diagnostic techniques and procedures


Summary: Methods, procedures, and tests performed to diagnose disease, disordered function, or disability.

Top Publications

  1. Lawn S, Kerkhoff A, Pahlana P, Vogt M, Wood R. Diagnostic yield of tuberculosis using sputum induction in HIV-positive patients before antiretroviral therapy. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2012;16:1354-7 pubmed publisher
    ..8-18.8). Spontaneously expectorated spot samples yielded 79.8% of all culture-positive TB diagnoses. The incremental yield from those needing an induced first sample was 5.3% and the yield from induced second samples was 14.9%. ..
  2. Reitsma J, Glas A, Rutjes A, Scholten R, Bossuyt P, Zwinderman A. Bivariate analysis of sensitivity and specificity produces informative summary measures in diagnostic reviews. J Clin Epidemiol. 2005;58:982-90 pubmed
    ..The statistical properties of the bivariate model are sound and flexible. The bivariate model can be seen as an improvement and extension of the traditional sROC approach. ..
  3. Hamza T, van Houwelingen H, Heijenbrok Kal M, Stijnen T. Associating explanatory variables with summary receiver operating characteristic curves in diagnostic meta-analysis. J Clin Epidemiol. 2009;62:1284-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The bivariate random effects meta-analysis model is an appropriate and convenient framework to investigate the effect of covariates on the performance of diagnostic tests as measured by SROCCs. ..
  4. Shiu S, Gatsonis C. The predictive receiver operating characteristic curve for the joint assessment of the positive and negative predictive values. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2008;366:2313-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We also formulate and discuss regression models for the estimation of the effects of covariates. ..
  5. Hamza T, van Houwelingen H, Stijnen T. The binomial distribution of meta-analysis was preferred to model within-study variability. J Clin Epidemiol. 2008;61:41-51 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the approximate approach gives huge bias with very poor coverage probability in many cases. The exact likelihood approach is the method of preference and should be used whenever feasible. ..
  6. Johnston K, Holloway R. There is nothing staid about STARD: progress in the reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies. Neurology. 2006;67:740-1 pubmed
  7. Lord S, Irwig L, Simes R. When is measuring sensitivity and specificity sufficient to evaluate a diagnostic test, and when do we need randomized trials?. Ann Intern Med. 2006;144:850-5 pubmed
  8. Rutjes A, Reitsma J, Di Nisio M, Smidt N, van Rijn J, Bossuyt P. Evidence of bias and variation in diagnostic accuracy studies. CMAJ. 2006;174:469-76 pubmed
    ..Unfortunately, incomplete reporting hampers the evaluation of potential sources of bias in diagnostic accuracy studies. ..
  9. Chu H, Cole S. Bivariate meta-analysis of sensitivity and specificity with sparse data: a generalized linear mixed model approach. J Clin Epidemiol. 2006;59:1331-2; author reply 1332-3 pubmed

More Information


  1. Rafael M, Taylor T, Magill A, Lim Y, Girosi F, Allan R. Reducing the burden of childhood malaria in Africa: the role of improved. Nature. 2006;444 Suppl 1:39-48 pubmed
  2. Bossuyt P, Irwig L, Craig J, Glasziou P. Comparative accuracy: assessing new tests against existing diagnostic pathways. BMJ. 2006;332:1089-92 pubmed
  3. Bossuyt P. Interpreting diagnostic test accuracy studies. Semin Hematol. 2008;45:189-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the relativity of the claim that likelihood ratios are a superior way of expressing diagnostic accuracy, and defend the use of the sometimes downgraded sensitivity and specificity. ..
  4. Lumbreras B, Porta M, Marquez S, Pollan M, Parker L, Hernandez Aguado I. QUADOMICS: an adaptation of the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Assessment (QUADAS) for the evaluation of the methodological quality of studies on the diagnostic accuracy of '-omics'-based technologies. Clin Biochem. 2008;41:1316-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The tool adds new items that assess quality issues specific to this research, and may enhance the application of '-omics'-based discoveries to clinical \and public health practice. ..
