gated blood pool imaging
Summary: Radionuclide ventriculography where scintigraphic data is acquired during repeated cardiac cycles at specific times in the cycle, using an electrocardiographic synchronizer or gating device. Analysis of right ventricular function is difficult with this technique; that is best evaluated by first-pass ventriculography (VENTRICULOGRAPHY, FIRST-PASS).
- Bateman T, Cullom S. Attenuation correction single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging. Semin Nucl Med. 2005;35:37-51 pubmed
- Shih W, Schoenstra T, Gross K, Wierzbinski B, Kiefer V, Collins J. Electronic off-peak status of one head of a dual-head gamma camera resulted in bone scintigraphy artifacts and faulty findings on gated myocardial SPECT. J Nucl Med Technol. 2003;31:165-9 pubmed..The presence of the same pattern of abnormalities in 2 consecutive myocardial SPECT examinations should alert technologists to the possibility that the abnormalities are, in fact, artifacts. ..
- Chin B, Metzler S, Lemaire A, Curcio A, Vemulapalli S, Greer K, et al. Left ventricular functional assessment in mice: feasibility of high spatial and temporal resolution ECG-gated blood pool SPECT. Radiology. 2007;245:440-8 pubmed..Murine LV functional assessment is feasible with high spatial and temporal resolution ECG-gated blood pool SPECT. LV dysfunction can be quantified and focal wall motion abnormalities detected in the MI model of heart failure. ..
- Takasugi H, Watanabe K, Ono Y, Sakaguchi H, Motoki N, Yoshida Y, et al. Myocardial scintigraphy after pacemaker implantation for congenital complete atrioventricular block. Eur J Pediatr. 2008;167:183-8 pubmed..Some patients with CCAVB will develop left ventricular dysfunction caused by artificial LBBB-induced interventricular asynchrony. ..
- Candell Riera J, Oller Martínez G, Pereztol Valdés O, Castell Conesa J, Aguadé Bruix S, García Alonso C, et al. [Early myocardial perfusion gated-SPECT in patients with chest pain and non-diagnostic ECG in the emergency department]. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2004;57:225-33 pubmed..This technique may reduce the number of hospitalized patients and length of stay in the emergency department. ..
- Kasai T, Depuey E, Sponder I. "W-shaped" volume curve with gated myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography. Ann Nucl Med. 2005;19:59-64 pubmed..These errors can be identified with a combination of visual inspection of beating slices, time-volume curves, and time-activity curves. Monitoring the HR is a clue for anticipating and avoiding these errors. ..
- Trimble M, Borges Neto S, Honeycutt E, Shaw L, Pagnanelli R, Chen J, et al. Evaluation of mechanical dyssynchrony and myocardial perfusion using phase analysis of gated SPECT imaging in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. J Nucl Cardiol. 2008;15:663-70 pubmed publisher..Gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging can quantify myocardial function, perfusion, and dyssynchrony and may help in evaluating patients for cardiac resynchronization therapy. ..
- Kim Y, Choi J, Kim Y, Kim D, Do Y, Hwang J, et al. Characterization of congenital vascular malformation in the extremities using whole body blood pool scintigraphy and lymphscintigraphy. Lymphology. 2009;42:77-84 pubmed..0% (122/134). Our results show that combination of WBBPS with LS can characterize extremity CVMs in patients with high diagnostic accuracy, and may thus be useful for making optimal treatment decisions. ..
- Depuey E, Bommireddipalli S, Clark J, Thompson L, Srour Y. Wide beam reconstruction "quarter-time" gated myocardial perfusion SPECT functional imaging: a comparison to "full-time" ordered subset expectation maximum. J Nucl Cardiol. 2009;16:736-52 pubmed publisher..Thus, EFs were significantly lower with WBR. For perfusion SPECT quarter-time WBR affords image quality, defect characterization, and functional assessment equivalent to full-time OSEM. ..
- Harel F, Finnerty V, Gregoire J, Thibault B, Khairy P. Comparison of left ventricular contraction homogeneity index using SPECT gated blood pool imaging and planar phase analysis. J Nucl Cardiol. 2008;15:80-5 pubmed publisher..Its potential in cardiac resynchronization therapy remains to be exploited. ..
