neuronavigation

Summary

Summary: Intraoperative computer-assisted 3D navigation and guidance system generally used in neurosurgery for tracking surgical tools and localize them with respect to the patient's 3D anatomy. The pre-operative diagnostic scan is used as a reference and is transferred onto the operative field during surgery.

Top Publications

  1. Castelnuovo P, Battaglia P, Bignami M, Ferreli F, Turri Zanoni M, Bernardini E, et al. Endoscopic transnasal resection of anterior skull base malignancy with a novel 3D endoscope and neuronavigation. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2012;32:189-91 pubmed
    ..by means of a four-hand binarial endoscopic transnasal resection using a 3D endoscopic system and neuronavigation. Surgery was completed in 5 hours without significant complications...
  2. Wang M, Song Z. Classification and analysis of the errors in neuronavigation. Neurosurgery. 2011;68:1131-43; discussion 1143 pubmed publisher
    There are many different types of errors in neuronavigation, and the reasons and results of these errors are complex...
  3. Bashir S, Edwards D, Pascual Leone A. Neuronavigation increases the physiologic and behavioral effects of low-frequency rTMS of primary motor cortex in healthy subjects. Brain Topogr. 2011;24:54-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to assess whether neuronavigation enhances the physiologic and behavioral effects of low-frequency rTMS...
  4. Nimsky C, Kuhnt D, Ganslandt O, Buchfelder M. Multimodal navigation integrated with imaging. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2011;109:207-14 pubmed publisher
    ..With the help of intraoperative imaging navigation data can be updated, so that brain shift can be compensated for and initially missed tumor remnants can be localized reliably. ..
  5. Stadie A, Kockro R, Serra L, Fischer G, Schwandt E, Grunert P, et al. Neurosurgical craniotomy localization using a virtual reality planning system versus intraoperative image-guided navigation. Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg. 2011;6:565-72 pubmed publisher
    Accurate craniotomy placement is essential for frameless neuronavigation in minimally invasive neurosurgery. A craniotomy using virtual reality (VR) can be as accurate as neuronavigation...
  6. Jo K, Shin H, Nam D, Lee J, Park K, Kim J, et al. Efficacy of endoport-guided endoscopic resection for deep-seated brain lesions. Neurosurg Rev. 2011;34:457-63 pubmed publisher
    ..determine the efficacy of endoport-guided endoscopic or microscopic removal for deep-seated lesions using the neuronavigation system. Between October 2008 and December 2009, 21 patients (17 men and 4 women; average age, 40...
  7. Qiu T, Zhang Y, Wu J, Tang W, Zhao Y, Pan Z, et al. Virtual reality presurgical planning for cerebral gliomas adjacent to motor pathways in an integrated 3-D stereoscopic visualization of structural MRI and DTI tractography. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2010;152:1847-57 pubmed publisher
    ..In accordance to the EPT increasing amplitude, surgeon can predict the long-term motor functional outcome. ..
  8. Wei K, Tsai H, Lu Y, Yang H, Hua M, Wu M, et al. Neuronavigation-guided focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening: a preliminary study in swine. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2013;34:115-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we propose the novel use of a neuronavigation system to guide the FUS-induced BBB opening procedure and investigate its feasibility in vivo in large ..
  9. Müns A, Meixensberger J, Arnold S, Schmitgen A, Arlt F, Chalopin C, et al. Integration of a 3D ultrasound probe into neuronavigation. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2011;153:1529-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This article describes the integration of a tracked 3D ultrasound probe into a neuronavigation. An ultrasound device, provided with both a 2D sector probe and a 3D endocavity transducer, was integrated in ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Sæther C, Torsteinsen M, Torp S, Sundstrøm S, Unsgard G, Solheim O. Did survival improve after the implementation of intraoperative neuronavigation and 3D ultrasound in glioblastoma surgery? A retrospective analysis of 192 primary operations. J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg. 2012;73:73-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to examine if the introduction of 3D ultrasound and neuronavigation (i. e., the SonoWand® system) may have had an impact on overall survival...
