cromolyn sodium

Summary

Summary: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.

Top Publications

  1. Vural K, Liao H, Oz M, Pinsky D. Effects of mast cell membrane stabilizing agents in a rat lung ischemia-reperfusion model. Ann Thorac Surg. 2000;69:228-32 pubmed
  2. Katelaris C, Ciprandi G, Missotten L, Turner F, Bertin D, Berdeaux G. A comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% ophthalmic solution and cromolyn sodium 2% ophthalmic solution in seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. Clin Ther. 2002;24:1561-75 pubmed
    Treatments for allergic conjunctivitis have various mechanisms of action. Cromolyn sodium stabilizes conjunctival mast cells by preventing calcium influx across the cell membrane, whereas olopatadine hydrochloride is both an ..
  3. Cordeiro P, Lee J, Mastorakos D, Hu Q, Pinto J, Santamaria E. Prevention of ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat skin flap model: the role of mast cells, cromolyn sodium, and histamine receptor blockade. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2000;105:654-9 pubmed
    ..b>Cromolyn sodium, diphenhydramine, and cimetidine were administered to ischemic flaps just before reperfusion and evaluated ..
  4. Murphy K, Fitzpatrick S, Cruz Rivera M, Miller C, Parasuraman B. Effects of budesonide inhalation suspension compared with cromolyn sodium nebulizer solution on health status and caregiver quality of life in childhood asthma. Pediatrics. 2003;112:e212-9 pubmed
    ..5 mg (total daily dose) once or twice daily (n = 168) or cromolyn sodium nebulizer solution 20 mg 4 times daily (n = 167) for 8 weeks, with dosage adjustment thereafter at the ..
  5. Banasová A, Maxová H, Hampl V, Vizek M, Povysilova V, Novotna J, et al. Prevention of mast cell degranulation by disodium cromoglycate attenuates the development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in rats exposed to chronic hypoxia. Respiration. 2008;76:102-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Mast cell degranulation plays a role in the initiation of hypoxic pulmonary vascular remodeling. ..
  6. Abd Elbary A, El Laithy H, Tadros M. Sucrose stearate-based proniosome-derived niosomes for the nebulisable delivery of cromolyn sodium. Int J Pharm. 2008;357:189-98 pubmed publisher
    ..niosomes, using sucrose stearates as non-ionic biocompatible surfactants for the nebulisable delivery of cromolyn sodium. Conventional niosomes were prepared by a reverse phase evaporation method followed by the preparation of ..
  7. Hei Z, Gan X, Huang P, Wei J, Shen N, Gao W. Influence of Ketotifen, Cromolyn Sodium, and Compound 48/80 on the survival rates after intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats. BMC Gastroenterol. 2008;8:42 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Mast cell inhibition after ischemia prior to reperfusion and following reperfusion may decrease the multi-organ injury induced by intestine ischemia reperfusion, and increase the survival rates. ..
  8. Hu Y, Liu Y, Pi Z, Qu S. Interaction of cromolyn sodium with human serum albumin: a fluorescence quenching study. Bioorg Med Chem. 2005;13:6609-14 pubmed
    The interaction between cromolyn sodium (CS) and human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated using tryptophan fluorescence quenching...
  9. Yazid S, Solito E, Christian H, McArthur S, Goulding N, Flower R. Cromoglycate drugs suppress eicosanoid generation in U937 cells by promoting the release of Anx-A1. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009;77:1814-26 pubmed publisher
    ..1.3.16), which probably forms part of a control loop to limit Anx-A1 release. These experiments provide a basis for a novel mechanism of action for the cromolyns, a group of drugs that have long puzzled investigators. ..

More Information

Publications77

  1. Maxová H, Vasilková M, Novotna J, Vajnerova O, Bansová A, Vizek M, et al. Prevention of mast cell degranulation by disodium cromoglycate delayed the regression of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in rats. Respiration. 2010;80:335-9 pubmed publisher
    ..PAP and right ventricle hypertrophy were normalized after 14 days of return to normoxia. Mast cell degranulation plays a role in the regression of pulmonary hypertension during the early phase of recovery from chronic hypoxia. ..