- Jain M, Yung E, Katz D. Identification of pelvic varices on gated cardiac imaging and hepatobiliary scans. Clin Nucl Med. 2004;29:748-9 pubmed
- Sarabanda A, Sosa E, Simões M, Figueiredo G, Pintya A, Marin Neto J. Ventricular tachycardia in Chagas' disease: a comparison of clinical, angiographic, electrophysiologic and myocardial perfusion disturbances between patients presenting with either sustained or nonsustained forms. Int J Cardiol. 2005;102:9-19 pubmed
- Davutoglu V, Soydinc S, Sezen Y, Aksoy M. Unruptured giant left ventricular pseudoaneurysm complicating silent myocardial infarction in a diabetic young adult: left ventricular giant pseudoaneurysm after silent myocardial infarction. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2005;21:231-4 pubmed..The clinical picture of dyspnea in a diabetic patient in presence of a diagnostic echocardiographic finding warrants coronary angiography to document the ischemic etiology of the pseudoaneurysm in view of prompt surgical correction. ..
- Petix N, Sestini S, Marcucci G, Coppola A, Arena A, Nassi F, et al. Can the reversible regional wall motion abnormalities on stress gated Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT predict a future cardiac event?. J Nucl Cardiol. 2005;12:20-31 pubmed..However, myocardial stunning should always be considered, particularly in patients without prior MI and in the referral of patients for early revascularization. ..
- Yamakawa Y, Takahashi N, Ishikawa T, Uchino K, Mochida Y, Ebina T, et al. Clinical usefulness of ECG-gated 18F-FDG PET combined with 99mTC-MIBI gated SPECT for evaluating myocardial viability and function. Ann Nucl Med. 2004;18:375-83 pubmed..Furthermore, the high correlations of gated FDG PET and gated MIBI SPECT measurements hold promise for the assessment of left ventricular function using gated FDG PET. ..
- Sankri Tarbichi A, Mathew P, Matos M, Hsi D. Stress-related cardiomyopathy. Heart Lung. 2007;36:43-6 pubmed..Ten days later, the left ventricular function completely normalized (ejection fraction of 55%). ..
- Indrakova J, Kaminek M. Quantitative gated SPECT of myocardium in detection of ischemic heart disease: validation of findings by means of coronarography. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2003;147:244 pubmed
- Hankins J, McCarville M, Hillenbrand C, Loeffler R, Ware R, Song R, et al. Ventricular diastolic dysfunction in sickle cell anemia is common but not associated with myocardial iron deposition. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2010;55:495-500 pubmed publisher..Diastolic dysfunction is not associated with transfusional iron burden or myocardial iron deposition among children with SCA. Diastolic dysfunction likely results from disease pathophysiology and severity rather than iron overload. ..
- Matsuo S, Matsumoto T, Nakae I, Koh T, Masuda D, Takada M, et al. Prognostic value of ECG-gated thallium-201 single-photon emission tomography in patients with coronary artery disease. Ann Nucl Med. 2004;18:617-22 pubmed..01). Assessment of post-stress left ventricular function by gated-SPECT provides incremental prognostic information and is useful in predicting cardiac events in patients with suspected or definite coronary artery disease. ..
- Shen M, Calabretta N, Cavanaugh S, Datwani N, Lew C, Dadhania M. Analysis of current nuclear cardiology literature in MEDLINE database: a study of gated SPECT imaging using PubMed. J Nucl Cardiol. 2003;10:650-5 pubmed..The lack of specific MeSH headings and indexing structure results in low recall and precision for retrieval of nuclear cardiology literature. We recommend 2 additions to the MeSH Tree Structure and 6 new MeSH headings. ..
- Dziuk M, Pietrzykowski J, Canizales A, Britton K, Cholewa M. The comparison of two gated SPET protocols: adenosine Tc-99m tetrofosmin and treadmill exercise Tc-99m MIBI. Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur. 2003;6:11-5 pubmed..In the gated SPET scans showing ischaemia the post-stress EDV and ESV may be greater and the LVEF lower than at rest. ..