  2. Kuhnt D, Becker A, Ganslandt O, Bauer M, Buchfelder M, Nimsky C. Correlation of the extent of tumor volume resection and patient survival in surgery of glioblastoma multiforme with high-field intraoperative MRI guidance. Neuro Oncol. 2011;13:1339-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, maximum EOR should be the surgical goal in GBM surgery while preserving neurological function. ..
  3. Tsugu A, Ishizaka H, Mizokami Y, Osada T, Baba T, Yoshiyama M, et al. Impact of the combination of 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence with intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging-guided surgery for glioma. World Neurosurg. 2011;76:120-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Health Organization [WHO] grade II, 7 with WHO grade III, 20 with WHO grade IV) who underwent craniotomy with neuronavigation and received 5-ALA by the same neurosurgeon were investigated retrospectively...
  4. Florensa R, Munoz J, Cardiel I, Bescós A, Tardáguila M, Plans G, et al. [Posterior spinal instrumentation image guided and assisted by neuronavigation. Experience in 120 cases]. Neurocirugia (Astur). 2011;22:224-34 pubmed
    ..Navigation with Flouro-2D-CT is a high precision technique that reduces complications of varying severity according to the level operated well as number of reinterventions, radiation exposure and surgical time. ..
  5. Berntsen E, Gulati S, Solheim O, Kvistad K, Torp S, Selbekk T, et al. Functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor tractography incorporated into an intraoperative 3-dimensional ultrasound-based neuronavigation system: impact on therapeutic strategies, extent of resection, and clinical outcome. Neurosurgery. 2010;67:251-64 pubmed publisher
    Functional neuronavigation with intraoperative 3-dimensional (3D) ultrasound may facilitate safer brain lesion resections than conventional neuronavigation...
  6. Zele T, Matos B, Knific J, Bajrovic F, Prestor B. Use of 3D visualisation of medical images for planning and intraoperative localisation of superficial brain tumours: our experience. Br J Neurosurg. 2010;24:555-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Decision about its use should be based on preoperative computer-assisted 3D planning, in which the feasibility of visual matching during surgery can and must be assessed. ..
  7. Wilson T, Stetler W, Al Holou W, Sullivan S. Comparison of the accuracy of ventricular catheter placement using freehand placement, ultrasonic guidance, and stereotactic neuronavigation. J Neurosurg. 2013;119:66-70 pubmed publisher
    ..CSF shunt operations: the freehand technique using surface anatomy, ultrasonic guidance, and stereotactic neuronavigation. This retrospective cohort study included all patients from a single institution who underwent a ventricular ..
  8. Recinos P, Raza S, Jallo G, Recinos V. Use of a minimally invasive tubular retraction system for deep-seated tumors in pediatric patients. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2011;7:516-21 pubmed publisher
    ..a new tubular retractor system specifically designed for cranial applications in conjunction with frameless neuronavigation. The Vycor ViewSite retractor was used in 4 pediatric patients (ages 15 months and 9, 10, and 16 years) with ..
  9. Ferroli P, Tringali G, Acerbi F, Aquino D, Franzini A, Broggi G. Brain surgery in a stereoscopic virtual reality environment: a single institution's experience with 100 cases. Neurosurgery. 2010;67:ons79-84; discussion ons84 pubmed publisher
  10. Sun G, Chen X, Zhao Y, Wang F, Song Z, Wang Y, et al. Intraoperative MRI with integrated functional neuronavigation-guided resection of supratentorial cavernous malformations in eloquent brain areas. J Clin Neurosci. 2011;18:1350-4 pubmed publisher
    ..malformations in eloquent brain areas underwent surgery with the aid of intraoperative MRI (iMRI), functional neuronavigation, and electrocorticography (ECoG)...
  11. Jo K, Chung S, Jo K, Kong D, Seol H, Shin H. Microsurgical resection of deep-seated lesions using transparent tubular retractor: pediatric case series. Childs Nerv Syst. 2011;27:1989-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Microsurgery using a transparent tubular retractor guided by a neuronavigation system facilitated accurate and effective removal of these deep-seated brain lesions.