  5. Mosha J, Conteh L, Tediosi F, Gesase S, Bruce J, Chandramohan D, et al. Cost implications of improving malaria diagnosis: findings from north-eastern Tanzania. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8707 pubmed publisher
    ..However, improving diagnosis to one disease may lead to over diagnosis of another illness. Quality improvement is complex but introducing RDTs for the diagnosis of malaria is a good start. ..
  6. Tatsioni A, Zarin D, Aronson N, Samson D, Flamm C, Schmid C, et al. Challenges in systematic reviews of diagnostic technologies. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142:1048-55 pubmed
  7. Howie Esquivel J, Spicer J. Association of partner status and disposition with rehospitalization in heart failure patients. Am J Crit Care. 2012;21:e65-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of partner and disposition status may suggest a proxy for social support. Strategies to provide social support during discharge planning may have an effect on hospital readmission rates. ..
  8. Ohrlander T, Nessvi S, Gottsater A, Dencker M, Acosta S. Influence of preoperative medical assessment prior to elective endovascular aneurysm repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm. Int Angiol. 2012;31:368-75 pubmed
    ..Preoperative assessment by a vascular physician resulted in lower costs and improvement of medication against atherosclerosis, uncontrolled hypertension and perioperative ischemic cardiac events, but mortality was unaffected. ..
  9. Renshaw A, Gould E. Quality assurance measures for critical diagnoses in anatomic pathology. Am J Clin Pathol. 2012;137:466-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A more limited and clearly defined approach to quality assurance of critical diagnoses emphasizing TILT diagnoses and selected key word searches can be performed and requires reviewing only 1.8% of all cases. ..
  10. Day J. Introduction to in vitro diagnostic device regulatory requirements. Methods Mol Biol. 2013;949:103-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This chapter focuses on the US and the EU regulations, explaining the broad landscape and regulatory pathways of each market. ..
  11. Lafeber F, van Spil W. Osteoarthritis year 2013 in review: biomarkers; reflecting before moving forward, one step at a time. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2013;21:1452-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Looking ahead, we are optimistic but realistic in our expectations, we believe that the field can be brought forward by critically and cautiously reconsidering our approaches, and making changes forward, one step at a time. ..
  12. Sherafat S, Salavati M, Ebrahimi Takamjani I, Akhbari B, Mohammadirad S, Mazaheri M, et al. Intrasession and intersession reliability of postural control in participants with and without nonspecific low back pain using the Biodex Balance System. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2013;36:111-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Biodex Balance System stability indices appear to be reliable measures of postural control in the CLBP patients especially in more challenging conditions, such as when standing with eyes closed. ..
  13. Youn C, Shim E, Lim S, Cho Y, Hong H, Choi Y, et al. A cooperative metabolic syndrome estimation with high precision sensing unit. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2011;58:809-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the proposed system, we showed the possibility to evaluate the functionality of human mitochondria and analyze energy metabolism. ..
  14. Reboud J, Bourquin Y, Wilson R, Pall G, Jiwaji M, Pitt A, et al. Shaping acoustic fields as a toolset for microfluidic manipulations in diagnostic technologies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:15162-7 pubmed
    ..The methods also provide a clear route toward the integration of PCR to detect pathogens in a single handheld system. ..
  15. Chiaretti A, Barone G, Rigante D, Ruggiero A, Pierri F, Barbi E, et al. Intranasal lidocaine and midazolam for procedural sedation in children. Arch Dis Child. 2011;96:160-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This study has shown that the combined use of lidocaine spray and atomised INM appears to be a safe and effective method to achieve short-term sedation in children to facilitate medical care and procedures. ..
  16. Vach W, Gerke O, Høilund Carlsen P. Three principles to define the success of a diagnostic study could be identified. J Clin Epidemiol. 2012;65:293-300 pubmed publisher
    ..This ensures coherence of results and prevents unnecessarily large sample sizes. The liberal criterion should be paid more attention to in the future. ..