  2. Shin H, Kim J, An N, Park R, Kim H. Effect of disodium cromoglycate on mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reactions. Life Sci. 2004;74:2877-87 pubmed
    ..In addition, DSCG showed a significant inhibitory effect on anti-dinitrophenyl IgE-mediated tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. These results indicate that DSCG inhibits mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reaction. ..
  3. Jenkins L, Brea J, Smith N, Hudson B, Reilly G, Bryant N, et al. Identification of novel species-selective agonists of the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR35 that promote recruitment of ?-arrestin-2 and activate G?13. Biochem J. 2010;432:451-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The ligands identified in these studies will be useful in interrogating the biological actions of GPR35, but appreciation of the species selectivity of ligands at this receptor will be vital to correctly attribute function. ..
  4. Stainer R, Matthews S, Arshad S, McDonald S, Robinson J, Schapira C, et al. Efficacy and acceptability of a new topical skin lotion of sodium cromoglicate (Altoderm) in atopic dermatitis in children aged 2-12 years: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Br J Dermatol. 2005;152:334-41 pubmed
    ..None was reported as severe or very severe. These results show a clinically useful benefit of this sodium cromoglicate lotion in children with moderately severe AD. ..
  5. Smith F, Clark J, Overman B, Tozel C, Huang J, Rivier J, et al. Early weaning stress impairs development of mucosal barrier function in the porcine intestine. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;298:G352-63 pubmed publisher
  6. Shishibori T, Oyama Y, Matsushita O, Yamashita K, Furuichi H, Okabe A, et al. Three distinct anti-allergic drugs, amlexanox, cromolyn and tranilast, bind to S100A12 and S100A13 of the S100 protein family. Biochem J. 1999;338 ( Pt 3):583-9 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these findings, we speculate that the three anti-allergic drugs might inhibit degranulation by binding with S100A12 and S100A13. ..
  7. Eleno N, Gajate E, Macias J, Garay R. Enhancement by reproterol of the ability of disodium cromoglycate to stabilize rat mastocytes. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 1999;12:55-60 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, reproterol enhances the ability of disodium cromoglycate to stabilize rat mast cells. This effect is not shared by salbutamol and can be, at least in part, independent of beta2-adrenoceptor stimulation. ..
  8. Hu Y, Liu Y, Sun T, Bai A, Lu J, Pi Z. Binding of anti-inflammatory drug cromolyn sodium to bovine serum albumin. Int J Biol Macromol. 2006;39:280-5 pubmed
    ..CD) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy were employed to investigate the binding of anti-inflammatory drug cromolyn sodium (Intal) to bovine serum albumin (BSA) under the physiological conditions with Intal concentrations of 0-6...
  9. Patkai J, Mesples B, Dommergues M, Fromont G, Thornton E, Renauld J, et al. Deleterious effects of IL-9-activated mast cells and neuroprotection by antihistamine drugs in the developing mouse brain. Pediatr Res. 2001;50:222-30 pubmed
    ..Neuroprotective strategies targeting mast cells may be useful in some neonates at risk for cerebral palsy. ..
  10. Ratner P, Ehrlich P, Fineman S, Meltzer E, Skoner D. Use of intranasal cromolyn sodium for allergic rhinitis. Mayo Clin Proc. 2002;77:350-4 pubmed
    ..Controlled studies of intranasal cromolyn sodium therapy for patients with seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis are reviewed, and appropriate candidates ..
  11. Gilani K, Najafabadi A, Barghi M, Rafiee Tehrani M. The effect of water to ethanol feed ratio on physical properties and aerosolization behavior of spray dried cromolyn sodium particles. J Pharm Sci. 2005;94:1048-59 pubmed
    b>Cromolyn sodium (CS) was spray dried under constant operation conditions from different water to ethanol feed ratios (50:50-0:100)...
