computer terminals


Summary: Input/output devices designed to receive data in an environment associated with the job to be performed, and capable of transmitting entries to, and obtaining output from, the system of which it is a part. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)

Top Publications

  1. Hellén Halme K, Nilsson M, Petersson A. Effect of monitors on approximal caries detection in digital radiographs--standard versus precalibrated DICOM part 14 displays: an in vitro study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009;107:716-20 pubmed publisher
    ..No differences that could affect clinicians' abilities to detect carious lesions in digital radiographs existed between the standard monitor and the color and monochrome DICOM part 14 precalibrated monitors. ..
  2. Brem M, Bohner C, Brenning A, Gelse K, Radkow T, Blanke M, et al. Evaluation of low-cost computer monitors for the detection of cervical spine injuries in the emergency room: an observer confidence-based study. Emerg Med J. 2006;23:850-3 pubmed
    ..78). Low-cost LCD personal computer monitors may be useful in establishing a diagnosis of cervical spine fractures in the emergency room. ..
  3. Klussmann A, Gebhardt H, Liebers F, Rieger M. Musculoskeletal symptoms of the upper extremities and the neck: a cross-sectional study on prevalence and symptom-predicting factors at visual display terminal (VDT) workstations. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2008;9:96 pubmed publisher
    ..With regard to musculoskeletal symptoms of the upper extremities, preventive measures at VDT workstations should be focused on neck and shoulder symptoms (e.g. ergonomic measures, breaks to avoid sitting over long periods). ..
  4. Aldrich J, Rutledge J. Assessment of PACS display systems. J Digit Imaging. 2005;18:287-95 pubmed
    ..None of the systems met the contrast ratio criteria in ambient light. The challenges in improving the performance and calibrating displays are discussed. ..
  5. Stock S, Fernandes R, Delisle A, Vézina N. Reproducibility and validity of workers' self-reports of physical work demands. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2005;31:409-37 pubmed
    ..Suggestions for improving the design of reproducibility and validity studies and directions for future research in physical workload measurement are proposed. ..
  6. Ye Z, Honda S, Abe Y, Kusano Y, Takamura N, Imamura Y, et al. Influence of work duration or physical symptoms on mental health among Japanese visual display terminal users. Ind Health. 2007;45:328-33 pubmed
    ..1). In conclusion, the management of physical health as well as work duration is important for good mental health status among VDT users...
  7. Nakamura S, Kinoshita S, Yokoi N, Ogawa Y, Shibuya M, Nakashima H, et al. Lacrimal hypofunction as a new mechanism of dry eye in visual display terminal users. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11119 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this issue that potentially affects the life quality, we conducted a large-scale epidemiological study of VDT users and an animal study...
  8. Rempel D, Krause N, Goldberg R, Benner D, Hudes M, Goldner G. A randomised controlled trial evaluating the effects of two workstation interventions on upper body pain and incident musculoskeletal disorders among computer operators. Occup Environ Med. 2006;63:300-6 pubmed
    ..Providing a large forearm support combined with ergonomic training is an effective intervention to prevent upper body musculoskeletal disorders and reduce upper body pain associated with computer work among call centre employees. ..
  9. McDonald L, Cramer B, Barrett B. Detection rates in pediatric diagnostic imaging: A picture archive and communication system compared with a web-based imaging system. Can Assoc Radiol J. 2006;57:30-4 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, the provision of a more extensive network of workstations throughout the hospital setting could have potentially significant cost savings. ..

More Information


  1. Lowe J, Brennan P, Evanoff M, McEntee M. Variations in performance of LCDs are still evident after DICOM gray-scale standard display calibration. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010;195:181-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The amount of variation in performance that was still evident after calibration is of concern. ..
  2. Kojima T, Ibrahim O, Wakamatsu T, Tsuyama A, Ogawa J, Matsumoto Y, et al. The impact of contact lens wear and visual display terminal work on ocular surface and tear functions in office workers. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011;152:933-940.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the effect of contact lens (CL) wear and visual display terminal (VDT) work on the ocular surface and tear functions...