  12. Gasser T, Szelenyi A, Senft C, Muragaki Y, Sandalcioglu I, Sure U, et al. Intraoperative MRI and functional mapping. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2011;109:61-5 pubmed publisher
    The integration of functional and anatomical data into neuronavigation is an established standard of care in many neurosurgical departments. Yet, this method has limitations as in most cases the data are acquired prior to surgery...
  13. Sommer B, Kasper B, Coras R, Blumcke I, Hamer H, Buchfelder M, et al. Surgical management of epilepsy due to cerebral cavernomas using neuronavigation and intraoperative MR imaging. Neurol Res. 2013;35:1076-83 pubmed publisher
    ..High field intraoperative MRI imaging (iopMRI) and neuronavigation might play a crucial role to achieve both goals...
  14. Panciani P, Fontanella M, Schatlo B, Garbossa D, Agnoletti A, Ducati A, et al. Fluorescence and image guided resection in high grade glioma. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2012;114:37-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the role of 5-aminolevulinc acid and neuronavigation were reviewed...
  15. Sommer B, Grummich P, Coras R, Kasper B, Blumcke I, Hamer H, et al. Integration of functional neuronavigation and intraoperative MRI in surgery for drug-resistant extratemporal epilepsy close to eloquent brain areas. Neurosurg Focus. 2013;34:E4 pubmed publisher
    The authors performed a retrospective study to assess the impact of functional neuronavigation and intraoperative MRI (iMRI) on surgery of extratemporal epileptogenic lesions on postsurgical morbidity and seizure control...
  16. Kuhnt D, Bauer M, Nimsky C. Brain shift compensation and neurosurgical image fusion using intraoperative MRI: current status and future challenges. Crit Rev Biomed Eng. 2012;40:175-85 pubmed
    ..The following article summarizes the work flow and clinical impact of iMRI and functional navigation, as well as current problems and possible solutions. ..
  17. Rasmussen I, Lindseth F, Rygh O, Berntsen E, Selbekk T, Xu J, et al. Functional neuronavigation combined with intra-operative 3D ultrasound: initial experiences during surgical resections close to eloquent brain areas and future directions in automatic brain shift compensation of preoperative data. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2007;149:365-78 pubmed
    ..fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) and DTI (diffusion tensor imaging) data in an ultrasound-based neuronavigation system...
  18. Schulder M, Salas S, Brimacombe M, Fine P, Catrambone J, Maniker A, et al. Cranial surgery with an expanded compact intraoperative magnetic resonance imager. Technical note. J Neurosurg. 2006;104:611-7 pubmed
    ..Greater ease of positioning resulted in a decrease in added time in the OR and encouraged a larger number of imaging sessions. ..
  19. Schulz M, Bohner G, Knaus H, Haberl H, Thomale U. Navigated endoscopic surgery for multiloculated hydrocephalus in children. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2010;5:434-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The combination of the endoscopic approach and neuronavigation further refines preoperative planning and intraoperative orientation...
  20. Barszcz S, Roszkowski M, Daszkiewicz P, Jurkiewicz E, Maryniak A. Accuracy of intraoperative registration during electromagnetic neuronavigation in intracranial procedures performed in children. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2007;41:122-7 pubmed
    ..Electromagnetic neuronavigation, which does not require firm head fixation, can be used in the youngest age group...
  21. Nakao N, Nakai K, Itakura T. Updating of neuronavigation based on images intraoperatively acquired with a mobile computerized tomographic scanner: technical note. Minim Invasive Neurosurg. 2003;46:117-20 pubmed
  22. Neggers S, Langerak T, Schutter D, Mandl R, Ramsey N, Lemmens P, et al. A stereotactic method for image-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation validated with fMRI and motor-evoked potentials. Neuroimage. 2004;21:1805-17 pubmed
    ..The present results demonstrate that NeNa is a reliable method for image-guided TMS coil placement. ..