- Fagen K, Lane M, Silverman E. Isolated left ventricular noncompaction: a diagnosis to consider with left ventricular wall akinesis. Clin Nucl Med. 2005;30:425-6 pubmed
- Clements I. Combined systolic and diastolic dysfunction in the presence of preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. Eur J Heart Fail. 2005;7:490-7 pubmed..The results indicate that a preserved LVEF was often associated with LV systolic dysfunction (enlarged LV end-systolic volume and low PER) and LV diastolic dysfunction (decreased PFR). ..
- Kasama S, Toyama T, Kumakura H, Takayama Y, Ichikawa S, Tange S, et al. Dobutamine stress 99mTc-tetrofosmin quantitative gated SPECT predicts improvement of cardiac function after carvedilol treatment in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. J Nucl Med. 2004;45:1878-84 pubmed..These findings indicate that D-QGS can be used to predict improvement of cardiac function and heart failure symptoms by carvedilol therapy in patients with idiopathic DCM. ..
- Slomka P, Nishina H, Berman D, Kang X, Akincioglu C, Friedman J, et al. "Motion-frozen" display and quantification of myocardial perfusion. J Nucl Med. 2004;45:1128-34 pubmed..Such processing of gated MPS appears to improve the effective resolution of images. Initial evaluation indicates that it may improve the accuracy of gated MPS in detection of coronary artery disease. ..
- Sugiura M, Yamamoto K, Takeda Y, Takeda Y, Dohmori T, Ogata M, et al. The relationship between variables of 123-I-metaiodobenzylguanidine cardiac imaging and clinical status of the patients with diastolic heart failure. Int J Cardiol. 2006;113:223-8 pubmed..518, p<0.07). In diastolic heart failure, cardiac sympathetic nerve activity increases proportionally to severity of the disease. ..
- Tolle J, Waxman A, Van Horn T, Pappagianopoulos P, Systrom D. Exercise-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension. Circulation. 2008;118:2183-9 pubmed publisher..05) than takeoff (n=40). The plateau pattern was most common in resting PAH, and the takeoff pattern was present in nearly all normals. Exercise-induced PAH is an early, mild, and clinically relevant phase of the PAH spectrum. ..
- Knollmann D, Winz O, Meyer P, Raptis M, Krohn T, Koch K, et al. Gated myocardial perfusion SPECT: algorithm-specific influence of reorientation on calculation of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction. J Nucl Med. 2008;49:1636-42 pubmed publisher..4D-MSPECT and CARE heart results varied with reorientation of the heart axis, implying that published validation results apply to correctly reoriented data only. ..
- Demir H, Tan Y, Kozdag G, Isgoren S, Anik Y, Ural D, et al. Comparison of gated SPECT, echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes. Ann Saudi Med. 2007;27:415-20 pubmed..LVEF obtained from any of these three imaging modalities could be used interchangeably. However, care should be taken in comparing LV volumes. ..
- Afzal M, Imran M, Aslam N, Khurshid S, Khan M, Irfan J, et al. Gated spect myocardial perfusion scintigraphy for identifying septal perfusion artifacts in left bundle branch block. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2006;16:504-8 pubmed..In patients with LBBB, reduced septal thickening results in artifactual septal perfusion defects. Gating the perfusion scintigraphy and reporting perfusion status on end diastolic frames in LBBB patients can eliminate these artifacts. ..
- Zafrir N, Zingerman B, Solodky A, Ben Dayan D, Sagie A, Sulkes J, et al. Use of noninvasive tools in primary pulmonary hypertension to assess the correlation of right ventricular function with functional capacity and to predict outcome. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2007;23:209-15 pubmed..The noninvasive tests of RVEF, RA size and TR were closely correlated to exercise tolerance. However, among the various clinical, functional and RV variables, RVEF was the only variable correlated with adverse outcome in pts with PPH. ..
- Vallejo E, Jimenez L, Rodriguez G, Roffe F, Bialostozky D. Evaluation of ventricular synchrony with equilibrium radionuclide angiography: assessment of variability and accuracy. Arch Med Res. 2010;41:83-91 pubmed publisher..ERNA is an accurate and highly reproducible technique for evaluation of ventricular function and synchrony. ..
