thymus extracts


Summary: Extracts of the THYMUS GLAND that contain specific factors, peptides, and proteins with specific biological activities.

Top Publications

  1. Venediktova M. [Use of tactivin and imunofan for the treatment of patients with endometrial carcinoma]. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2001;64:46-9 pubmed
    ..Immunofan somewhat exceeds tactivin in the efficacy of endometrium adenocarcinoma treatment. ..
  2. Shanker A, Singh S. Immunopotentiation in mice bearing a spontaneous transplantable T-cell lymphoma: role of thymic extract. Neoplasma. 2003;50:272-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the results support the immunomodulatory function of the adult thymus and utilization of thymus derived factors as a potential immunotherapeutic agent for reversing tumor growth-associated immunosuppression. ..
  3. Sapin M, Tkachuk M. Thymus recovery after intensive physical exercise under conditions of immunocorrection and without it. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2005;140:568-70 pubmed
    ..Four weeks after the end of training (swimming) the general structure of the thymus and content of LPO products in rats treated with tocopherol corresponded to the control values, in contrast to animals receiving no correction. ..
  4. Tortorella C, Ottolenghi A, Moretti A, Jirillo E, Antonaci S. Thymostimulin administration modulates polymorph metabolic pathway in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1992;14:421-37 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, COPD subjects exhibited a significant improvement of their clinical status as assessed during a one-year followup. All together, these findings suggest a potential role for thymostimulin in the treatment of COPD patients. ..
  5. Dollinger M, Behrens C, Lesske J, Behl S, Behrmann C, Fleig W. Thymostimulin in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a phase II trial. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:72 pubmed publisher
    ..Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN29319366. ..
  6. Ghoneum M, Seto Y, Sato S, Ghoneum A, Braga M, Gollapudi S. Gross thymic extract, Thymax, induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells in vitro through the mitochondrial pathway. Anticancer Res. 2008;28:1603-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Thymax exerts its effects via the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis and may represent a new class of adjuvants for the treatment of breast cancer. ..
  7. Sobczyk W, Kulczycki J, Piłkowska E, Iwinska B, Milewska D, Szmigielski S. [Comparison of the results of the treatment of patients with SSPE using various immunomodulating preparations]. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 1991;25:626-33 pubmed
    ..The final evaluation of the results requires further observations of these patients...
  8. Huang H, Cai Q, Shi Y, Lin X, Wei J, Guo Y, et al. [Preliminary assessment of immune reconstitution after autologous peripheral hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT)]. Ai Zheng. 2006;25:1023-8 pubmed
    ..However more information is required to make prognostic assessments of immune reconstruction and the long-term survival rate. ..
  9. Viticchi C, Moresi R, Piantanelli L. Modulation of mouse brain cortex adrenoceptor in old mice by supplementation of zinc and thymomodulin. Gerontology. 1999;45:265-8 pubmed
    ..This differential action could be due to their differential physiological role. ..

More Information


  1. Periti P, Tonelli F, Mazzei T, Ficari F. Antimicrobial chemoimmunoprophylaxis in colorectal surgery with cefotetan and thymostimulin: prospective, controlled multicenter study. Italian Study Group on Antimicrobial Prophylaxis in Abdominal Surgery. J Chemother. 1993;5:37-42 pubmed
    ..Stratifying patients on the basis of grade of skin test reaction, we observed a significantly lower percentage of surgical site infection in hypoergic patients receiving chemo- and immunoprophylaxis. ..
  2. Kiseleva N, Novoseletskaya A, Voevodina Y, Kozlov I, Inozemtsev A. Quantitative evaluation of learning and memory trace in studies of mnemotropic effects of immunotropic drugs. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2012;154:233-6 pubmed
    ..Experiments on Wistar rats have shown that these drugs accelerated conditioning of food and defense responses. New methods for quantitative evaluation of memory trace consolidation are proposed. ..
  3. Nowell C, Farley A, Blackburn C. Thymus organogenesis and development of the thymic stroma. Methods Mol Biol. 2007;380:125-62 pubmed
    ..Here, we describe the structural and phenotypic attributes of the thymic stroma, and review current cellular and molecular understanding of thymus organogenesis. ..
  4. Spangenberg H, Zuber Jerger I, Thimme R, Blum H, Von Weizsacker F. [Systemic treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma]. Zentralbl Chir. 2003;128:906-10 pubmed
    ..Efficient strategies for the primary prevention of HCC are available and promising concepts in the secondary prevention have been reported. ..