  23. Rutten G, Ramsey N, Noordmans H, Willems P, Van Rijen P, Berkelbach van der Sprenkel J, et al. Toward functional neuronavigation: implementation of functional magnetic resonance imaging data in a surgical guidance system for intraoperative identification of motor and language cortices. Technical note and illustrative case. Neurosurg Focus. 2003;15:E6 pubmed
    ..years, surgical navigation systems have become equipped to allow incorporation of data such as functional neuronavigation data...
  24. Krishnan R, Raabe A, Hattingen E, Szelenyi A, Yahya H, Hermann E, et al. Functional magnetic resonance imaging-integrated neuronavigation: correlation between lesion-to-motor cortex distance and outcome. Neurosurgery. 2004;55:904-14; discusssion 914-5 pubmed
    The integration of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data into neuronavigation is a new concept for surgery adjacent to the motor cortex. However, the clinical value remains to be defined...
  25. Pirotte B, Voordecker P, Neugroschl C, Baleriaux D, Wikler D, Metens T, et al. Combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging-guided neuronavigation and intraoperative cortical brain mapping improves targeting of motor cortex stimulation in neuropathic pain. Neurosurgery. 2005;56:344-59; discussion 344-59 pubmed
    ..001), registered in a neuronavigation system, and correlated during surgery with iCM...
  26. Spivak C, Pirouzmand F. Comparison of the reliability of brain lesion localization when using traditional and stereotactic image-guided techniques: a prospective study. J Neurosurg. 2005;103:424-7 pubmed
    ..5 cm in both the mediolateral and anteroposterior directions. This error can be reduced by judicious use of image-guided techniques. ..
  27. Hlatky R, Jackson E, Weinberg J, McCutcheon I. intraoperative neuronavigation using diffusion tensor MR tractography for the resection of a deep tumor adjacent to the corticospinal tract. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2005;83:228-32 pubmed
    ..Integrating tractography with intraoperative neuronavigation may reduce the likelihood of new neurological deficits after surgery done to remove tumors adjacent to the ..
  28. Denslow S, Bohning D, Bohning P, Lomarev M, George M. An increased precision comparison of TMS-induced motor cortex BOLD fMRI response for image-guided versus function-guided coil placement. Cogn Behav Neurol. 2005;18:119-26 pubmed
    ..Image guidance provides an accurate TMS placement relative to individual anatomy when no external sign is available. ..
  29. De Salles A, Frighetto L, Behnke E, Sinha S, Tseng L, Torres R, et al. Functional neurosurgery in the MRI environment. Minim Invasive Neurosurg. 2004;47:284-9 pubmed
    ..2 T iMRI environment. The convenience of having an imaging modality that can visualize the brain during the operation is ideal for stereotactic procedures. ..
  30. Reinges M, Nguyen H, Krings T, Hütter B, Rohde V, Gilsbach J. Course of brain shift during microsurgical resection of supratentorial cerebral lesions: limits of conventional neuronavigation. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2004;146:369-77; discussion 377 pubmed
    ..the estimated half-time of surgery, and at the end of microsurgical removal of the cerebral lesion using the neuronavigation system EasyGuide Neuro...
  31. Wu J, Zhou L, Tang W, Mao Y, Hu J, Song Y, et al. Clinical evaluation and follow-up outcome of diffusion tensor imaging-based functional neuronavigation: a prospective, controlled study in patients with gliomas involving pyramidal tracts. Neurosurgery. 2007;61:935-48; discussion 948-9 pubmed
    To evaluate diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based functional neuronavigation in surgery of cerebral gliomas with pyramidal tract (PT) involvement with respect to both perioperative assessment and follow-up outcome...
  32. Karabatsou K, Hayhurst C, Buxton N, O Brien D, Mallucci C. Endoscopic management of arachnoid cysts: an advancing technique. J Neurosurg. 2007;106:455-62 pubmed
    ..cysts using endoscopic techniques and, more recently, the use of these techniques in combination with neuronavigation systems...
