magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography


Summary: Non-invasive diagnostic technique for visualizing the PANCREATIC DUCTS and BILE DUCTS without the use of injected CONTRAST MEDIA or x-ray. MRI scans provide excellent sensitivity for duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and intraductal abnormalities.

Top Publications

  1. Riordan R, Khonsari M, Jeffries J, Maskell G, Cook P. Pineapple juice as a negative oral contrast agent in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography: a preliminary evaluation. Br J Radiol. 2004;77:991-9 pubmed
    The quality of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) images is frequently degraded by high signal from the gastrointestinal tract...
  2. Tsitouridis I, Lazaraki G, Papastergiou C, Pagalos E, Germanidis G. Low conjunction of the cystic duct with the common bile duct: does it correlate with the formation of common bile duct stones?. Surg Endosc. 2007;21:48-52 pubmed
    ..This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) in detecting variants of low cystic duct conjunction, which can be a source of confusion during surgery when unrecognized...
  3. Czako L. Diagnosis of early-stage chronic pancreatitis by secretin-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. J Gastroenterol. 2007;42 Suppl 17:113-7 pubmed
    ..b>Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) has recently been evolving as an important tool for the evaluation of chronic ..
  4. Fitoz S, Erden A, Boruban S. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography of biliary system abnormalities in children. Clin Imaging. 2007;31:93-101 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) with a single-shot fast spin-echo sequence as a noninvasive method to evaluate the biliary system in children...
  5. Fernandez Esparrach G, Gines A, Sanchez M, Pages M, Pellise M, Fernandez Cruz L, et al. Comparison of endoscopic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in the diagnosis of pancreatobiliary diseases: a prospective study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007;102:1632-9 pubmed
    To compare the diagnostic value of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in: (a) patients with a dilated biliary tree unexplained by ultrasonography (US) (group 1), and (b) the diagnosis ..
  6. Halefoglu A. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography: a useful tool in the evaluation of pancreatic and biliary disorders. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:2529-34 pubmed
    b>Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is being used with increasing frequency as a noninvasive alternative to diagnostic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)...
  7. De Waele E, Op de Beeck B, De Waele B, Delvaux G. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in the preoperative assessment of patients with biliary pancreatitis. Pancreatology. 2007;7:347-51 pubmed
    ..In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in detecting common bile duct (CBD) stones and associated pathologies in patients with ..
  8. Tipnis N, Dua K, Werlin S. A retrospective assessment of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2008;46:59-64 pubmed
    To evaluate the utility of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in children and to compare MRCP with direct cholangiopancreatography (CP)...
  9. Bilgin M, Bilgin S, Balci N, Momtahen A, Bilgin Y, Klör H, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography findings compared with fecal elastase 1 measurement for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2008;36:e33-9 pubmed publisher
    To correlate magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the pancreas with the pancreatic exocrine function determined by fecal elastase 1 concentration...

More Information


  1. Sai J, Suyama M, Kubokawa Y, Watanabe S. Diagnosis of mild chronic pancreatitis (Cambridge classification): comparative study using secretin injection-magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:1218-21 pubmed
    ..Secretin injection-MRCP might be useful for the diagnosis of mild chronic pancreatitis. ..
  2. Rautou P, Lévy P, Vullierme M, O Toole D, Couvelard A, Cazals Hatem D, et al. Morphologic changes in branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: a midterm follow-up study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;6:807-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to assess time-related morphologic changes and risk of progress to malignancy in patients with BD IPMN. A prospective design was used in an academic tertiary referral center...
  3. Chavhan G, Roberts E, Moineddin R, Babyn P, Manson D. Primary sclerosing cholangitis in children: utility of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. Pediatr Radiol. 2008;38:868-73 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in diagnosing PSC in children...
  4. Carnes M, Romagnuolo J, Cotton P. Miss rate of pancreas divisum by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in clinical practice. Pancreas. 2008;37:151-3 pubmed publisher
    Pancreas divisum is the most common congenital abnormality of the pancreatic anatomy. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography has emerged as a noninvasive method of examining the pancreatic ductal anatomy...