  3. Ye Z, Abe Y, Kusano Y, Takamura N, Eida K, Takemoto T, et al. The influence of visual display terminal use on the physical and mental conditions of administrative staff in Japan. J Physiol Anthropol. 2007;26:69-73 pubmed
    ..In order to protect users from the adverse effects associated with VDT work, reducing daily VDT exposure, taking breaks, and rest during VDT work are important...
  4. Geijer H, Geijer M, Forsberg L, Kheddache S, Sund P. Comparison of color LCD and medical-grade monochrome LCD displays in diagnostic radiology. J Digit Imaging. 2007;20:114-21 pubmed
    ..The VGA scores were -0.28 for the color and -0.25 for the monochrome display (p = 0.24; NS). It thus seems possible to use color displays in diagnostic radiology provided that grayscale adjustment is used. ..
  5. Kubo T, Mizoue T, Ide R, Tokui N, Fujino Y, Minh P, et al. Visual display terminal work and sick building syndrome--the role of psychosocial distress in the relationship. J Occup Health. 2006;48:107-12 pubmed
    ..1). In conclusion, our study suggests that extended hours of VDT use might be related to increased SBS symptoms. Moreover, psychosocial distress related to VDT work might mediate the relationship between VDT use and SBS symptoms in women...
  6. Eltayeb S, Staal J, Hassan A, de Bie R. Work related risk factors for neck, shoulder and arms complaints: a cohort study among Dutch computer office workers. J Occup Rehabil. 2009;19:315-22 pubmed publisher
    ..1 (3.5-14.1) P = 0.06]. This longitudinal study suggests that risk factors of upper musculoskeletal complaints in computer workers consist of a mixture of physical and psychosocial characteristics. ..
  7. Brettle D. Display considerations for hospital-wide viewing of soft copy images. Br J Radiol. 2007;80:503-7 pubmed
    ..This paper considers the current situation and presents potential hospital-wide solutions for the outstanding issues. ..
  8. Uchino M, Schaumberg D, Dogru M, Uchino Y, Fukagawa K, Shimmura S, et al. Prevalence of dry eye disease among Japanese visual display terminal users. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:1982-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. ..
  9. Karlqvist L, Bernmark E, Ekenvall L, Hagberg M, Isaksson A, Rostö T. Computer mouse position as a determinant of posture, muscular load and perceived exertion. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1998;24:62-73 pubmed
    ..Short and narrow-shouldered operators worked in more strenuous postures of the arm when the mouse was located lateral to the keyboard. ..
  10. Blehm C, Vishnu S, Khattak A, Mitra S, Yee R. Computer vision syndrome: a review. Surv Ophthalmol. 2005;50:253-62 pubmed
    ..More work needs to be done to specifically define the processes that cause computer vision syndrome and to develop and improve effective treatments that successfully address these causes...
  11. Wahlstrom J, Hagberg M, Toomingas A, Wigaeus Tornqvist E. Perceived muscular tension, job strain, physical exposure, and associations with neck pain among VDU users; a prospective cohort study. Occup Environ Med. 2004;61:523-8 pubmed
    ..There was an indication of an excess risk due to interaction between high physical exposure and high job strain. ..
  12. Lindegård A, Wahlstrom J, Hagberg M, Hansson G, Jonsson P, Wigaeus Tornqvist E. The impact of working technique on physical loads - an exposure profile among newspaper editors. Ergonomics. 2003;46:598-615 pubmed
    ..Moreover women used more force (mean force and peak force) than men when operating the click button (left button) of the computer mouse. ..
  13. Man G, Olapoju M, Chadwick M, Vuddamalay P, Hall A, Edwards A, et al. Bacterial contamination of ward-based computer terminals. J Hosp Infect. 2002;52:314-5 pubmed
  14. Nakazawa T, Okubo Y, Suwazono Y, Kobayashi E, Komine S, Kato N, et al. Association between duration of daily VDT use and subjective symptoms. Am J Ind Med. 2002;42:421-6 pubmed
    ..Although visual display terminal (VDT) work has become a common task among office workers, surveys which would help to determine the allowable duration of daily VDT use are limited...