- Clements I, Mullan B, O Connor M, Breen J, McGregor C. Assessment of pulmonary thromboendarterectomy by tomographic electrocardiogram-gated equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography compared with electron beam computed tomography. J Nucl Cardiol. 2007;14:92-9 pubmed..21) volumes occurred, with little change in mean LV EF (0.05 +/- 0.07 vs 0.00 +/- 0.10). SPECT ERNA is an accurate method for measuring RV and LV volume and EF before and after thromboendarterectomy. ..
- Sapienza M, Ono C, Watanabe T, Buchpiguel C, Hironaka F. First-pass scintigraphy with (99m)Tc macroaggregated albumin: a method for evaluating pulmonary arterial flow pulsatility. Nucl Med Commun. 2004;25:571-6 pubmed..These results need to be confirmed in a larger number of individuals, and, if shown to be reproducible, may increase our understanding of lung flow physiology, and of its modifications in the presence of cardiopulmonary diseases. ..
- Schaefer W, Lipke C, Kuhl H, Koch K, Kaiser H, Reinartz P, et al. Prone versus supine patient positioning during gated 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT: effect on left ventricular volumes, ejection fraction, and heart rate. J Nucl Med. 2004;45:2016-20 pubmed..Hence, supine reference data should not be used to classify the results of prone acquisitions. ..
- Teresinska A, Wnuk J, Konieczna S, Dabrowski A. Verification of the left ventricular ejection fraction from gated myocardial perfusion studies (GSPECT). Kardiol Pol. 2005;63:465-75; discussion 476-7 pubmed..e. at rest or in a nearresting state following exercise or vasodilatation). Planar radionuclide ventriculography [RNV] is, however, considered to be the most accurate method for calculating LVEF...
- Wheat J, Currie G. QGS ejection fraction reproducibility in gated SPECT comparing pre-filtered and post-filtered reconstruction. Nucl Med Commun. 2006;27:57-9 pubmed..3% increase in the calculated ejection fraction over post-filtering. Clearly, this has the potential to undermine diagnostic and prognostic roles of functional parameters. ..
- Chen C, Shih W, Huang W. Mimic ascites in a patient undergoing peritoneal dialysis on raw-data image Tc-99m tetrofosmin gated cardiac SPECT. J Nucl Cardiol. 2005;12:227-8 pubmed
- Slart R, Poot L, Piers D, van Veldhuisen D, Jager P. Evaluation of right ventricular function by NuSMUGA software: gated blood-pool SPECT vs. first-pass radionuclide angiography. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2003;19:401-7 pubmed..FPRNA and GBPS calculations cannot be considered to be equivalent. Therefore the NuSMUGA program cannot be used to calculate RVEF. ..
- Kasama S, Toyama T, Kumakura H, Takayama Y, Ichikawa S, Suzuki T, et al. Myocardial contractile reserve determined by dobutamine stress Tc-99m tetrofosmin quantitative gated SPECT predicts late spontaneous improvement in cardiac function in patients with recent-onset dilated cardiomyopathy. J Nucl Cardiol. 2003;10:607-14 pubmed..7%. LVEDV and NYHA functional class improved to a greater extent in group A than in group B. DSTF-QGS can be used to predict late spontaneous improvement in cardiac function and symptoms after treatment in patients with idiopathic DCM. ..
- Hoffend J, Mier W, Schuhmacher J, Schmidt K, Dimitrakopoulou Strauss A, Strauss L, et al. Gallium-68-DOTA-albumin as a PET blood-pool marker: experimental evaluation in vivo. Nucl Med Biol. 2005;32:287-92 pubmed..Our findings support clinical imaging using 68Ga-DOTA-labeled human serum albumin (HSA). The generator-produced label makes 68Ga-DOTA-labeled albumin continuously available even to centers lacking an in-house cyclotron...
- Darze E, Wong K, McClellan J, Loh E, Araujo L. The measurement of extravascular lung density with SPECT imaging and its relationship with ventilatory abnormalities in patients with congestive heart failure. J Nucl Cardiol. 2003;10:482-9 pubmed..67, P =.024). Patients with chronic CHF have increased ELD. The correlation between ELD and Ve/VCO(2) suggests that increased lung water may contribute to the ventilatory abnormalities seen in patients with CHF. ..
