness of variations in the smile arc and buccal corridor space as judged by orthodontists and laymen. Angle Orthod. 2006;76:557-63 pubmed
    ..To evaluate changes in attractiveness on the basis of computerized variations of smile arcs and buccal corridors for male and female smiles judged by orthodontists and laypersons...
  22. Ramachandran V. The neurology and evolution of humor, laughter, and smiling: the false alarm theory. Med Hypotheses. 1998;51:351-4 pubmed
  23. Ritter D, Gandini L, Pinto A, Locks A. Esthetic influence of negative space in the buccal corridor during smiling. Angle Orthod. 2006;76:198-203 pubmed
    ..11). It was concluded that the NS did not influence the esthetic evaluation of smile photographs in the sample in this study, for both orthodontists and lay people. ..
  24. Dong J, Jin T, Cho H, Oh S. The esthetics of the smile: a review of some recent studies. Int J Prosthodont. 1999;12:9-19 pubmed
    ..An attractive smile is important for esthetic treatment. The lip position, oral condition, personality traits, and smile exercise affect the esthetics of the smile. ..
  25. Adulyanon S, Vourapukjaru J, Sheiham A. Oral impacts affecting daily performance in a low dental disease Thai population. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1996;24:385-9 pubmed
    ..The highest incidence of performances affected were Eating (49.7%), Emotional stability (46.5%) and Smiling (26.1%)...
  26. Kang Y, Bae Y, Hwang S, Nam S. A simple and quantitative method for three-dimensional measurement of normal smiles. Ann Plast Surg. 2005;54:379-83 pubmed
    ..Our work may offer a simple and quantitative method for measuring the smile and accurate guidance for reconstructive surgery. ..
  27. Flores Mir C, Silva E, Barriga M, Lagravere M, Major P. Lay person's perception of smile aesthetics in dental and facial views. J Orthod. 2004;31:204-9; discussion 201 pubmed
    ..The anterior visible occlusion, photographed subject, view type are factors, which influence the aesthetic perception of smiles. In addition, gender and level of education had an influence. ..
  28. Neuhoff C, Schaefer C. Effects of laughing, smiling, and howling on mood. Psychol Rep. 2002;91:1079-80 pubmed
    ..the effects of forced laughter on mood and compared laughter with two other possible mood-improving activities, smiling and howling. While howling did not substantially improve mood, both smiling and laughing did...
  29. Oliver C, Demetriades L, Hall S. Effects of environmental events on smiling and laughing behavior in Angelman syndrome. Am J Ment Retard. 2002;107:194-200 pubmed
    ..Previous research has suggested that smiling and laughing behaviors in Angelman syndrome are inappropriate, excessive, and dissociated from contextual events...
  30. Tomat L, Manktelow R. Evaluation of a new measurement tool for facial paralysis reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;115:696-704 pubmed
    ..Although the authors demonstrated evaluation of smile movement, the system may be used to evaluate other movements, such as mouth puckering, eye closure, and forehead elevation. ..
  31. Keltner D, Bonanno G. A study of laughter and dissociation: distinct correlates of laughter and smiling during bereavement. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1997;73:687-702 pubmed
    ..To test these hypotheses, the authors related measures of bereaved adults' laughter and smiling 6 months postloss to measures of their (a) subjective emotion and dissociation from distress, (b) social ..
  32. Soussignan R. Duchenne smile, emotional experience, and autonomic reactivity: a test of the facial feedback hypothesis. Emotion. 2002;2:52-74 pubmed
    ..Five conditions--namely lips pressing, low-level non-Duchenne smiling, high-level non-Duchenne smiling, Duchenne smiling, and control--were produced while participants watched ..
  33. Thomas J, Hayes C, Zawaideh S. The effect of axial midline angulation on dental esthetics. Angle Orthod. 2003;73:359-64 pubmed
    ..Photographs of smiling subjects--one man and one woman--were altered to produce both left and right axial midline angulations in 5 ..
  34. Kapagiannidis D, Kontonasaki E, Bikos P, Koidis P. Teeth and gingival display in the premolar area during smiling in relation to gender and age. J Oral Rehabil. 2005;32:830-7 pubmed
    There is limited knowledge concerning tooth and gingival display in the maxillary premolar area during smiling. The purpose of this study was to investigate maxillary premolar and associated gingival display during smiling, and to reveal ..
  35. Wild B, Rodden F, Rapp A, Erb M, Grodd W, Ruch W. Humor and smiling: cortical regions selective for cognitive, affective, and volitional components. Neurology. 2006;66:887-93 pubmed
    The interrelationships among humor, smiling, and grinning have fascinated philosophers for millennia and neurologists for over a century...
  36. Chung K, Ahn H, Kim S, Lee K, Kim S. Correction of collapsed occlusion with degenerative joint disease focused on the mandibular arch and timely relocation of a miniplate. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2012;141:e53-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Posttreatment records 2.5 years later showed a stable treatment outcome. The results suggest that an orthodontic miniplate is an efficient tool for the treatment of a collapsed occlusion by changing the affected arch only. ..