  5. Petkova I, Koparanova O, Kemileva Z, Milanov S. Pharmacokinetic investigation with 125I labeled T-actemodulin (TAM). Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg. 1993;19:61-5 pubmed
    ..A specific uptake of labeled TAM in these organs can be suggested. Functional interrelations between thymus and pancreas, spleen, adrenals are discussed. ..
  6. Nikolsky I, Seleznyova T, Zamotayeva G, Martynenko S, Grinevich YuA -. Production of substances with thymosin-like activity by B- and T-lymphocytes. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol. 1990;34:309-14 pubmed
    ..Thus, the biologically active thymic factors were shown to induce the synthesis by T-cells of substances with thymosin-like activity. ..
  7. Mazzone A, Aita M, Gabrielli F, Moriconi E, De Orsi D. Identification of cells secreting a thymostimulin-like substance and examination of some histoenzymatic pathways in aging avian primary lymphatic organs: II. Bursa of Fabricius. Eur J Histochem. 2003;47:325-38 pubmed
    ..In the few still normal follicles, the good reactivity to the enzymes tested suggests that residual physiological activity is still present, even if reduced. ..
  8. Engel Pietrzak K. [Effect of TFX preparation on the course of pregnancy in rabbits with experimental antiphospholipid syndrome]. Ann Acad Med Stetin. 2001;47:163-76 pubmed
    ..The beneficial effect of TFX on APTT and platelet count was revealed, such that these parameters remained within the normal range despite immunization. Morphological changes observed in the placenta were not specific. ..
  9. Putt K, Hergenrother P. A nonradiometric, high-throughput assay for poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG): application to inhibitor identification and evaluation. Anal Biochem. 2004;333:256-64 pubmed
    ..Thus, this high-throughput, nonradioactive PARG assay should find widespread use in experiments directed toward identification of novel PARG inhibitors. ..
  10. Sheĭko V, Makarenko M, Ivaniura I. [State of the higher nervous activity and the immune system after vilozen adminstration]. Fiziol Zh. 2007;53:65-9 pubmed
    ..Positive correlations between the functional mobility and quantity of the monocytes (r=0,7) and T- supressors (r=0,6) quantity in the perypheral blood were established. ..
  11. Carcó F, Guazzotti G. [Therapeutic use of thymostimulin in HIV-seropositive subjects and with lymphadenopathy syndrome]. Recenti Prog Med. 1993;84:756-64 pubmed
  12. Lahousen M. [Modification of liver parameters by adjuvant administration of proteolytic enzymes following chemotherapy in patients with ovarian carcinoma]. Wien Med Wochenschr. 1995;145:663-8 pubmed
  13. Cavagni G, Piscopo E, Rigoli E, Iuliano P, Bertolini P, Cazzola P. "Food allergy in children: an attempt to improve the effects of the elimination diet with an immunomodulating agent (thymomodulin). A double-blind clinical trial". Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1989;11:131-42 pubmed
    ..01). Before the beginning of the trial laboratory assessments evidenced an increase in total and specific IgE serum levels, which decreased by the end of the study only in the group receiving the thymic derivative (p less than 0.05). ..
  14. Chisesi T, Capnist G, Rancan L, Pellizzari G, Vespignani M. The effect of thymic substances on T circulating cells of patients treated for Hodgkin's disease. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 1988;2:193-8 pubmed
    ..8%).(abstract truncated at 250 words) ..
  15. Martin T, Uhder K, Kurek R, Roeddiger S, Schneider L, Vogt H, et al. Does prophylactic treatment with proteolytic enzymes reduce acute toxicity of adjuvant pelvic irradiation? Results of a double-blind randomized trial. Radiother Oncol. 2002;65:17-22 pubmed
    ..Does prophylactic treatment with proteolytic enzymes reduce acute toxicity of adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy?..
  16. Braga P, Piatti G, Dal Sasso M, Maci S, Blasi F. Thymomodulin stimulates phagocytosis in vitro by rat macrophages and human polymorphonuclear cells. J Chemother. 1993;5:313-6 pubmed
  17. Jakubowska T, Luczywek E, Sobczyk W, Piłkowska E. [Changes of cognitive and emotional processes during immunostimulatory treatment in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis]. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 1993;27:45-53 pubmed
    ..This was particularly evident in the visuospatial orientation. Prolongation of survival time in SSPE owing to specific treatment increases the need for psychoreactive and therapeutic influences for stimulation of cognitive processes...