  12. Ahmed T, Kim C, Danta I. Inhibition of antigen-induced bronchoconstriction by a new calcium antagonist, gallopamil: comparison with cromolyn sodium. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1988;81:852-8 pubmed
    ..effect of a new calcium antagonist, gallopamil, on allergic bronchial reactivity and compared it to that of cromolyn sodium. Nine asymptomatic subjects with ragweed hypersensitivity and a history of bronchial asthma were studied on 4 ..
  13. Santone D, Shahani R, Rubin B, Romaschin A, Lindsay T. Mast cell stabilization improves cardiac contractile function following hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;294:H2456-64 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Degranulation was inhibited when assessed by histochemistry and immune fluorescence. The inhibition of MC degranulation can significantly improve cardiac function following HS/R. ..
  14. Vieira Dos Santos R, Magerl M, Martus P, Zuberbier T, Church M, Escribano L, et al. Topical sodium cromoglicate relieves allergen- and histamine-induced dermal pruritus. Br J Dermatol. 2010;162:674-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that topical SCG treatment, delivered in an appropriate vehicle, may be beneficial for symptomatic relief of pruritus in patients with cutaneous mastocytosis and other pruritic dermatoses. ..
  15. Hei Z, Gan X, Huang H, Luo G, Li S, Cai J. Protective effects of cromolyn sodium on intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion-triggered lung injury in rats. Br J Anaesth. 2007;98:407-8 pubmed
  16. Manchanda R, Jaggi A, Singh N. Ameliorative potential of sodium cromoglycate and diethyldithiocarbamic acid in restraint stress-induced behavioral alterations in rats. Pharmacol Rep. 2011;63:54-63 pubmed
    ..The noted beneficial effects of sodium cromoglycate and diethyldithiocarbamic acid may possibly be attributed to mast cell stabilization and inhibition of NF-?B activity, respectively. ..
  17. Rosner M. Cromolyn sodium: a potential therapy for uremic pruritus?. Hemodial Int. 2006;10:189-92 pubmed
    ..pruritus severity as assessed by a visual analog scale when they were treated with the mast cell stabilizer cromolyn sodium. Cessation of cromolyn resulted in return of pruritus, which improved with rechallenge with the medication...
  18. Huang P, Liu D, Gan X, Zhang R, Gao W, Xia Z, et al. Mast cells activation contribute to small intestinal ischemia reperfusion induced acute lung injury in rats. Injury. 2012;43:1250-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Mast cell activation plays an important role in IIR injury. It is unknown whether IIR mediates lung injury via mast cell activation...
  19. Theoharides T, Wang L, Pang X, Letourneau R, Culm K, Basu S, et al. Cloning and cellular localization of the rat mast cell 78-kDa protein phosphorylated in response to the mast cell "stabilizer" cromolyn. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000;294:810-21 pubmed
    ..It is hypothesized that conformational changes of moesin, regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, may lead to positional rearrangements with respect to the membrane/cytoskeleton that could possibly regulate mast cell secretion. ..
  20. Yazid S, Leoni G, Getting S, Cooper D, Solito E, Perretti M, et al. Antiallergic cromones inhibit neutrophil recruitment onto vascular endothelium via annexin-A1 mobilization. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:1718-24 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a novel mechanism to explain the antiinflammatory actions of cromones on PMN trafficking, an effect that has long puzzled investigators. ..
  21. Bot I, de Jager S, Zernecke A, Lindstedt K, Van Berkel T, Weber C, et al. Perivascular mast cells promote atherogenesis and induce plaque destabilization in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Circulation. 2007;115:2516-25 pubmed
    ..We propose that mast cell stabilization could be a new therapeutic approach to the prevention of acute coronary syndromes. ..
  22. Yang Y, Lu J, Wu X, Summer S, Whoriskey J, Saris C, et al. G-protein-coupled receptor 35 is a target of the asthma drugs cromolyn disodium and nedocromil sodium. Pharmacology. 2010;86:1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that GPR35 may play an important role in mast cell biology and be a potential target for the treatment of asthma. ..