  17. Fonseca Pedrero E, Sierra Baigrie S, Lemos Giráldez S, Paino M, Muñiz J. Dimensional structure and measurement invariance of the youth self-report across gender and age. J Adolesc Health. 2012;50:148-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies should explore the measurement invariance of this model through multigroup comparisons across cultures. ..
  18. Bakhit M, Heidarian A, Ehsani S, Delphi M, Latifi S. Clinical assessment of dizzy patients: the necessity and role of diagnostic tests. Glob J Health Sci. 2014;6:194-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, a modification in the assessment methods of the dizzy patients with emphasis on history and clinical presentation seems essential. ..
  19. Don R, Capodaglio P, Cimolin V, Benedetti M, D Osualdo F, Frigo C, et al. Instrumental measures of spinal function: is it worth? A state-of-the art from a clinical perspective. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2012;48:255-73 pubmed
  20. Denoroy L, Zimmer L, Renaud B, Parrot S. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography as a tool for the discovery and the analysis of biomarkers of diseases: a review. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013;927:37-53 pubmed publisher
  21. Shruthi B, Vinodhkumar P, Kashyap B, Reddy P. Use of microwave in diagnostic pathology. J Cancer Res Ther. 2013;9:351-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering the usefulness of microwave in histotechnology, i.e., reducing the time required for the diagnosis, replacing the conventional equipments of laboratories by microwave-guided ones is a remarkable and an acceptable change. ..
  22. Miwa A, Morioka I, Yokota T, Shibata A, Matsuo K, Fujioka K, et al. Correlation and precision of serum free bilirubin concentrations determined by single and two peroxidase concentration methods in term or late-preterm newborn infants using a FDA-approved analyzer. Clin Lab. 2012;58:507-14 pubmed
    ..4% for B(f-two) and 3.2% for B(f-single). Although B(f-single) and B(f-two) are not identical, B(f-single) is significantly correlated with B(f-two) and it is more precise than B(f-two) in term or late-preterm newborns. ..
  23. Bressan S, Gomez B, Mintegi S, Da Dalt L, Blazquez D, Olaciregui I, et al. Diagnostic performance of the lab-score in predicting severe and invasive bacterial infections in well-appearing young febrile infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012;31:1239-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In well-appearing infants with fever without source, the Lab-score seems a more useful tool for ruling in, rather than ruling out, SBI. Its accuracy for IBI prediction was unsatisfactory. ..
  24. Flinn S, Pease W, Freimer M. Score reliability and construct validity of the Flinn Performance Screening Tool for adults with symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. Am J Occup Ther. 2012;66:330-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The FPST shows adequate psychometric properties as a client-centered screening tool for occupational performance of people referred for symptoms of CTS. ..
  25. Courbet A, Renard E, Molina F. Bringing next-generation diagnostics to the clinic through synthetic biology. EMBO Mol Med. 2016;8:987-91 pubmed publisher
  26. Dalal A, Schnipper J, Poon E, Williams D, Rossi Roh K, Macleay A, et al. Design and implementation of an automated email notification system for results of tests pending at discharge. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2012;19:523-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Automated email notification is a useful strategy for managing results of TPADs. ..
  27. Palomino J. Current developments and future perspectives for TB diagnostics. Future Microbiol. 2012;7:59-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will summarize the current developments in TB diagnostics and the perspectives for future developments in the field. ..
  28. Reiner B. Optimizing technology development and adoption in medical imaging using the principles of innovation diffusion, part I: theoretical, historical, and contemporary considerations. J Digit Imaging. 2011;24:750-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Successful innovation should rely upon data-driven objective analysis, which can scientifically validate the inherent strengths and weaknesses of the innovation, when compared with the idea or technology it supercedes. ..