  18. Ghoneum M, Tolentino L, Seto Y. Phenotypic correction of Age-associated functional decline in murine immune cells by Thymax, a thymic extract. In Vivo. 2009;23:895-902 pubmed
    ..Thymax showed no adverse side-effects. Thymax might have a role in reversing immune dysfunction in the elderly. ..
  19. Krakowski L, Krzyzanowski J, Wrona Z, Kostro K, Siwicki A. The influence of nonspecific immunostimulation of pregnant sows on the immunological value of colostrum. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2002;87:89-95 pubmed
    ..It was found that the nonspecific immunostimulation of pregnant sows increased in colostrum the level of IgG, total protein content and lysozyme activity. ..
  20. Arutiunian V, Grigorian E. [Effectiveness of using immunomodulators in combined treatment of patients with chronic gastritis and ulcer disease]. Klin Med (Mosk). 2003;81:33-5 pubmed
    ..3 +/- 0.5 and 18.4 +/- 0.6 in the standard treatment and with the added immunomodulator, respectively. Adjuvant levamisol diminished the number of recurrences of chronic gastritis and UD. ..
  21. Bobro L, Grinevich I, Bendiug G. [Changes in immunogenesis organs after thyroidectomy and hormonal correction in an experiment]. Arkh Patol. 2002;64:45-51 pubmed
    ..Prolonged reaction of tissual basophils saturated with heparin, indicated hormonal activation of blood anticoagulative system, and complex of the above hormones can be used for prevention of thromboembolic complications. ..
  22. Obmińiska Mrukowicz B, Szczypka M. Effect of calf thymus extract and zinc supplementation on the cellular response of mice exposed to restraint stress. Pol J Vet Sci. 2005;8:1-9 pubmed
    ..The immunorestorative effect of TFX was augmented by zinc supplementation. ..
  23. Jabłonowska E, Tchorzewski H, Lewkowicz P, Kuydowicz J. Reactive oxygen intermediates and serum antioxidative system in patients with chronic C hepatitis treated with IFN-alpha and thymus factor X. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2005;53:529-33 pubmed
    ..Treatment with IFN-alpha and TFX resulted in a compensatory increase in serum antioxidative capacity. ..
  24. Sauro M, Hadden J. Cell-free thymic extract from hypertensive rats induces hypertension in normotensive rats. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1995;17:137-49 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that hypertension can be transferred via an endogenous thymic factor, possibly a viral pathogen. ..
  25. Arion V, Mel nikova V, Afanas eva M, Moskvina S, Zakharova L. Tactivin in the regulation of dexamethasone-induced apoptosis in thymocytes. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2007;144:479-81 pubmed
    ..Tactivin prevented the development of dexamethasone-induced apoptosis in thymocytes of 30-day-old rats, but had no effect on spontaneous apoptosis. Tactivin can be used as a modulator of apoptotic processes. ..
  26. Mondola P, Coscia Porrazzi L, Falconi C. Cholesterol and triglycerides of the liver after administration of a chromatographic fraction of thymus: variations in tissue and blood. Horm Metab Res. 1979;11:503-5 pubmed
    ..These results lead us to suppose that liver is a target organ of the thymus fraction. ..
  27. Obminska Mrukowicz B, Piekarska J, Szczypka M, Widyma A, Połozowski A. Modulatory effects of calf thymus extract on the subset of T lymphocytes in Trichinella spiralis-infected mice. Pol J Vet Sci. 2002;5:243-9 pubmed
    ..spiralis on the number of CD8+ and CD4+ in the basal lamina propria of the jejunum, and on the number of CD8+ cells in the inflammatory infiltrates of the muscle tissue. ..
  28. Mondola P, Santangelo F, Falconi C, Belfiore A. The serum apo B and apo E in rats following cholesterol diet and thymus treatment. Horm Metab Res. 1987;19:407-10 pubmed
    ..These data support the hypothesis that the dropping of total cholesterol, after thymus treatment, cannot be ascribed to apo E decrease but possibly to B-apoproteins. ..
  29. Mhin B, Lee J, Choi W. Understanding the congener-specific toxicity in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins: chlorination pattern and molecular quadrupole moment. J Am Chem Soc. 2002;124:144-8 pubmed
    ..Although the polarizability also changes systematically with chlorination, it can only account for the effect of the degree of chlorination, not the congener specificity. ..
