cardiovascular diagnostic techniques


Summary: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the cardiovascular system or its organs or demonstration of their physiological processes.

Top Publications

  1. Swedberg K, Cleland J, Dargie H, Drexler H, Follath F, Komajda M, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic heart failure: executive summary (update 2005): The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Heart Failure of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J. 2005;26:1115-40 pubmed
  2. Shechter M, Issachar A, Marai I, Koren Morag N, Freinark D, Shahar Y, et al. Long-term association of brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation and cardiovascular events in middle-aged subjects with no apparent heart disease. Int J Cardiol. 2009;134:52-8 pubmed publisher
    ..70 and 95% CI 1.16 to 6.32 (p=0.011)]. Brachial artery median FMD independently predicts long-term adverse cardiovascular events in healthy subjects in addition to traditional risk factor assessment. ..
  3. Amsterdam E, Kirk J, Diercks D, Lewis W, Turnipseed S. Early exercise testing in the management of low risk patients in chest pain centers. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2004;46:438-52 pubmed
  4. Erhardt L, Herlitz J, Bossaert L, Halinen M, Keltai M, Koster R, et al. Task force on the management of chest pain. Eur Heart J. 2002;23:1153-76 pubmed
  5. Currie K, Proudfoot N, Timmons B, MacDonald M. Noninvasive measures of vascular health are reliable in preschool-aged children. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2010;35:512-7 pubmed publisher
    ..63) is likely attributable to the variability of blood pressure measurements. This study confirms that vascular measurements demonstrate substantial reliability in preschool-aged children as young as 2 years. ..
  6. Johnson P, Manson J. Cardiology patient page. How to make sure the beat goes on: protecting a woman's heart. Circulation. 2005;111:e28-33 pubmed
  7. Jacobs D, Crow R. Subclinical cardiovascular disease markers applicable to studies of oral health: multiethnic study of atherosclerosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1098:269-87 pubmed
    ..1-0.4), do not include propensity for the important atherosclerotic phase of plaque rupture, and do not fully substitute for studies of clinical cardiovascular disease endpoints. ..
  8. Ricci W, Della Rocca G, Combs C, Borrelli J. The medical and economic impact of preoperative cardiac testing in elderly patients with hip fractures. Injury. 2007;38 Suppl 3:S49-52 pubmed
    ..Preoperative cardiac testing may add profoundly to the healthcare costs associated with treating this population of patients without influencing orthopaedic or medical management. ..
  9. Hamlin R. How many ECG leads are required for in vivo studies in safety pharmacology?. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2008;57:161-8 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Daniel B, Kelsberg G, Jankowski T, Crownover B. Clinical inquiries. What is the initial work-up in the diagnosis of hypertension?. J Fam Pract. 2005;54:809-10, 812 pubmed
  2. Rosero E, Kane K, Clagett G, Timaran C. A systematic review of the limitations and approaches to improve detection and management of peripheral arterial disease in Hispanics. J Vasc Surg. 2010;51:27S-35S pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the epidemiology of PAD to improve its detection and treatment among Hispanics is relevant to reduce disparities in the health status of this group, the most rapidly growing ethnic minority in the United States. ..
  3. van der Meer I, Iglesias del Sol A, Hak A, Bots M, Hofman A, Witteman J. Risk factors for progression of atherosclerosis measured at multiple sites in the arterial tree: the Rotterdam Study. Stroke. 2003;34:2374-9 pubmed
    ..These results emphasize the need for prevention of progression of extracoronary atherosclerotic disease in men and women alike. ..
  4. Pohost G, Stevens S. Noninvasive testing for women with suspected coronary artery disease. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2006;8:1-2 pubmed
  5. Miyawaki Y. [Measurement of pulse wave "augmentation index (AI) "and its clinical application]. Rinsho Byori. 2004;52:676-85 pubmed
    ..Thus, it is the management for both situations of the heart and the artery that matters, and AI can be regarded as a new marker of cardiovascular disease for suitable clinical management on both heart and artery. ..
  6. Luepker R, Apple F, Christenson R, Crow R, Fortmann S, Goff D, et al. Case definitions for acute coronary heart disease in epidemiology and clinical research studies: a statement from the AHA Council on Epidemiology and Prevention; AHA Statistics Committee; World Heart Federation Council on Epidemiology and Prevention;. Circulation. 2003;108:2543-9 pubmed
  7. Arias Mendoza A. [Vulnerable plaque actual and future identification methods]. Arch Cardiol Mex. 2006;76 Suppl 2:S229-32 pubmed
    ..The future will be not just the diagnosis of vulnerable plaque but the vulnerable patient. ..