  5. Yun E, Choi C, Yoon D, Seo Y, Chang S, Kim J, et al. Combination of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and computed tomography for preoperative diagnosis of the Mirizzi syndrome. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2009;33:636-40 pubmed publisher
    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of combined magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and computed tomography (CT) for preoperative diagnosis of Mirizzi syndrome...
  6. Vyas S, Gogoi D, Sinha S, Singh P, Yadav T, Khandelwal N. Pancreaticopleural fistula: an unusual complication of pancreatitis diagnosed with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. JOP. 2009;10:671-3 pubmed
    ..b>Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is very useful in depicting parenchymal and ductal structural changes along with direct ..
  7. Girometti R, Brondani G, Cereser L, Como G, Del Pin M, Bazzocchi M, et al. Post-cholecystectomy syndrome: spectrum of biliary findings at magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. Br J Radiol. 2010;83:351-61 pubmed publisher
    ..of its capability to provide non-invasive high-quality visualisation of the biliary tract, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) has been advocated as a reliable imaging tool for assessing patients with suspected PCS ..
  8. Srinivasa S, Sammour T, McEntee B, Davis N, Hill A. Selective use of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in clinical practice may miss choledocholithiasis in gallstone pancreatitis. Can J Surg. 2010;53:403-7 pubmed
    ..b>Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) has been advocated for routine use to diagnose choledocholithiasis...
  9. Pascual I, Soler J, Pena A, Añón R, Almela P, Sanchiz V, et al. Morphological and functional evaluation of the pancreatic duct with secretin-stimulated magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in alcoholic pancreatitis patients. Dig Dis Sci. 2008;53:3234-41 pubmed publisher
    ..findings and dynamics of pancreatic duct diameter, as determined by secretin-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (S-MRCP), in patients with acute alcoholic pancreatitis or chronic alcoholic pancreatitis and ..
  10. Choi Y, Byun J, Kim J, Kim M, Jang S, Ha H, et al. Diffuse pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: characteristic imaging features. Eur J Radiol. 2008;67:321-8 pubmed
    ..Diffuse pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has characteristic imaging findings, including peripheral capsule-like structure, local invasiveness, and absence of both dilatation of intratumoral pancreatic duct and parenchymal atrophy. ..
  11. Vogl T, Zeuzem S, Zangos S, Hammerstingl R. [Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) from a radiological and gastroenterological perspective]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2009;134:1011-4 pubmed publisher
    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in combination with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is an integrated part in the diagnosis of bile-duct diseases and requires a standaridized complex examination technique...
  12. Dalton S, Balupuri S, Guest J. Routine magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and intra-operative cholangiogram in the evaluation of common bile duct stones. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2005;87:469-70 pubmed
    b>Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a safe and sensitive investigation for the imaging of common bile duct pathology...
  13. Takaya J, Nakano S, Imai Y, Fujii Y, Kaneko K. Usefulness of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in biliary structures in infants: a four-case report. Eur J Pediatr. 2007;166:211-4 pubmed
    In this paper, we report the usefulness of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in excluding biliary atresia (BA) as the cause of neonatal cholestasis. MRCP with a 1...
  14. Vaishali M, Agarwal A, Upadhyaya D, Chauhan V, Sharma O, Shukla V. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in obstructive jaundice. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2004;38:887-90 pubmed
    To determine the ability of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) to diagnose the level and cause of obstruction in patients with obstructive jaundice...
  15. Bali M, Sztantics A, Metens T, Arvanitakis M, Delhaye M, Deviere J, et al. Quantification of pancreatic exocrine function with secretin-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography: normal values and short-term effects of pancreatic duct drainage procedures in chronic pancreatitis. Initial results. Eur Radiol. 2005;15:2110-21 pubmed
    ..The initial results in CP patients have demonstrated non-invasively a significant short-term improvement of PFO and TEV after PDDP. ..
  16. Shanmugam V, Beattie G, Yule S, Reid W, Loudon M. Is magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography the new gold standard in biliary imaging?. Br J Radiol. 2005;78:888-93 pubmed
    ..This study assessed the predictive value of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in the diagnosis of biliary pathology...