  29. Turner P, Turner C, Kaewcharernnet N, Mon N, Goldblatt D, Nosten F. A prospective study of urinary pneumococcal antigen detection in healthy Karen mothers with high rates of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:108 pubmed publisher
    ..The relationship between pneumococcal carriage and urinary antigen detection in adults from developing countries with high pneumococcal carriage prevalence has not been well established...
  30. Madsen J, Abazi G, Fleming L, Proctor M, Grondin R, Magge S, et al. Evaluation of the ShuntCheck noninvasive thermal technique for shunt flow detection in hydrocephalic patients. Neurosurgery. 2011;68:198-205; discussion 205 pubmed publisher
    ..A better understanding of the normal dynamics of flow in individual patients, which this device may yield, will be necessary before the true clinical utility of non-invasive flow measurement can be assessed. ..
  31. Nishijima D, Simel D, Wisner D, Holmes J. Does this adult patient have a blunt intra-abdominal injury?. JAMA. 2012;307:1517-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Blunt abdominal trauma often presents a substantial diagnostic challenge. Well-informed clinical examination can identify patients who require further diagnostic evaluation for intra-abdominal injuries after blunt abdominal trauma...
  32. Malik M, El Bushra H, Opoka M, Formenty P, Velayudhan R, Eremin S. Strategic approach to control of viral haemorrhagic fever outbreaks in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: report from a regional consultation. East Mediterr Health J. 2013;19:892-7 pubmed
    ..Implementation of these approaches would require working together with vision, commitment and a sense of purpose involving partnerships and cooperation from all relevant sectors. ..
  33. Belda Iniesta C, de Castro J, Perona R. Translational proteomics: what can you do for true patients?. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:101-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We will try to delineate unmet needs for clinical oncologists that would add value for cancer proteomics in terms of true patients. ..
  34. Martínez Moreno C, Cordero Castro C, Palacios Cuesta A, Blázquez Gamero D, Marín Ferrer M. [Presence of family members while performing invasive procedures. A prospective study]. An Pediatr (Barc). 2012;77:28-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We also found that both family members and healthcare professionals were accepting and also satisfied with this new practice policy. ..
  35. Jacobs E, Fu P, Rathouz P. Does a video-interpreting network improve delivery of care in the emergency department?. Health Serv Res. 2012;47:509-22 pubmed publisher
    ..04). The studied video-interpreting network had minimal impact on health care outcomes in the ED. ..
  36. Thiviyanathan V, Gorenstein D. Aptamers and the next generation of diagnostic reagents. Proteomics Clin Appl. 2012;6:563-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we discuss the recent developments in aptamer technology, including new selection methods and the aptamers' application in proteomics. ..
  37. Erlandsson L, Rosenstierne M, McLoughlin K, Jaing C, Fomsgaard A. The microbial detection array combined with random Phi29-amplification used as a diagnostic tool for virus detection in clinical samples. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22631 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that this method detects both DNA and RNA virus, present in the same sample, as well as differentiates between different virus subtypes. We propose this assay for diagnostic analysis of viruses in clinical samples. ..
  38. Engel N, Pai M. Tuberculosis diagnostics: why we need more qualitative research. J Epidemiol Glob Health. 2013;3:119-21 pubmed publisher
  39. Surinova S, Schiess R, Hüttenhain R, Cerciello F, Wollscheid B, Aebersold R. On the development of plasma protein biomarkers. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:5-16 pubmed publisher
    ..By being attentive to and applying these considerations, biomarker research should become more efficient and lead to directly translatable biomarker candidates into clinical evaluation. ..
  40. Barba M. Patents on diagnostic methods in Europe under the European Patent Convention (EPC). Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2010;2010:2979-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, it is also discussed the relevant jurisprudence (Case Law) interpreting the legal provisions. Some examples based on real cases are also presented and discussed. ..
  41. Towell V, Cowie B. Hepatitis B serology. Aust Fam Physician. 2012;41:212-4 pubmed
    ..It considers areas such as indications, what to tell the patient, what the test can and cannot tell you, and interpretation of results. ..