  23. Tariq M, Moutaery M, Elfaki I, Arshaduddin M, Khan H. Protective effects of nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate on gastroduodenal ulcers: a comparative study in rats. Inflammopharmacology. 2006;14:163-9 pubmed
    ..The differential effects of NDS and SCG against various gastric lesions rationalize the possible benefits of a combined therapy (NDS+SCG) for the treatment of complex gastroduodenal ulcers. ..
  24. Miyatake A, Fujita M, Nagasaka Y, Fujita K, Tamari M, Watanabe D, et al. The new role of disodium cromoglycate in the treatment of adults with bronchial asthma. Allergol Int. 2007;56:231-9 pubmed
    ..DSCG inhalation therapy is a useful additional treatment following ICS to alleviate asthma symptoms, and to prevent colds in adult patients with asthma. ..
  25. Leflein J, Szefler S, Murphy K, Fitzpatrick S, Cruz Rivera M, Miller C, et al. Nebulized budesonide inhalation suspension compared with cromolyn sodium nebulizer solution for asthma in young children: results of a randomized outcomes trial. Pediatrics. 2002;109:866-72 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to compare effects of nebulized budesonide inhalation suspension and cromolyn sodium nebulizer solution on asthma-related health outcomes in young children with asthma...
  26. Theoharides T, Patra P, Boucher W, Letourneau R, Kempuraj D, Chiang G, et al. Chondroitin sulphate inhibits connective tissue mast cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2000;131:1039-49 pubmed
    ..5. Chondroitin sulphate appears to be a potent mast cell inhibitor of allergic and nonimmune stimulation with potential clinical implications. ..
  27. Thomson D, Evans D. Inhibition of immediate hypersensitivity reactions by disodium cromoglycate. Clin Exp Immunol. 1973;13:537-44 pubmed
  28. Singh A, Singh M, Balakumar P. Effect of mast cell stabilizers in hyperhomocysteinemia-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2008;51:596-604 pubmed publisher
    ..Sodium cromoglycate and ketotifen may have attenuated hyperhomocysteinemia-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy, possibly by reducing oxidative stress and preventing the degranulation and increase in density of mast cells. ..
  29. Hemmati A, Nazari Z, Motlagh M, Goldasteh S. The role of sodium cromolyn in treatment of paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rat. Pharmacol Res. 2002;46:229-34 pubmed
    ..05). Results of this study indicate that sodium cromolyn can decrease the fibrogenic effect of paraquat on lung. Such effect may be due to the stabilising of mast cells and inhibition of inflammatory mediators by sodium cromolyn. ..
  30. Storms W, Kaliner M. Cromolyn sodium: fitting an old friend into current asthma treatment. J Asthma. 2005;42:79-89 pubmed
    b>Cromolyn sodium (Intal) has been available in the United States to treat asthma for more than 30 years...
  31. Al Ghananeem A, Sandefer E, Doll W, Page R, Chang Y, Digenis G. Gamma scintigraphy for testing bioequivalence: a case study on two cromolyn sodium nasal spray preparations. Int J Pharm. 2008;357:70-6 pubmed publisher
    ..work was carried out to study the deposition patterns and clearance of technetium-99m (99mTc) DTPA labeled cromolyn sodium (CS) solutions when administered from two different CS nasal products using gamma scintigraphy...
  32. Rintala R, Lindahl H. Sodium cromoglycate in the management of chronic or recurrent enterocolitis in patients with Hirschsprung's disease. J Pediatr Surg. 2001;36:1032-5 pubmed
    ..Because SCG is not absorbed From the intestinal tract there are no systemic side effects. ..
  33. Nautiyal K, Ribeiro A, Pfaff D, Silver R. Brain mast cells link the immune system to anxiety-like behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:18053-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the data implicate brain mast cells in the modulation of anxiety-like behavior and provide evidence for the behavioral importance of neuroimmune links. ..