  17. Ragozzino A, De Rosa R, Galdiero R, Maio A, Manes G. Bronchobiliary fistula evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging. Acta Radiol. 2005;46:452-4 pubmed
    ..We present a case of BBF developing after hemihepatectomy in a 74-year-old man treated with endoscopic biliary drainage and illustrate MRCP findings. ..
  18. Kaza R, Gulati M, Wig J, Chawla Y. Evaluation of gall bladder carcinoma with dynamic magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. Australas Radiol. 2006;50:212-7 pubmed
    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of dynamic MRI with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in the preoperative assessment of gall bladder carcinoma...
  19. Shinchi H, Takao S, Maemura K, Fukukura Y, Noma H, Matsuo Y, et al. Value of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography with secretin stimulation in the evaluation of pancreatic exocrine function after pancreaticogastrostomy. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 2004;11:50-5 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to assess the value of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography with secretin stimulation (secretin-MRCP) in evaluating the remnant pancreatic exocrine reserve after pancreaticogastrostomy with ..
  20. Hoeffel C, Azizi L, Lewin M, Laurent V, Aube C, Arrive L, et al. Normal and pathologic features of the postoperative biliary tract at 3D MR cholangiopancreatography and MR imaging. Radiographics. 2006;26:1603-20 pubmed
  21. Coppens E, Metens T, Winant C, Matos C. Pineapple juice labeled with gadolinium: a convenient oral contrast for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. Eur Radiol. 2005;15:2122-9 pubmed
    ..T2-weighted imaging and to assess that solution in vivo as a negative oral contrast agent for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Three PJs were compared in vitro according to their T2...
  22. Zhong L, Xiao S, Stoker J, Nj Tytgat G. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. Chin J Dig Dis. 2004;5:139-48 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, when MRCP is performed in conjunction with abdominal MR and MR angiography, the 'all-in-one' examination can evaluate the solid organs and vessels of the abdomen as well as the ductal systems. ..
  23. Suzuki M, Shimizu T, Kudo T, Suzuki R, Ohtsuka Y, Yamashiro Y, et al. Usefulness of nonbreath-hold 1-shot magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography for the evaluation of choledochal cyst in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2006;42:539-44 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to clarify the usefulness of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) for the evaluation of choledochal cyst in children.
  24. Ausch C, Hochwarter G, Taher M, Holzer B, Rosen H, Urban M, et al. Improving the safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy: the routine use of preoperative magnetic resonance cholangiography. Surg Endosc. 2005;19:574-80 pubmed
    ..In addition, we used MRC to investigate possible variants of the cystic duct...
  25. Asbach P, Klessen C, Kroencke T, Kluner C, Stemmer A, Hamm B, et al. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography using a free-breathing T2-weighted turbo spin-echo sequence with navigator-triggered prospective acquisition correction. Magn Reson Imaging. 2005;23:939-45 pubmed
    ..image quality of a respiratory-triggered T2-weighted (T2w) turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) using a new method for respiratory triggering by tracking the motion of the right ..
  26. Pereira S, Gillams A, Sgouros S, Webster G, Hatfield A. Prospective comparison of secretin-stimulated magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography with manometry in the diagnosis of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction types II and III. Gut. 2007;56:809-13 pubmed
    ..In sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD), sphincter of Oddi manometry (SOM) predicts the response to sphincterotomy, but is invasive and associated with complications...
  27. Fang C, Chen X, Ju B. [Value of magnetic resonance angiography combined with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography on diagnosis for patients with carcinoma of head of pancreas]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2005;43:1379-82 pubmed
    ..of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in the preoperative diagnosis of patients with carcinoma of head of pancreas...
  28. Hallal A, Amortegui J, Jeroukhimov I, Casillas J, Schulman C, Manning R, et al. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography accurately detects common bile duct stones in resolving gallstone pancreatitis. J Am Coll Surg. 2005;200:869-75 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in detecting choledocholithiasis in this group of patients...
  29. Sahani D, Kadavigere R, Blake M, Fernandez del Castillo C, Lauwers G, Hahn P. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of pancreas: multi-detector row CT with 2D curved reformations--correlation with MRCP. Radiology. 2006;238:560-9 pubmed
    ..Presence of mural nodules, dilated MPD (>10-mm diameter), or thick septa at CT or MRCP may be used as independent predictors of malignancy. ..