  8. Chen Y, Han P, Liang B, Liang H, Lei Z, Tian Z, et al. Comparative study on 16-slice CT coronary angiography vs conventional coronary angiography--a report of 38 cases. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2008;28:110-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Since CTCA is a noninvasive technique, it may be useful in screening coronary artery disease. ..
  9. Cromwell J, McCall N, Burton J, Urato C. Race/ethnic disparities in utilization of lifesaving technologies by Medicare ischemic heart disease beneficiaries. Med Care. 2005;43:330-7 pubmed
  10. Pereira L, Jenkins T, Berghella V. Conventional management of maternal red cell alloimmunization compared with management by Doppler assessment of middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;189:1002-6 pubmed
    ..Management by MCA-PSV Doppler may eliminate the need for amniocentesis and reduce the number of PUBS performed in red blood cell-alloimmunized pregnancies. ..
  11. Fogari R, Malamani G, Zoppi A, Mugellini A, Rinaldi A, Vanasia A, et al. Effect of benazepril addition to amlodipine on ankle oedema and subcutaneous tissue pressure in hypertensive patients. J Hum Hypertens. 2003;17:207-12 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that ACE-inhibitors partially counteract the microcirculatory changes responsible for Ca-antagonists-induced oedema formation. ..
  12. Rhodes A, Grounds R. New technologies for measuring cardiac output: the future?. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2005;11:224-6 pubmed
  13. Su H, Lin T, Voon W, Chen H, Lin F, Kuo M, et al. Impact of preload alterations by haemodialysis on the Tei index: comparison between pulsed flow and tissue Doppler analyses. Acta Cardiol. 2007;62:25-30 pubmed
    ..However, TDE-Tei index is less preload-dependent and is more accurate in assessing global left ventricular function in patients with body weight reduction < 3 kg after HD. ..
  14. Brasel K, Guse C, Gentilello L, Nirula R. Heart rate: is it truly a vital sign?. J Trauma. 2007;62:812-7 pubmed
    ..Heart rate alone is not sufficient to determine the need for emergent interventions for hemorrhage. Although tachycardia may still indicate need for emergent intervention in the trauma patient, its absence should not allay such concern. ..
  15. Rossi M, Carpi A, Di Maria C, Galetta F, Santoro G. Spectral analysis of laser Doppler skin blood flow oscillations in human essential arterial hypertension. Microvasc Res. 2006;72:34-41 pubmed
    ..The same findings also suggest that the impairment of the endothelial mechanism involved in SBF control occurs by the time in the course of EHT. ..
  16. Müller H, Rehak P, Puchinger M, Wagner D, Marte W, Tscheliessnigg K. Measurement of cardiac output and pulmonary transit time for assessment of pulmonary vascular resistance in domestic piglets. Exp Physiol. 2009;94:659-64 pubmed publisher
    ..64/+0.67 Wood units. Cardiac output, PTT and PVR showed a close functional relationship. With a correction for blood viscosity and body size, this relationship could be used for non-invasive clinical measurements of PVR. ..
  17. Michard F, Descorps Declere A. The times are a-changin': should we bury the yellow catheter?. Crit Care Med. 2007;35:1427-8 pubmed
  18. Yoon M, Tahk S, Yang H, Park J, Zheng M, Lim H, et al. Comparison of the intracoronary continuous infusion method using a microcatheter and the intravenous continuous adenosine infusion method for inducing maximal hyperemia for fractional flow reserve measurement. Am Heart J. 2009;157:1050-6 pubmed publisher
  19. Bavelaar Croon C, Slart R, Bax J, van der Wall E. [Cardiovascular nuclear medicine 1976/'06: 30 years representation in clinical cardiology]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2006;150:1373-9 pubmed
    ..The gated SPECT technique is a valuable tool for risk stratification because it offers the potential of assessing left ventricular function and volumes, which are both important prognostic parameters. ..
  20. Karamlou T, Landry G, Sexton G, Chan B, Moneta G, Taylor L. Creating a useful vascular center: a statewide survey of what primary care physicians really want. J Vasc Surg. 2004;39:763-70 pubmed
    ..VCs should include vascular surgery, interventional radiology, a noninvasive vascular laboratory, and physician educational services. ..
  21. Bogavac Stanojevic N, Ivanova Petrova G, Jelic Ivanovic Z, Memon L, Spasic S. Cost-effectiveness analysis in diagnosis of coronary artery disease: choice of laboratory markers. Clin Biochem. 2007;40:1180-7 pubmed
    ..14 euros in comparison to the strategy employing hs-CRP. Cost-effectiveness analysis of different diagnostic markers results in improved identification of at-risk patients at a lower health cost for society. ..