  34. Gan X, Liu D, Huang P, Gao W, Chen X, Hei Z. Mast-cell-releasing tryptase triggers acute lung injury induced by small intestinal ischemia-reperfusion by activating PAR-2 in rats. Inflammation. 2012;35:1144-53 pubmed publisher
    ..superior mesenteric artery occlusion followed by 4 h reperfusion, or IIR being respectively treated with cromolyn sodium, protamine, and compound 48/80...
  35. Hei Z, Gan X, Luo G, Li S, Cai J. Pretreatment of cromolyn sodium prior to reperfusion attenuates early reperfusion injury after the small intestine ischemia in rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:5139-46 pubmed
    To investigate the effects of Cromolyn Sodium (CS) pretreated prior to reperfusion on the activity of intestinal mucosal mast cells (IMMC) and mucous membrane of the small intestine in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury of rats...
  36. Oka T, Kalesnikoff J, Starkl P, Tsai M, Galli S. Evidence questioning cromolyn's effectiveness and selectivity as a 'mast cell stabilizer' in mice. Lab Invest. 2012;92:1472-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These results question cromolyn's effectiveness and selectivity as an inhibitor of mast cell activation and mediator release in the mouse. ..
  37. Moon H, Choi H, Lee J, Moon H, Sim S, Kim C. Quercetin inhalation inhibits the asthmatic responses by exposure to aerosolized-ovalbumin in conscious guinea-pigs. Arch Pharm Res. 2008;31:771-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Effects of quercetin (10 mg/mL, inhalation for 2 min) compared with cromolyn sodium, salbutamol, and dexamethasone inhalations, respectively. Quercetin inhalation decreased sRaw by 57.15 +/- 3...
  38. Pigatto P, Gibelli E, Fumagalli M, Bigardi A, Morelli M, Altomare G. Disodium cromoglycate versus diet in the treatment and prevention of nickel-positive pompholyx. Contact Dermatitis. 1990;22:27-31 pubmed
    ..We found that nickel uptake diminishes simultaneously with the reduction of absorption through the smaller aqueous "pores". This phenomenon was greatest after DSCG. We suggest that DSCG can help selected cases of pompholyx. ..
  39. Kolaczkowska E, Seljelid R, Plytycz B. Role of mast cells in zymosan-induced peritoneal inflammation in Balb/c and mast cell-deficient WBB6F1 mice. J Leukoc Biol. 2001;69:33-42 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, mast cells play an important role in the initiation of zymosan-induced peritonitis and modulate its further course. ..
  40. Strbian D, Tatlisumak T, Ramadan U, Lindsberg P. Mast cell blocking reduces brain edema and hematoma volume and improves outcome after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2007;27:795-802 pubmed
    ..05), and smaller hematoma growth (P<0.05) than WT. The role of MC deserves a close evaluation as a potential target in the development of novel forms of ICH therapy. ..
  41. Keles N. Treatment of allergic rhinitis during pregnancy. Am J Rhinol. 2004;18:23-8 pubmed
    ..Immunotherapy has not proven to be teratogenic and is clinically useful in improving symptoms. Oral and topical decongestants can be considered as second-line therapy, for short-term relief, when no safer alternative is available. ..
  42. Sadeghi Hashjin G, Nijkamp F, Henricks P, Folkerts G. Sodium cromoglycate and doxantrazole are oxygen radical scavengers. Eur Respir J. 2002;20:867-72 pubmed
    ..Doxantrazole is approximately 10-times more potent. Mast cell stabilisers may be effective in allergic asthma not only by preventing the allergen-induced mediator release, but also by preventing radical-induced lung damage. ..
  43. Wang J, Shi G. Mast cell stabilization: novel medication for obesity and diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2011;27:919-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations open a new era of basic research regarding mast cells, and offer hope to patients suffering from these metabolic disorders. ..
  44. Yazid S, Sinniah A, Solito E, Calder V, Flower R. Anti-allergic cromones inhibit histamine and eicosanoid release from activated human and murine mast cells by releasing Annexin A1. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58963 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings also highlight a new pathway for reducing mediator release from these cells. ..