  30. De Mattia D, Decandia P, Ferrante P, Pace D, Martire B, Ciccarelli M, et al. Effectiveness of thymostimulin and study of lymphocyte-dependent antibacterial activity in children with recurrent respiratory infections. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1993;15:447-59 pubmed
    ..These data emphasize the beneficial role of thymostimulin in RRI-affected children, suggesting a transient immaturity of the immune system as one of the possible pathogenetic factor. ..
  31. Arriero M, Lopez Farre A, Fryeiro O, Rodríguez Feo J, Velasco S, García Durán M, et al. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the liver of bile duct-ligated Wistar rats with modulation by lymphomononuclear cells. Surgery. 2001;129:255-66 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, lymphomononuclear cells modulate iNOS protein expression in the liver by a mechanism in which IL-4 is involved. ..
  32. Villanua M, Szary A, Esquifino A, Bartke A. Thymostimulin effects on lymphoid organs in Ames dwarf mice. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1993;128:74-80 pubmed
    ..Plasma prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) levels of pituitary-grafted dwarf mice were not changed after TP-1 administration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  33. Piekarska J, Szczypka M, Michalski A, Obminska Mrukowicz B, Gorczykowski M. The effect of immunomodulating drugs on the percentage of apoptotic and necrotic lymphocytes in inflammatory infiltrations in the muscle tissue of mice infected with Trichinella spiralis. Pol J Vet Sci. 2010;13:233-40 pubmed
    ..The results of the study suggest that the parasite made an effort to reduce the effectivity of the host immune response in order to ensure its own survival. ..
  34. Varadinova T, Trashlieva M, Kemileva Z. Influence of T-actemodulin on herpes simplex virus infection. Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg. 1992;18:33-40 pubmed
    ..Eight percent of the patients were with only reduced relapses and in 8% of the patients TAM had a mild effect. TAM exerted a preventive effect against the disease when the treatment was initiated in the period of paresthesia. ..
  35. Giełdanowski J, Lemmel E, Błaszczyk B. The influence of thymus hormones on the NK cells activity. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 1987;35:657-61 pubmed
    ..The obtained results are discussed. The weak effect of the crude TFX is probably caused by the fact that it contains only 15% of fraction V which is responsible for affinity to the immune system. ..
  36. Zaĭrat iants O, Kolobov S, Shevchenko V, Farkhat F, Liubimov S, Zaĭrat iants G, et al. [Changes in regional meningeal immunity in local immunomodulating therapy in patients with acute traumatic intracranial hematomas]. Arkh Patol. 2006;68:13-8 pubmed
    ..Inclusion of regional immunotherapy with T-activin into multimodality treatment decreases the incidence of extra- and intracranial pyoinflammatory complications and mortality. ..
  37. Gortzi O, Lalas S, Chinou I, Tsaknis J. Reevaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of Thymus spp. extracts before and after encapsulation in liposomes. J Food Prot. 2006;69:2998-3005 pubmed
    ..When the extracts were encapsulated in liposomes, their antioxidant as well as antimicrobial activities proved to be superior from the same extracts in pure form. ..
  38. Iastrebova S, Sergeeva V, Spirin I. [Changes of biogenic amines in the thymus cell system after T-activin administration]. Morfologiia. 2004;125:50-5 pubmed
    ..Degranulating mast cells, surrounded by the zones of microenvironment, that were saturated with the bioamines capable of suppressing thymocytes, were found to predominate at the late stages of an experiment with T-activinum injections. ..
  39. Giełdanowski J, Lemmel E. Studies on immunotropic activity of certain immunomodulators. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 1987;35:155-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, it may be assumed that synthetic immunomodulators and thymus hormones have much alike mechanisms of activity. The usefulness of both tests applied, however, differed; more sensitive appeared the model of the rosette test...
  40. Qin X, Duan M, Deng B, Liu X, Zhang Q, Liu Z, et al. Isolation and identification of a new thymic peptide from calf thymus. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2004;69:921-5 pubmed
    ..Analysis by LC/MSD-Trap showed the amino acid sequence of this hexapeptide to be Glu-Ala-Lys-Ser-Gln-Gly-OH with molecular weight 618.5 daltons. We have also begun to investigate the influence of TAF-II. ..