  42. Le N, Riggi E, Marrone G, Vu T, Izurieta R, Nguyen C, et al. Assessment of WHO criteria for identifying ART treatment failure in Vietnam from 2007 to 2011. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182688 pubmed publisher
    ..Although testing costs may increase, we recommend that Vietnam and other similar settings adopt viral load testing as the principal method for determining ART failure. ..
  43. Becke K, Landsleitner B, Reinhold P, Schmitz B, Strauss J, Philippi Höhne C. [Diagnostic and interventional operations in childhood: anesthesiology management]. Anaesthesist. 2010;59:1013-20 pubmed publisher
    ..A professional anesthesiology management of pediatric patients is an important factor to increase the quality of care, patient safety and patient satisfaction. ..
  44. Valaperta R, Sansone V, Lombardi F, Verdelli C, Colombo A, Valisi M, et al. Identification and characterization of DM1 patients by a new diagnostic certified assay: neuromuscular and cardiac assessments. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:958510 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that this assay appears to be a very robust and reliable molecular test, showing high reproducibility and giving an unambiguous interpretation of results. ..
  45. Wang S, Inci F, De Libero G, Singhal A, Demirci U. Point-of-care assays for tuberculosis: role of nanotechnology/microfluidics. Biotechnol Adv. 2013;31:438-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the current assays used for TB diagnosis, and highlight the recent advances in nanotechnology and microfluidics that potentially enable new approaches for TB diagnosis in resource-constrained settings. ..
  46. Paschal D. Launching complex medical workups from an urgent care platform. Ann Intern Med. 2012;156:232-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We have been amazed at the efficiency of this. Workups that used to take weeks can often be done in a few hours or days. What we have discovered here serendipitously may be worth deliberately duplicating elsewhere. ..
  47. Levi M, Baldasseroni A, Biffino M, Gini R, Romeo G, Paggiaro P, et al. [Burden of disease of occupational asthma in Tuscany: methodological aspects and preliminary results]. G Ital Med Lav Ergon. 2012;34:240-4 pubmed
    ..The paper is particularly intended to illustrate the methodological approach to estimate the prevalence of the disease. ..
  48. Burgess P, Pirkis J, Coombs T, Rosen A. Assessing the value of existing recovery measures for routine use in Australian mental health services. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2011;45:267-80 pubmed publisher
  49. Thomas L. Are your patient's medically unexplained symptoms really "all in her head"?. Med Hypotheses. 2012;78:542-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, it is impossible to make a diagnosis of conversion disorder or a somatization disorder without making an error in reasoning. These diagnostic categories should therefore be excluded from the DSM-V. ..
  50. He X, Tian H. Photoluminescence Architectures for Disease Diagnosis: From Graphene to Thin-Layer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides and Oxides. Small. 2016;12:144-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These versatile material architectures, owing to their ease in preparation, low cost and flexibility in functionalization, provide promising tools for both basic biochemical research and clinical applications. ..
  51. Baty S, Dʼsouza A, Sunenshine R, Bisgard K, Erhart L. Variations in positive predictive values for rapid influenza tests for 2009 pandemic influenza a (pH1N1)--Arizona, April-October 2009. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2012;18:268-71 pubmed publisher
    ..01). Wide PPV variability combined with documented low sensitivity among RIDTs for pH1N1 diagnosis increases concerns about their specificity and clinical and epidemiologic utility for influenza. ..
  52. Yeh C, Christodoulides N, Floriano P, Miller C, Ebersole J, Weigum S, et al. Current development of saliva/oral fluid-based diagnostics. Tex Dent J. 2010;127:651-61 pubmed
    ..In the foreseeable future, current research on saliva based diagnostic methods could revolutionize health care. ..
  53. Brook I. Ventilation of neck breathers undergoing a diagnostic procedure or surgery. Anesth Analg. 2012;114:1318-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Methods to improve the care are discussed. Educating medical personnel about these issues can improve the care of neck breathers. ..