- Giubbini R, Rossini P, Bertagna F, Bosio G, Paghera B, Pizzocaro C, et al. Value of gated SPECT in the analysis of regional wall motion of the interventricular septum after coronary artery bypass grafting. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2004;31:1371-7 pubmed
- Daou D, Coaguila C, Vilain D. Electrocardiograph-gated single photon emission computed tomography radionuclide angiography presents good interstudy reproducibility for the quantification of global systolic right ventricular function. Nucl Med Commun. 2007;28:391-9 pubmed..The results are better than those of equilibrium planar radionuclide angiography, but poorer than those previously reported for the left ventricle with SPECT radionuclide angiography. They need to be confirmed in a larger population. ..
- Notarius C, Spaak J, Morris B, Floras J. Comparison of muscle sympathetic activity in ischemic and nonischemic heart failure. J Card Fail. 2007;13:470-5 pubmed..04) and lower in both groups than in the control subjects (P < .001). These observations suggest an additional ischemic stimulus to sympathetic activation in heart failure, which may impair exercise capacity reflexively. ..
- Lim T, Burden L, Janardhanan R, Dwivedi G, Ping C, Moon J, et al. Contrast echocardiography versus gated single photon emission computed tomography for the assessment of parameters of left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2006;19:280-4 pubmed..66 with CMR) compared with SPECT (agreement = 61%, kappa = 0.36 with CMR). CE is more accurate than gated SPECT for the estimation of LV remodeling after AMI. ..
- Karner I, Stefanic M, Topuzović N. Cardiovascular effects of thyroxine in combination with methimazole in premenopausal female Graves' disease patients: case-control study. Croat Med J. 2004;45:695-702 pubmed..It is also associated with exaggerated exercise systolic blood pressure response and decreased ejection fraction response to exercise. ..
- Schaefer W, Lipke C, Nowak B, Kaiser H, Reinartz P, Buecker A, et al. Validation of QGS and 4D-MSPECT for quantification of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction from gated 18F-FDG PET: comparison with cardiac MRI. J Nucl Med. 2004;45:74-9 pubmed
- Adachi I, Umeda T, Shimomura H, Suwa M, Komori T, Ogura Y, et al. Comparative study of quantitative blood pool SPECT imaging with 180 degrees and 360 degrees acquisition orbits on accuracy of cardiac function. J Nucl Cardiol. 2005;12:186-94 pubmed..Thus a 360 degrees acquisition orbit may be suitable for more quantitatively accurate results when blood pool imaging is performed with gated SPECT. ..
- Leoncini M, Bellandi F, Sciagrà R, Maioli M, Toso A, Sestini S, et al. Use of 99mTc-sestamibi gated SPECT to assess the influence of anterograde flow before primary coronary angioplasty on tissue salvage and functional recovery in acute myocardial infarction. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2004;31:1378-85 pubmed..In the setting of optimal myocardial reperfusion for myocardial infarction, preserved TIMI flow before PCI does not limit the initial risk area but it does improve myocardial salvage and functional recovery. ..
- Slart R, Bax J, de Jong R, de Boer J, Lamb H, Mook P, et al. Comparison of gated PET with MRI for evaluation of left ventricular function in patients with coronary artery disease. J Nucl Med. 2004;45:176-82 pubmed..79 (95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.89; SE, 0.049). LV volumes, LVEF, and regional wall motion can be assessed with gated (18)F-FDG PET and correlate well with these parameters assessed by MRI. ..
- Dinu C, Klein G, Morestin Cadet S, Froissart M, Diebold B, LeHeuzey J, et al. Gated blood pool tomoscintigraphy with 4-dimensional optical flow motion analysis quantifies left ventricular mechanical activation and synchronization. J Nucl Cardiol. 2006;13:811-20 pubmed..This may help to assess the variation of the activation pattern according to the cardiomyopathy type and the role of septal resynchronization in ventricular functional recovery. ..
- Lipiecki J, Cachin F, Durel N, De Tauriac O, Ponsonnaille J, Maublant J. Influence of infarct-zone viability detected by rest Tc-99m sestamibi gated SPECT on left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction treated by percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in the acute phase. J Nucl Cardiol. 2004;11:673-81 pubmed..Tc-99m sestamibi ECG-gated SPECT performed 3 weeks after the acute phase could predict this enlargement with a high accuracy. ..