  15. Mocci F, Serra A, Corrias G. Psychological factors and visual fatigue in working with video display terminals. Occup Environ Med. 2001;58:267-71 pubmed
    ..To examine the part played by psychological factors in complaints about visual health reported by banking officers who work at video display terminals (VDTs)...
  16. Juul Kristensen B, Jensen C. Self-reported workplace related ergonomic conditions as prognostic factors for musculoskeletal symptoms: the "BIT" follow up study on office workers. Occup Environ Med. 2005;62:188-94 pubmed
    ..To identify prognostic ergonomic and work technique factors for musculoskeletal symptoms among office workers and in a subgroup with highly monotonous repetitive computer work...
  17. Lassen C, Mikkelsen S, Kryger A, Brandt L, Overgaard E, Thomsen J, et al. Elbow and wrist/hand symptoms among 6,943 computer operators: a 1-year follow-up study (the NUDATA study). Am J Ind Med. 2004;46:521-33 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to examine relations between computer work aspects and elbow and wrist/hand pain conditions and disorders...
  18. Wade C, Brennan P. Assessment of monitor conditions for the display of radiological diagnostic images and ambient lighting. Br J Radiol. 2004;77:465-71 pubmed
  19. Wang J, Compton K, Peng Q. Proposal of a quality-index or metric for soft copy display systems: contrast sensitivity study. J Digit Imaging. 2003;16:185-202 pubmed
    ..Based on this correlation, it is proposed to use the gradient of luminance response curve as a quality-index or metric for SD devices. ..
  20. Ortiz Hernández L, Támez González S, Martínez Alcántara S, Mendez Ramirez I. Computer use increases the risk of musculoskeletal disorders among newspaper office workers. Arch Med Res. 2003;34:331-42 pubmed
    ..Such an increase is mediated by ergonomic factors such as mouse use, remaining seated for prolonged periods, adoption of inadequate or uncomfortable postures, performing certain PC tasks, and psychosocial factors. ..
  21. Wahlström J, Lindegård A, Ahlborg G, Ekman A, Hagberg M. Perceived muscular tension, emotional stress, psychological demands and physical load during VDU work. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2003;76:584-90 pubmed
    ..5 (95% CI 0.9-23.2). Perceived muscular tension and emotional stress were associated with physical load, in terms of muscle activity in the trapezius muscles, during VDU work in ordinary occupational settings. ..
  22. Kilpatrick E, Holding S. Use of computer terminals on wards to access emergency test results: a retrospective audit. BMJ. 2001;322:1101-3 pubmed
    ..When used as the sole substitute for telephoning results, the provision of terminal access to laboratory results on wards can hinder rather than promote the communication of emergency blood results to healthcare staff. ..
  23. Nielsen N, Schneider T. Particle deposition onto a human head: influence of electrostatic and wind fields. Bioelectromagnetics. 1998;19:246-58 pubmed
    ..6 to 15.0 kV, indicates that the presence of electrostatic fields always increases particle deposition for industrial aerosols. For aged aerosols an effect is only present for submicron particles. ..
  24. Devine J, Cooke R, Wright E. Is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) contamination of ward-based computer terminals a surrogate marker for nosocomial MRSA transmission and handwashing compliance?. J Hosp Infect. 2001;48:72-5 pubmed investigate the extent of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) contamination of ward-based computer terminals. Of 25 terminals examined, MRSA was identified in six (24%). Environmental contamination was of a low level...
  25. Miyake Kashima M, Dogru M, Nojima T, Murase M, Matsumoto Y, Tsubota K. The effect of antireflection film use on blink rate and asthenopic symptoms during visual display terminal work. Cornea. 2005;24:567-70 pubmed
    ..The use of AR films on computer displays may prevent both reflections of light from screen surfaces and reduction in blink rates resulting in fewer asthenopic symptoms. ..
  26. Wahlström J. Ergonomics, musculoskeletal disorders and computer work. Occup Med (Lond). 2005;55:168-76 pubmed
    ..Interventions should be carried out with management support and active involvement of the individual workers. ..