  22. Teodorescu V, Chen C, Morrissey N, Faries P, Marin M, Hollier L. Detailed protocol of ischemia and the use of noninvasive vascular laboratory testing in diabetic foot ulcers. Am J Surg. 2004;187:75S-80S pubmed
    ..If questions persist, an anatomic study is warranted. Duplex ultrasonography can provide accurate information with little risk to the patient and so should be readily obtained. ..
  23. Lind L. Impact of ageing on the measurement of endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Pharmacol Rep. 2006;58 Suppl:41-6 pubmed
    ..The usefulness of other methods used in population studies, such as pulse wave analysis using a beta-2 receptor agonist as vasodilator and the hyperaemic blood flow velocity have to be further validated. ..
  24. Fuster V. Novel cardiovascular biomarkers and implications for clinical trials. Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med. 2006;3:57 pubmed
  25. Wolff C, Checkley S, Bhageerutty G, Bhatt H, Johnston A, Collier D, et al. Circulation time in man from lung to periphery as an indirect index of cardiac output. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2005;566:311-6 pubmed
    ..The relationship for normal subjects was: Ct = 0.28 x 60/Q(if) + 2.8 sec (Q(if) in L min.; P slope < .001). ..
  26. Genest J, McPherson R, Frohlich J, Anderson T, Campbell N, Carpentier A, et al. 2009 Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease in the adult - 2009 recommendations. Can J Cardiol. 2009;25:567-79 pubmed
    ..The present article represents the 2009 update of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease in the adult...
  27. Ghio S, Serio A, Mangiavacchi M, Kjellstrom B, Valsecchi S, Vicini I, et al. Hemodynamic changes before acute heart failure episodes in patients with advanced systolic left ventricular dysfunction. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). 2008;9:799-804 pubmed publisher
    ..An increase in RVDP was the most frequent hemodynamic change detected by the implantable hemodynamic monitor before hospitalizations due to acute HF in patients having advanced systolic LV dysfunction. ..
  28. Erhardt L, Herlitz J, Bossaert L, Halinen M, Keltai M, Koster R, et al. [Task Force on the management of chest pain]. Ital Heart J Suppl. 2004;5:298-323 pubmed
  29. Blum M, Slade M, Boden D, Cabin H, Caulin Glaser T. Examination of gender bias in the evaluation and treatment of angina pectoris by cardiologists. Am J Cardiol. 2004;93:765-7 pubmed
    ..Overall, there were no differences in the percentage of women who underwent noninvasive evaluation, invasive evaluation, and treatment of suspected coronary artery disease compared with men. ..
  30. Haeusler K, Koch L, Ueberreiter J, Endres M, Schultheiss H, Heuschmann P, et al. Stroke risk associated with balloon based catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation: Rationale and design of the MACPAF Study. BMC Neurol. 2010;10:63 pubmed publisher NCT01061931. ..
  31. Gilard M, Pennec P, Cornily J, Vinsonneau U, Le Gal G, Nonent M, et al. Multi-slice computer tomography of left ventricular function with automated analysis software in comparison with conventional ventriculography. Eur J Radiol. 2006;59:270-5 pubmed
  32. Demaria A. JACC has offspring. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;49:826-7 pubmed
  33. Barac A, Campia U, Panza J. Methods for evaluating endothelial function in humans. Hypertension. 2007;49:748-60 pubmed
  34. Fleisher L, Beckman J, Brown K, Calkins H, Chaikof E, Fleischmann K, et al. ACC/AHA 2006 guideline update on perioperative cardiovascular evaluation for noncardiac surgery: focused update on perioperative beta-blocker therapy: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Gu. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;47:2343-55 pubmed
  35. Ellenbogen K, Wood M, Shepard R, Clemo H, Vaughn T, Holloman K, et al. Detection and management of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator lead failure: incidence and clinical implications. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41:73-80 pubmed
  36. Moneta G, Zierler R, Zierler B. Training and credentialing in vascular laboratory diagnosis. Semin Vasc Surg. 2006;19:205-9 pubmed
    ..Completion of the RPVI exam, completion of core training requirements, along with ongoing CME, is a basis for establishing minimal requirements for interpretation of vascular laboratory studies. ..
  37. Pascual Figal D. [Chest pain: a diagnostic and prognostic challenge]. Med Clin (Barc). 2006;126:15-6 pubmed
  38. Abularrage C, Sidawy A, Aidinian G, Singh N, Weiswasser J, Arora S. Evaluation of macrocirculatory endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasoreactivity in vascular disease. Perspect Vasc Surg Endovasc Ther. 2005;17:245-53 pubmed
    ..8%. We discuss the importance of the macrocirculation, investigative methods for evaluating macrocirculatory vasoreactivity, and review the literature of vasoreactivity in these different states. ..