  45. Tavano L, Nicoletta F, Picci N, Muzzalupo R. Cromolyn as surface active drug (surfadrug): Effect of the self-association on diffusion and percutaneous permeation. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2016;139:132-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Cromolyn sodium, or disodium cromoglycate (CS), is a surface active drug: a pharmacologically active compound with an amphiphilic nature. At certain conditions it is able to self-associate in several kind of supramolecular aggregates...
  46. Joh K. [Hyper-IgE syndrome]. Nihon Rinsho. 2005;63 Suppl 5:479-83 pubmed
  47. Davies G, Dasbach E, Santanello N, Knorr B, Bratton D. The effect of montelukast versus usual care on health care resource utilization in children aged 2 to 5 years with asthma. Clin Ther. 2004;26:1895-904 pubmed
  48. Keller M, Schierholz J. Have inadequate delivery systems hampered the clinical success of inhaled disodium cromoglycate? Time for reconsideration. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2011;8:1-17 pubmed publisher
    ..DSCG has extra properties and potential unspecific antiviral properties and may offer new therapeutic treatment aspects for asthma and viral-induced bronchiolitis in early childhood. ..
  49. Tasche M, Uijen J, Bernsen R, de Jongste J, van der Wouden J. Inhaled sodium cromoglycate in children with asthma. Thorax. 2002;57:751-2 pubmed
  50. Melvin T, Patel A. Pharmacotherapy for allergic rhinitis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2011;44:727-39, x pubmed publisher
    ..The efficacies of intranasal corticosteroids, antihistamines, combination topical therapy, leukotriene inhibitors, mast cell stabilizers, anticholinergics, mucolytics, decongestants, and anti-IgE are reviewed. ..
  51. Gallo L, Bucalá V, Ramírez Rigo M. Formulation and Characterization of Polysaccharide Microparticles for Pulmonary Delivery of Sodium Cromoglycate. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2017;18:1634-1645 pubmed publisher
    ..SC-CMCNa formulation arose as a promising inhalatory system to reduce the daily intakes and to increase the patient compliance. ..
  52. Samoszuk M, Corwin M. Mast cell inhibitor cromolyn increases blood clotting and hypoxia in murine breast cancer. Int J Cancer. 2003;107:159-63 pubmed
    ..We conclude that sodium cromolyn enhanced peri-tumoral blood clotting and intratumoral hypoxia. These results suggest that mast cells may play an important role in regulating blood clotting and hypoxia within breast cancer. ..
  53. Troe J, Versteegh F, Mooi Kokenberg E, Van den Broeck J. No effect of cromoglycate treatment in hospitalized infants with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2003;36:455 pubmed
  54. Trikka F, Yoshimatsu K, Ye L, Kyriakidis D. Molecularly imprinted polymers for histamine recognition in aqueous environment. Amino Acids. 2012;43:2113-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The preparation of histamine MIPs and elucidation of imprinting and recognition mechanism may serve as useful insight for future application of MIPs. ..
  55. Chaaban M, Corey J. Pharmacotherapy of rhinitis and rhinosinusitis. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2012;20:61-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, the pharmacotherapy of allergic and nonallergic rhinoconjunctivitis and rhinosinusitis is discussed with emphasis on intranasal steroids, antihistamines, and antibiotics. ..
  56. Martin S, Kolb Bachofen V, Kiesel U, Kolb H. Pathogenesis of low dose streptozotocin induced diabetes in mice: requirement for alpha 1-adrenoceptor activation and vasoactive amine release. Diabetologia. 1989;32:140-2 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that alpha 1-adrenoceptor activation is required for disease development and that vasoactive amine release is a prerequisite for lymphocytic insulitis but not for macrophage infiltration of islets. ..
  57. Fouke J, deLemos R, McFadden E. Airway response to ultra short-term exposure to ozone. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1988;137:326-30 pubmed
    ..L-1 s). On a second occasion, 6 of these animals were restudied before and after the administration of cromolyn sodium. Although this drug had no effect on the measurements of mechanics made in the control period, it ..