  27. Izquierdo J, García M, Buxó C, Izquierdo N. Factors leading to the Computer Vision Syndrome: an issue at the contemporary workplace. Bol Asoc Med P R. 2004;96:103-10 pubmed
    ..Vision and eye related problems are common among computer users, and have been collectively called the Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS)...
  28. Badano A, Flynn M, Martin S, Kanicki J. Angular dependence of the luminance and contrast in medical monochrome liquid crystal displays. Med Phys. 2003;30:2602-13 pubmed
    ..The changes due to off-normal viewing are substantial at large angles in the horizontal and vertical directions, and much worse in the diagonal viewing directions. ..
  29. Haak R, Wicht M, Hellmich M, Nowak G, Noack M. Influence of room lighting on grey-scale perception with a CRT-and a TFT monitor display. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2002;31:193-7 pubmed
    ..36). Background lighting hampers grey-scale perception on computer displays. In this study of one TFT and one CRT monitor, the TFT in full ambient lighting was associated with earlier detection of grey scale differences than CRT. ..
  30. Támez González S, Ortiz Hernández L, Martínez Alcántara S, Mendez Ramirez I. [Risks and health problems caused by the use of video terminals]. Salud Publica Mex. 2003;45:171-80 pubmed
    ..The diversification of tasks and control of labor processes itself had a protective effect against psychosomatic disorders and pathological fatigue. ..
  31. Korhonen T, Ketola R, Toivonen R, Luukkonen R, Häkkänen M, Viikari Juntura E. Work related and individual predictors for incident neck pain among office employees working with video display units. Occup Environ Med. 2003;60:475-82 pubmed
    ..Physical exercise may prevent neck disorders among sedentary employees. ..
  32. Mochizuki Y. [Evaluation study of abnormal detectability with Thurstone and Scheffé (Nakaya) of paired comparison method using chest phantom]. Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi. 2014;70:66-72 pubmed
    ..Changes in the order of the scale values may not occur in the intervals in which significant differences were noted using Scheffé's methods. ..
  33. STEIN J, Navab B, Frazee B, Tebb K, Hendey G, Maselli J, et al. A randomized trial of computer kiosk-expedited management of cystitis in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2011;18:1053-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Expanding the use of this technology to other conditions could help to improve ED patient flow. ..
  34. De A, Dhar U, Virkar T, Altekar C, Mishra W, Parmar V, et al. A study of subjective visual disturbances in jewellery manufacturing. Work. 2012;41 Suppl 1:3404-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings suggest that work exposure has an impact on the causation of subjective visual disturbances. No pathological conditions of the eyes were observed. ..
  35. Zunjic A, Ristić L, Milanovic D. Effects of screen filter on visibility of alphanumeric presentation on CRT and LCD monitors. Work. 2012;41 Suppl 1:3553-9 pubmed publisher
  36. Uchino M, Uchino Y, Dogru M, Kawashima M, Yokoi N, Komuro A, et al. Dry eye disease and work productivity loss in visual display users: the Osaka study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014;157:294-300 pubmed publisher
    ..This study indicated that there is a significant impact of DED on the total productivity of Japanese VDT users. ..
  37. Chen M, Zhang F, Zhu J. Lead recovery and the feasibility of foam glass production from funnel glass of dismantled cathode ray tube through pyrovacuum process. J Hazard Mater. 2009;161:1109-13 pubmed publisher
    ..3%. The residue porous glass was environmentally acceptable for construction application. ..
  38. Liang H, Park S, Gallas B, Myers K, Badano A. Image browsing in slow medical liquid crystal displays. Acad Radiol. 2008;15:370-82 pubmed publisher
  39. Kesavachandran C, Rastogi S, Das M, Khan A. Working conditions and health among employees at information technology--enabled services: a review of current evidence. Indian J Med Sci. 2006;60:300-7 pubmed
    ..The available literature and the pilot study, both suggest health disorders and psychosocial problems among workers of business process outsourcing. The details are discussed in the review. ..