  39. Jimeno Sainz A, Gil V, Merino J, Garcia M, Jordan A, Guerrero L. [Validity of Framingham criteria as a clinical test for systolic heart failure]. Rev Clin Esp. 2006;206:495-8 pubmed
    ..45 (A category) but their presence does not confirm the diagnosis because of the high amount of false-positive findings (D category). ..
  40. Ahmed B, Ghaffari Z, Ismail R, Saleh N. Non-invasive diagnosis of fetal anemia due to maternal red-cell alloimmunization. Saudi Med J. 2005;26:256-9 pubmed
    ..Using this technique will reduce the number of invasive procedures needed with the added risks of these procedures with good fetal outcome. ..
  41. Shimpuku G, Morimura N, Sakamoto T, Isshiki T, Nagata S, Goto T. Diagnostic performance of a new multifunctional electrocardiograph during uninterrupted chest compressions in cardiac arrest patients. Circ J. 2010;74:1339-45 pubmed
    ..626) for lead I of the CoECG, and 0.987 (95%CI 0.975-1.00) for lead I of the Radarcirc. Diagnoses based on the data from Radarcirc were more accurate in predicting rhythm during chest compressions than those based on data from the CoECG. ..
  42. Juliard J. [Heart failure in the elderly]. Rev Prat. 2009;59:1382-8 pubmed
  43. Angelini P. Some questions regarding myocardial bridges still require answers. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;42:394; author reply 394-5 pubmed
  44. Farwell D, Sulke A. A randomised prospective comparison of three protocols for head-up tilt testing and carotid sinus massage. Int J Cardiol. 2005;105:241-9 pubmed
    ..The GTN protocol resulted in significantly more diagnoses than the other compared protocols with good sensitivity and adequate specificity. Sensitivity of the drug-free tilt test was lower than drug-augmented tilt testing. ..
  45. Iduru S, Hisamuddin K, Mullen K. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy: simplifying its diagnosis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007;102:1537-8 pubmed
    ..A multicenter study to further validate the system for wider use will further strengthen the argument for its use in every patient with cirrhosis. ..
  46. Persichilli S, Gervasoni J, De Martino D, Vitrani A, Capoluongo E, Giardina B, et al. Reliability and correlation study of a new homocysteine assay. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2008;46:1786-8 pubmed publisher
    ..2 micromol/L) with R(2)=0.98, and a negative bias with the enzymatic method (mean+/-SD: -1.8+/-2.2 micromol/L) with R(2)=0.94. This new method from Abbott can be included among the methods suitable for homocysteine routine analysis. ..
  47. Lainchbury J, Campbell E, Frampton C, Yandle T, Nicholls M, Richards A. Brain natriuretic peptide and n-terminal brain natriuretic peptide in the diagnosis of heart failure in patients with acute shortness of breath. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;42:728-35 pubmed
    ..Commercially available assays compare favorably with well-validated laboratory assays. Differences in sensitivity and specificity may influence the assay choice in this setting. ..
  48. Pavri B, Ho R. Syncope. Identifying cardiac causes in older patients. Geriatrics. 2003;58:26-31; quiz 32 pubmed
    ..Approximately 25% of patients will have no identifiable cause of syncope, but have a better prognosis than patients with a confirmed cardiac cause of syncope. Treatment is directed at the underlying cause. ..
  49. Tribouilloy C, Soulière V. [Quantification of mitral regurgitation in 2003]. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss. 2004;97:147-56 pubmed
    ..In this article, the authors review the different approaches to quantification, their indications and limitations. ..
  50. Cantu F, Goette A. Sudden cardiac death stratification in asymptomatic ventricular preexcitation. Europace. 2009;11:1536-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These concerns are mainly due to the perception of lack of strong evidence that, according to the majority of centres, is still needed. ..
  51. Wright C, Kroner C, Draijer R. Non-invasive methods and stimuli for evaluating the skin's microcirculation. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2006;54:1-25 pubmed
    ..The present article outlines the non-invasive methods and dynamic tests that can be used to investigate the microcirculation of the skin. ..
  52. Apple F. Clinical biomarkers of cardiac injury: cardiac troponins and natriuretic peptides. Toxicol Pathol. 2006;34:91-3 pubmed
    ..This paper will specifically address cardiac troponins and natriuretic peptides. ..
  53. Kealey A. Coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction in pregnancy: a review of epidemiology, diagnosis, and medical and surgical management. Can J Cardiol. 2010;26:185-9 pubmed
    ..The epidemiology, diagnosis, medical and surgical treatment, and prognosis of ischemic heart disease in pregnancy are the subject of the present review...