  37. Kumar S, Gandhi S, Valiathan A. Perception of smile esthetics among Indian dental professionals and laypersons. Indian J Dent Res. 2012;23:295 pubmed publisher
    ..Laypersons are more accepting of minor variations in anterior tooth size and alignment than orthodontists. ..
  38. Foucher M, Quenin S, Disant F. [Management of labial incompetence and gummy smile using profiloplasty]. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord). 2012;133:123-7 pubmed
    ..Those results are based on anatomical and surgical considerations. Some non surgical procedures do exist to treat this problem. It should be a challenge to find the place for each procedure. ..
  39. Tsai J, Ang J, Blevins E, Goernandt J, Fung H, Jiang D, et al. Leaders' smiles reflect cultural differences in ideal affect. Emotion. 2016;16:183-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings suggest that leaders' smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures. ..
  40. Hodgins H, Weibust K, Weinstein N, Shiffman S, Miller A, Coombs G, et al. The cost of self-protection: threat response and performance as a function of autonomous and controlled motivations. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2010;36:1101-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Results support the prediction across measures of verbal, paralinguistic, smiling, vocal fundamental frequency, and cardiovascular response...
  41. Astakhov A. Harmonious proportion. Br Dent J. 2008;205:61 pubmed publisher
  42. King K, Evans C, Viana G, BeGole E, Obrez A. Preferences for vertical position of the maxillary lateral incisors. World J Orthod. 2008;9:147-54 pubmed
    ..The lateral incisors were best perceived when they were offset slightly from the incisal plane, and there was an acceptable range within which the lateral incisors may be placed. ..
  43. de Vries M, Holland R, Chenier T, Starr M, Winkielman P. Happiness cools the warm glow of familiarity: psychophysiological evidence that mood modulates the familiarity-affect link. Psychol Sci. 2010;21:321-8 pubmed publisher
    ..measures of self-reported liking and physiological measures of affect (electromyographic indicator of spontaneous smiling)...
  44. Gahan M, Lewis B, Moore D, Hodge T. The orthodontic-restorative interface: 1. Patient assessment. Dent Update. 2010;37:74-6, 78-80 pubmed
    ..For patients who require a combined orthodontic/restorative approach, it is important that orthodontic and restorative disciplines liaise closely in the assessment and treatment planning process so that optimal care may be planned. ..
  45. Derbent M, Melek E, Arman A, Uckan S, Baskin E. Urofacial (ochoa) syndrome: can a facial gestalt represent severe voiding dysfunction?. Ren Fail. 2009;31:589-92 pubmed
    ..Physicians should keep this syndrome in mind for any patient who presents with dysfunctional voiding, particularly in countries with high rates of consanguineous marriage. ..
  46. Dibart S, Sebaoun J, Surmenian J. Piezocision: a minimally invasive, periodontally accelerated orthodontic tooth movement procedure. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2009;30:342-4, 346, 348-50 pubmed
    ..Because of the added grafting (bone and/or soft tissue), the periodontium is much thicker buccally. ..
  47. Pang P. Lasers in cosmetic dentistry. Gen Dent. 2008;56:663-70; quiz 671-2, 767 pubmed
    ..The goal is to help dentists determine the appropriate laser for a given clinical situations. ..
  48. Mysore A, Aras M. Preoperative intraoral evaluation of planned fixed partial denture pontics using silicone putty. J Prosthodont. 2013;22:334-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The integration of this pretreatment pontic evaluation procedure into FPD restorations assures better results and patient satisfaction. ..
  49. Gabrić Pandurić D, Blašković M, Brozović J, Susic M. Surgical treatment of excessive gingival display using lip repositioning technique and laser gingivectomy as an alternative to orthognathic surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014;72:404.e1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..display (EGD) is a condition in which an overexposure of the maxillary gingiva (>3 mm) is present during smiling. The proper diagnosis and determination of its etiology are essential for the selection of the right treatment ..
  50. Niamtu J. Botox injections for gummy smiles. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2008;133:782-3; author reply 783-4 pubmed publisher
  51. Bornstein M, Arterberry M, Mash C, Manian N. Discrimination of facial expression by 5-month-old infants of nondepressed and clinically depressed mothers. Infant Behav Dev. 2011;34:100-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Infants of nondepressed mothers subsequently discriminated between neutral and smiling facial expressions, whereas infants of clinically depressed mothers failed to make the same discrimination.
  52. Henson S, Lindauer S, Gardner W, Shroff B, Tufekci E, Best A. Influence of dental esthetics on social perceptions of adolescents judged by peers. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2011;140:389-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The frontal-face smiling photographs of 10 teenage volunteers were each altered to create 1 image with an ideal arrangement of teeth and 1 ..
  53. Rummer R, Schweppe J, Schlegelmilch R, Grice M. Mood is linked to vowel type: the role of articulatory movements. Emotion. 2014;14:246-50 pubmed publisher a positive mood produced more words containing /i:/, a vowel involving the same muscle that is used in smiling--the zygomaticus major muscle (ZMM)...