  40. Wong A, Leung D, Lam D. Accommodation affected by warming?. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:1249-50; author reply 1250-1 pubmed
  41. Gowrisankaran S, Sheedy J. Computer vision syndrome: A review. Work. 2015;52:303-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research is required to better understand the physiological mechanisms underlying CVS and symptoms associated with the use of hand-held and stereoscopic displays. ..
  42. Salazar A, Aguirre D, Ocampo J, Camacho J, Díaz X. DICOM gray-scale standard display function: clinical diagnostic accuracy of chest radiography in medical-grade gray-scale and consumer-grade color displays. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2014;202:1272-80 pubmed publisher
    ..For the chest conditions and selected observers included in this study, no significant differences were observed between the three evaluated displays with respect to accuracy performance with and without calibration. ..
  43. Patterson J, Carter M, Sanli E. Decreasing the proportion of self-control trials during the acquisition period does not compromise the learning advantages in a self-controlled context. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2011;82:624-33 pubmed
    ..These results extend previous research by suggesting that decreasing the proportion of self-control trials does not compromise learning in a self-controlled context. ..
  44. Brown P, Guerlain S, Gordon P, Bauer D. Variations in faculty assessment of NICU flowsheet data: implications for electronic data display. Int J Med Inform. 2011;80:529-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies designed to articulate how physicians decide to direct their attention when presented with flowsheet data may shed light on how this data is utilized and might be optimally presented. ..
  45. Wu S, Yang C, Ho C, Jane D. VDT screen height and inclination effects on visual and musculoskeletal discomfort for Chinese wheelchair users with spinal cord injuries. Ind Health. 2009;47:89-93 pubmed
    ..On average, the optimal screen height choice for wheelchair users was at eye-level height or 5 cm below eye level with a vertical screen inclination...
  46. Baker N, Cook J, Redfern M. Rater reliability and concurrent validity of the Keyboard Personal Computer Style instrument (K-PeCS). Appl Ergon. 2009;40:136-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that most items on the K-PeCS can be used to reliably document computer keyboarding style. ..
  47. Thomas J, Chakrabarti K, Kaczmarek R, Maslennikov A, Mitchell C, Romanyukha A. Optimization of reading conditions for flat panel displays. J Digit Imaging. 2006;19:181-7 pubmed
    ..It also addresses the possible loss of contrast in medical images on flat panel displays because of the effect of nonlinearity in the dependence of luminance on room illuminance at low room lighting. ..
  48. Lee C, Lee C, Lee Y, Kim C. Power-constrained contrast enhancement for emissive displays based on histogram equalization. IEEE Trans Image Process. 2012;21:80-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can reduce power consumption significantly while improving image contrast and perceptual quality. ..
  49. Tomei G, Ciarrocca M, De Sio S, Suppi A, Sinibaldi F, Di Pastena C, et al. [Stress and information-communication technologies: from videoterminal to web]. Clin Ter. 2012;163:e201-17 pubmed
    ..Nielsen's Heuristics are a great tool to value methods of informatical and media interfaces. ..
  50. Baker N, Livengood H, Jacobs K. Reliability and concurrent validity of the computer workstation checklist. Work. 2013;45:213-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The evidence suggests that while the CWC may not be valid when used alone, it may be a suitable adjunct to an ergonomic assessment completed by professionals. ..
  51. Baker J, Coffin C. The importance of an ergonomic workstation to practicing sonographers. J Ultrasound Med. 2013;32:1363-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Even with the most advanced equipment, an ergonomic workstation is only as effective as the person using it. ..
  52. Bernmark E, Forsman M, Wiktorin C. Head movements during two computer work tasks assessed by accelerometry. Appl Ergon. 2011;42:309-13 pubmed publisher
    ..For acceleration alone, a uniaxial accelerometer can also be used. ..
  53. Ugbolue U, Nicol A. A comparison of two interventions designed to promote neutral wrist postures during simple computer operations. Work. 2010;37:413-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Productivity levels were similar across participants with respect to experiment task and type. The WAD intervention is the most suitable device to promote a comfortable and non-restrictive neutral wrist posture. ..