  30. Salvia R, Crippa S, Falconi M, Bassi C, Guarise A, Scarpa A, et al. Branch-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: to operate or not to operate?. Gut. 2007;56:1086-90 pubmed
    ..From 2000 to 2003, 109 patients with BD-IPMNs underwent trans-abdominal ultrasound and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography with secretin. Patients who presented malignancy-related parameters (size >3...
  31. Park D, Kim M, Lee S, Lee S, Choi J, Lee Y, et al. Can MRCP replace the diagnostic role of ERCP for patients with choledochal cysts?. Gastrointest Endosc. 2005;62:360-6 pubmed
    ..This study was designed to evaluate the accuracy of MRCP in detecting and determining the extent of choledochal cysts, as well as associated ductal anomalies or lesions...
  32. Aduna M, Larena J, Martin D, Martínez Guereñu B, Aguirre I, Astigarraga E. Bile duct leaks after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: value of contrast-enhanced MRCP. Abdom Imaging. 2005;30:480-7 pubmed
    ..Contrast-enhanced MR cholangiography with intravenous mangafodipir trisodium can accurately diagnose the presence and location of bile duct leaks in patients who have undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy. ..
  33. Weiser K, Suriawinata A, van Leeuwen D. A 56-year-old man with sudden onset of portosystemic encephalopathy years after severe electrocution trauma. Semin Liver Dis. 2008;28:328-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Current evaluation including liver biopsy, MRI, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), revealed progression to biliary cirrhosis with large bile duct obstruction, and hepatic ..
  34. Tschirch F, Struwe A, Petrowsky H, Kakales I, Marincek B, Weishaupt D. Contrast-enhanced MR cholangiography with Gd-EOB-DTPA in patients with liver cirrhosis: visualization of the biliary ducts in comparison with patients with normal liver parenchyma. Eur Radiol. 2008;18:1577-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Consecutively, EOB-MRC in patients with liver cirrhosis resulted in a decreased or even non-visualization of the biliary tree in a substantial percentage of patients. ..
  35. Balci N, Bieneman B, Bilgin M, Akduman I, Fattahi R, Burton F. Magnetic resonance imaging in pancreatitis. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 2009;20:25-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, we report the spectrum of imaging findings of acute and chronic pancreatitis on MRI and MR cholangiopancreatography. ..
  36. Gillams A, Lees W. Quantitative secretin MRCP (MRCPQ): results in 215 patients with known or suspected pancreatic pathology. Eur Radiol. 2007;17:2984-90 pubmed
    Secretin magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography quantification (MRCPQ) of pancreatic exocrine function correlates well with steatorrhoea and conventional, non-invasive function tests...
  37. Ko S, Naruse S, Ishiguro H, Yoshikawa T, Yamamoto T, Futakuchi S, et al. Allochronic biliary strictures appeared in the different regions of the bile duct tree in a patient with autoimmune pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2007;34:479-81 pubmed
  38. Gambí Pisonero D, Garrido Menéndez F, Sancho Calatrava E, Serantes Gómez A. [Rupture of a pyogenic liver abscess: a rare cause of pneumoperitoneum]. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;33:99-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Given its clinical interest, we report a case of pneumoperitoneum due to spontaneous rupture of a gas-containing pyogenic liver abscess. ..
  39. Houben C, Ade Ajayi N, Patel S, Kane P, Karani J, Devlin J, et al. Traumatic pancreatic duct injury in children: minimally invasive approach to management. J Pediatr Surg. 2007;42:629-35 pubmed
    ..computed tomography (CT) scans were used to define organ injury, supplemented by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in 7...
  40. Ledro Cano D. Suspected choledocholithiasis: endoscopic ultrasound or magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreatography? A systematic review. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;19:1007-11 pubmed
    ..Our meta-analysis of prospective comparison of MRCP and EUS for the detection of choledocholithiasis yielded statistically similar diagnostic values for both techniques. ..