  33. Feigl G, Ritz R, Moraes M, Klein J, Ramina K, Gharabaghi A, et al. Resection of malignant brain tumors in eloquent cortical areas: a new multimodal approach combining 5-aminolevulinic acid and intraoperative monitoring. J Neurosurg. 2010;113:352-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonetheless, more cases and additional studies are necessary to further prove the advantages of this multimodal strategy. ..
  34. Nimsky C, Ganslandt O, Buchfelder M, Fahlbusch R. Intraoperative visualization for resection of gliomas: the role of functional neuronavigation and intraoperative 1.5 T MRI. Neurol Res. 2006;28:482-7 pubmed
    To investigate how functional neuronavigation and intraoperative high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) influence glioma resection...
  35. Vlieger E, Majoie C, Leenstra S, den Heeten G. Functional magnetic resonance imaging for neurosurgical planning in neurooncology. Eur Radiol. 2004;14:1143-53 pubmed
    ..blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal, (3) post-processing the fMRI time course, (4) integration of fMRI results into neuronavigation systems, (5) the accuracy of fMRI and (6) fMRI compared to intra-operative mapping (IOM).
  36. Schlaier J, Warnat J, Dorenbeck U, Proescholdt M, Schebesch K, Brawanski A. Image fusion of MR images and real-time ultrasonography: evaluation of fusion accuracy combining two commercial instruments, a neuronavigation system and a ultrasound system. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2004;146:271-6; discussion 276-7 pubmed
    ..Highly accurate fusion of MR images and real-time ultrasonography could be achieved. However, careful interpretation of the fused data is necessary, when different angles and distances of the US probe to the object are concerned. ..
  37. Longatti P, Fiorindi A, Feletti A, Baratto V. Endoscopic opening of the foramen of magendie using transaqueductal navigation for membrane obstruction of the fourth ventricle outlets. Technical note. J Neurosurg. 2006;105:924-7 pubmed
    ..In these cases, endoscopic opening of the foramen of Magendie by transaqueductal navigation of the fourth ventricle is a suitable and feasible therapeutic option. ..
  38. Sure U, Benes L, Riegel T, Schulte D, Bertalanffy H. Image fusion for skull base neuronavigation. Technical note. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2002;42:458-61; discussion 462 pubmed
    ..Color display of the different data sets allows the tumor and the skull base to be distinguished easily. The fused CT data in bone window mode provides useful additional information on the osseous skull base. ..
  39. Rusjan P, Barr M, Farzan F, Arenovich T, Maller J, Fitzgerald P, et al. Optimal transcranial magnetic stimulation coil placement for targeting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using novel magnetic resonance image-guided neuronavigation. Hum Brain Mapp. 2010;31:1643-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings also suggest that the '10-20 method' is superior to the '5-cm method' in reducing inter-subject variability and that electrode F5 should be the stimulation location of choice when MRI co-registration is not available. ..
  40. Sanai N, Berger M. Intraoperative stimulation techniques for functional pathway preservation and glioma resection. Neurosurg Focus. 2010;28:E1 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these surgical strategies represent the cornerstone for operating on gliomas in and around functional pathways. ..
  41. Esposito V, Paolini S, Morace R, Colonnese C, Venditti E, Calistri V, et al. Intraoperative localization of subcortical brain lesions. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2008;150:537-42; discussion 543 pubmed publisher
    ..MRI-bct is a practical, time-saving neuronavigational aid ideal for localizing superficial lesions underlying the cerebral cortex because it unmistakably characterizes the adjacent sulcal anatomy. ..
  42. Kinoshita M, Yamada K, Hashimoto N, Kato A, Izumoto S, Baba T, et al. Fiber-tracking does not accurately estimate size of fiber bundle in pathological condition: initial neurosurgical experience using neuronavigation and subcortical white matter stimulation. Neuroimage. 2005;25:424-9 pubmed
    ..validation of tractography in human subjects harboring brain tumors by comparing the results produced by neuronavigation and electrical white matter stimulation in two patients with gliomas in the eloquent area...