  41. Simon H, Roth H, Forner K, Haroske D. [Immunological status of patients with recurrent herpes simplex infections. In vitro effect of thymopoietin and splenin-derived and partially modified peptides on peripheral blood lymphocytes in comparison to a thymus extract]. Allerg Immunol (Leipz). 1990;36:111-8 pubmed
    ..In vitro studies with peptides of thymopoietin and splenin justify the assumption that these peptides have therapeutic effects in recurrent herpes simplex infections. ..
  42. Sakalova A, Mikulecky M, Holomanova D, Langner D, Ransberger K, Stauder G, et al. [The favorable effect of hydrolytic enzymes in the treatment of immunocytomas and plasmacytomas]. Vnitr Lek. 1992;38:921-9 pubmed
    ..A combination of chemotherapy and enzymatic treatment proved effective and suitable, in particular for patients with interferon intolerance. ..
  43. Bagnato A, Brovedani P, Comina P, Molinaro P, Scalzo C, Triolo V, et al. Long-term treatment with thymomodulin reduces airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Ann Allergy. 1989;62:425-8 pubmed
    ..The degree of bronchial responsiveness to methacholine was significantly reduced at 90 days during treatment with thymomodulin and remained reduced, even if not significantly, 60 days after cessation of treatment...
  44. Ill Raga G, Ramos Fernández E, Guix F, Tajes M, Bosch Morató M, Palomer E, et al. Amyloid-? peptide fibrils induce nitro-oxidative stress in neuronal cells. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;22:641-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our results support a key role of nitro-oxidative stress in the neuronal damage induced by A? fibrils. ..
  45. Nishikawa M, Hong R. Effect on IgE production of transplanted cultured thymic fragments. Immunology. 1987;60:91-5 pubmed
  46. Palmisano L, Chisesi T, Galli M, Gritti F, Ielasi G, Lazzarin A, et al. Thymostimulin treatment in AIDS-related complex. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1988;47:253-61 pubmed
    ..We conclude that thymostimulin, alone or in combination with antiviral drugs, may be helpful in the management of ARC patients. ..
  47. Bubanovic I. Failure of blood-thymus barrier as a mechanism of tumor and trophoblast escape. Med Hypotheses. 2003;60:315-20 pubmed
    ..Probability that some factors like hormones, cytokines, prostaglandine and neuromediators can affect blood-thymus barrier permeability and contribute in mechanisms of trophoblast and tumor escape is real but relatively unexplored. ..
  48. Obmińska Domoradzka B, Debowy J. Effect of DTC on humoral response of SRBC-immunized mice exposed to restraint stress. Comparison with calf thymus extract. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1996;18:421-31 pubmed
    ..DTC administered immediately after the exposure of mice to restraint stress results in total restoration of humoral response to SRBC. ..
  49. Tacconelli A, Farina A, Cappabianca L, Cea G, Panella S, Chioda A, et al. TrkAIII expression in the thymus. J Neuroimmunol. 2007;183:151-61 pubmed
    ..cells (TECs) and a 100 kDa immunoprecipitable TrkAIII-like protein detected in purified thymocyte and whole thymus extracts. FACS and immunohistochemical analysis indicate a non-cell surface localisation for the TrkAIII-like protein ..
  50. Prockop S, Petrie H. Functional assessment of alphaEbeta7/E-cadherin interactions in the steady state postnatal thymus. Clin Dev Immunol. 2004;11:135-41 pubmed
  51. Papuashvili M, Shchelkanov M. [The efficiency of combined therapy of herpes virus infection in HIV infected patients]. Vopr Virusol. 2004;49:25-9 pubmed
    ..The combined therapy can be stated to be most effective in HIV, clinical stages B1 and 2. ..
  52. Janeczko J. [Immunomodulatory treatment of lymphopenia after infectious mononucleosis]. Przegl Epidemiol. 2001;55:433-41 pubmed
    ..It may be therefore assumed, that in persons with the history of infectious mononucleosis with persistent marked lymphopenia, thymosine and isoprinosine may be used in the therapy as additional immunomodulators...
  53. Zimecki M, Artym J, Kocięba M, Kuryszko J, Kaleta Kuratewicz K, Marycz K. Calf thymus extract attenuates severity of experimental encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats. Folia Neuropathol. 2010;48:246-57 pubmed
    ..We suggest that TFX® or TFX®-derived fractions have potential as therapeutics in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis. ..