  41. Levy P, Hammel P, Ruszniewski P. [Autoimmune pancreatitis]. Presse Med. 2007;36:1925-34 pubmed
    ..Diagnosis depends on a body of clinical and radiologic evidence. The diagnostic value of serologic markers and especially of autoantibodies must be clarified in the future. ..
  42. Kim E, Kim H, Oh H, Lee K, Jung J, Kim S, et al. The usefulness of percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy for identifying malignancies in distal common [corrected] bile duct strictures. J Korean Med Sci. 2008;23:579-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific findings on the computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and direct cholangiography were analyzed among 68 (25 malignant and 43 benign) out of ..
  43. Bilgin M, Shaikh F, Semelka R, Bilgin S, Balci N, Erdogan A. Magnetic resonance imaging of gallbladder and biliary system. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 2009;20:31-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Standard magnetic resonance imaging techniques when used together with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) can evaluate gallbladder and biliary system pathologic conditions...
  44. Sainani N, Saokar A, Deshpande V, Fernandez del Castillo C, Hahn P, Sahani D. Comparative performance of MDCT and MRI with MR cholangiopancreatography in characterizing small pancreatic cysts. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009;193:722-31 pubmed publisher
    ..MDCT and MRI have high accuracy in classifying cysts into mucinous and nonmucinous categories and perform similarly in estimating histologic aggressiveness. ..
  45. Kolb A, Kleeff J, Frohlich B, Werner J, Friess H, Buchler M. Resection of the intrapancreatic bile duct preserving the pancreas. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 2009;16:31-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, pancreas-preserving distal bile duct resection might be an option for intrapancreatic benign lesions of the distal bile duct that would otherwise require a partial pancreaticoduodenectomy. ..
  46. Johnson M, Ravichandran P, Surendran R. Solitary extra-hepatic hilar peribiliary cyst presenting with obstructive jaundice: a case report. Acta Chir Belg. 2007;107:716-9 pubmed
    ..The patient made an uneventful recovery and remained asymptomatic with normal liver function tests 36 months postoperatively. ..
  47. Rafique A, Freeman S, Carroll N. A clinical algorithm for the assessment of pancreatic lesions: utilization of 16- and 64-section multidetector CT and endoscopic ultrasound. Clin Radiol. 2007;62:1142-53 pubmed
    ..A clinical algorithm for the assessment of pancreatic malignancy, as practised in our institution, is outlined. ..
  48. Schmidt O, Stahl U, Brueck M. [Posthepatic obstructive jaundice caused by primary extragonadal germ-cell tumor in a patient with glucose-6-phosphatase dehydrogenase deficiency]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2010;135:2181-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Extragonadal germ-cell tumor presenting as retroperitoneal lymph nodes with obstructive jaundice has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of cholestasis. ..
  49. Isoda H, Maetani Y, Kataoka M, Arizono S, Shimada K, Hirokawa Y, et al. Contrast behavior and image quality of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography imaging using variable echo times at 3.0 T. Clin Imaging. 2008;32:362-6 pubmed publisher
    Twenty-five volunteers were examined at three different echo times (TE) using magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) images obtained with half-Fourier-acquired single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) thick-slab and multislice ..
  50. Hadidy A, Haroun A, Mahafza W, Barbarawi T, Arafeh F, Shannak M. Improving quality of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography: esomeprazole versus ranitidine. Hepatogastroenterology. 2009;56:290-3 pubmed
    ..Esomeprazole is superior to Ranitidine in improving the quality of Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreaticography images especially the contrast effect of duodenum and stomach and image effect of pancreatic duct. ..
  51. Komuro H, Kudo T, Jinbo T, Hori T, Tatekawa Y, Kudou S, et al. Type I biliary atresia without extrahepatic biliary cyst. Pediatr Radiol. 2008;38:907-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe that this is the first reported case of type I BA without an extrahepatic biliary cyst diagnosed by MRC. ..
  52. Chandio A, Timmons S, Majeed A, Twomey A, Aftab F. Factors influencing the successful completion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. JSLS. 2009;13:581-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The parameters of age, acute cholecystitis and choledocholithiasis must be considered in the clinical decision making process when planning laparoscopic cholecystectomy. ..
  53. Gottlieb K, Brophy M. Hepatic duct compression syndrome diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2007;16:350-1 pubmed