  43. Kurimoto M, Hayashi N, Kamiyama H, Nagai S, Shibata T, Asahi T, et al. Impact of neuronavigation and image-guided extensive resection for adult patients with supratentorial malignant astrocytomas: a single-institution retrospective study. Minim Invasive Neurosurg. 2004;47:278-83 pubmed
    b>Neuronavigation has become an effective therapeutic modality and is used routinely for intra-axial tumor removal...
  44. Langguth B, Kleinjung T, Landgrebe M, de Ridder D, Hajak G. rTMS for the treatment of tinnitus: the role of neuronavigation for coil positioning. Neurophysiol Clin. 2010;40:45-58 pubmed publisher
  45. Kockro R, Hwang P. Virtual temporal bone: an interactive 3-dimensional learning aid for cranial base surgery. Neurosurgery. 2009;64:216-29; discussion 229-30 pubmed publisher
  46. Gralla J, Ganslandt O, Kober H, Buchfelder M, Fahlbusch R, Nimsky C. Image-guided removal of supratentorial cavernomas in critical brain areas: application of neuronavigation and intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging. Minim Invasive Neurosurg. 2003;46:72-7 pubmed
    ..The study indicates that the application of neuronavigation allows surgery on supratentorial cavernous hemangiomas in critical brain areas with low morbidity...
  47. Ganslandt O, Behari S, Gralla J, Fahlbusch R, Nimsky C. Neuronavigation: concept, techniques and applications. Neurol India. 2002;50:244-55 pubmed
    b>Neuronavigation provides intraoperative orientation to the surgeon, helps in planning a precise surgical approach to the targetted lesion and defines the surrounding neurovascular structures...
  48. González Darder J, González López P, Talamantes F, Quilis V, Cortés V, García March G, et al. Multimodal navigation in the functional microsurgical resection of intrinsic brain tumors located in eloquent motor areas: role of tractography. Neurosurg Focus. 2010;28:E5 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, it must be demonstrated whether this protocol has any long-term benefit for patients by prolonging the disease-free interval, the time to recurrence, or the survival time. ..
  49. Wellmer J, Parpaley Y, von Lehe M, Huppertz H. Integrating magnetic resonance imaging postprocessing results into neuronavigation for electrode implantation and resection of subtle focal cortical dysplasia in previously cryptogenic epilepsy. Neurosurgery. 2010;66:187-94; discussion 194-5 pubmed publisher
    ..a region of interest, transferred back to the original dimension of the individual MRI, and imported into a neuronavigation system...
  50. Romano A, D Andrea G, Minniti G, Mastronardi L, Ferrante L, Fantozzi L, et al. Pre-surgical planning and MR-tractography utility in brain tumour resection. Eur Radiol. 2009;19:2798-808 pubmed publisher
    ..1) to evaluate the possible identification of trajectories of fibre tracts, (2) to examine the useful of a neuronavigation system for presurgical planning, (3) to assess pre- and post-surgery patients' clinical condition and (4) to ..
  51. Willems P, van der Sprenkel J, Tulleken C, Viergever M, Taphoorn M. Neuronavigation and surgery of intracerebral tumours. J Neurol. 2006;253:1123-36 pubmed
    ..Frameless stereotaxy, or neuronavigation, relies on one of several different localizing techniques to determine the position of an operative ..
  52. Nimsky C, Ganslandt O, von Keller B, Romstock J, Fahlbusch R. Intraoperative high-field-strength MR imaging: implementation and experience in 200 patients. Radiology. 2004;233:67-78 pubmed
    ..zone and used in combination with a ceiling-mounted navigation system enabled integrated microscope-based neuronavigation. The extent of resection depicted at intraoperative imaging, the surgical consequences of intraoperative ..
  53. Lindseth F, Kaspersen J, Ommedal S, Langø T, Bang J, Hokland J, et al. Multimodal image fusion in ultrasound-based neuronavigation: improving overview and interpretation by integrating preoperative MRI with intraoperative 3D ultrasound. Comput Aided Surg. 2003;8:49-69 pubmed
    ..the same 3D scene for visualizing brain shift and improving overview and interpretation in ultrasound-based neuronavigation. A Multi-Modal Volume Visualizer (MMVV) was developed that can read data exported from the SonoWand ..