  58. de Lima C, Pereira M, Fonseca J. Equilibrium and kinetic aspects of sodium cromoglycate adsorption on chitosan: mass uptake and surface charging considerations. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2013;109:52-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Kinetic and equilibrium data suggested the possibility of surface rearrangement, favored by the increase of temperature. ..
  59. Donahue J, Weiss S, Livingston J, Goetsch M, Greineder D, Platt R. Inhaled steroids and the risk of hospitalization for asthma. JAMA. 1997;277:887-91 pubmed
    ..These results support the use of inhaled steroids by individuals who require more than occasional beta-agonist use to control asthma symptoms. ..
  60. Nava F, Caputi A. Central effects of cromoglycate sodium salt in rats treated with lipopolysaccharide. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999;367:351-9 pubmed
    ..c.v.) injection of cromoglycate sodium salt (100, 150 and 200 microg/rat). Our findings suggest that peripheral LPS administration may activate brain mast cells and indicate an involvement of these cells in brain pathophysiology. ..
  61. Reijonen T, Kotaniemi Syrjänen A, Korhonen K, Korppi M. Predictors of asthma three years after hospital admission for wheezing in infancy. Pediatrics. 2000;106:1406-12 pubmed
    ..Early antiinflammatory therapy was given for 16 weeks; 29 patients received cromolyn sodium and 31 received budesonide. Twenty-nine control patients received no therapy...
  62. Simon K, Shetye G, Englich U, Wu L, Luk Y. Noncovalent polymerization of mesogens crystallizes lysozyme: correlation between nonamphiphilic lyotropic liquid crystal phase and protein crystal formation. Langmuir. 2011;27:10901-6 pubmed publisher
  63. Kaditis A, Gourgoulianis K, Winnie G. Anti-inflammatory treatment for recurrent wheezing in the first five years of life. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2003;35:241-52 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, they may be especially useful for patients with moderate to severe disease in whom other agents (chromones or leukotriene pathway modifiers) will most likely fail to control symptoms. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2003; 35:241-252. ..
  64. Ziemer C. [Pediatric bronchial asthma. How reliable are the guidelines?]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2004;146:20 pubmed
  65. Nyirjesy P, Sobel J, Weitz M, Leaman D, Small M, Gelone S. Cromolyn cream for recalcitrant idiopathic vulvar vestibulitis: results of a placebo controlled study. Sex Transm Infect. 2001;77:53-7 pubmed
    ..Cromolyn cream did not confer a significant benefit in patients with vulvar vestibulitis. The large placebo response suggests the need for large well controlled studies of other treatment modalities. ..
  66. Singh R, Kumar P, Gupta P. Comparative functional characterization of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells and peritoneal mast cells in response to non-immunological stimuli. Indian J Exp Biol. 2001;39:323-8 pubmed
    ..It shows functional heterogeneity within a single species. So, it cannot be assumed that antiallergic compounds stabilizing mast cells in one tissue site or organ will be equally efficacious against mast cells in other sites. ..
  67. Heinke S, Szucs G, Norris A, Droogmans G, Nilius B. Inhibition of volume-activated chloride currents in endothelial cells by chromones. Br J Pharmacol. 1995;115:1393-8 pubmed
    ..6 It is concluded that blockade of volume-activated Cl- currents by extracellular sodium cromoglycatemay be due to an intracellular action following its permeation across the cell membrane. ..
  68. Zareie M, Fabbrini P, Hekking L, Keuning E, Ter Wee P, Beelen R, et al. Novel role for mast cells in omental tissue remodeling and cell recruitment in experimental peritoneal dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17:3447-57 pubmed
    ..Data strongly support the hypothesis that mast cells mediate PDF-induced omental tissue remodeling and, subsequently, peritoneal cell influx and adhesion formation, providing therapeutic possibilities of modulating omental function. ..