liver extracts


Summary: Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.

Top Publications

  1. Kim H, Kim J, Roh K, Lee H, Kim S, Shin Y, et al. Rat liver 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 and betaine homocysteine S-methytransferase were co-purified on Kunitz-type soybean trypsin inhibitor-coupled sepharose CL-4B. J Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;40:604-9 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that the catalytic site of rat FDH has a similar structure with those of serine proteases. Also, the SBTI-affinity column will be useful for the purification of rat liver proteins such as FDH, CPS1 and BHMT. ..
  2. Constantinou M, Theocharis S, Mikros E. Application of metabonomics on an experimental model of fibrosis and cirrhosis induced by thioacetamide in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007;218:11-9 pubmed
    ..chronic experimental fibrosis and cirrhosis induction in rats were investigated using (1)H NMR spectroscopy of liver extracts and serum combined with pattern recognition techniques...
  3. Leonard J, Courcol M, Mariet C, Charbonnier A, Boitier E, Duchesne M, et al. Proteomic characterization of the effects of clofibrate on protein expression in rat liver. Proteomics. 2006;6:1915-33 pubmed
    ..Differential effects on those variants could result from specific PTM and could be a specific molecular signature of the clofibrate-induced protein expression modulation in rat liver...
  4. Holm D, Dagnaes Hansen F, Simonsen H, Gregersen N, Bolund L, Jensen T, et al. Expression of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) proteins in the liver of SCAD deficient mice after hydrodynamic gene transfer. Mol Genet Metab. 2003;78:250-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, hydrodynamic gene transfer allows for functional testing of SCAD variant proteins in vivo. ..
  5. Masson P, Spagou K, Nicholson J, Want E. Technical and biological variation in UPLC-MS-based untargeted metabolic profiling of liver extracts: application in an experimental toxicity study on galactosamine. Anal Chem. 2011;83:1116-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This protocol can be applied to investigate differences in liver metabolic profiles between animal groups in toxicology studies and clinical investigations of liver disease. ..
  6. Wheatley D, Campbell E. Arginine catabolism, liver extracts and cancer. Pathol Oncol Res. 2002;8:18-25 pubmed
    ..have included medium and plasma manipulation, dietary control, enzymatic degradation, and the use of liver extracts. On some occasions, substitution of amino acid analogues has been explored...
  7. Waters N, Holmes E, Waterfield C, Farrant R, Nicholson J. NMR and pattern recognition studies on liver extracts and intact livers from rats treated with alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002;64:67-77 pubmed
  8. Liu Y, Ji L, Yue W, Yan Z, Wang J, Xi J, et al. Cells extract from fetal liver promotes the hematopoietic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells. Cloning Stem Cells. 2009;11:51-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This method may supply a new way to substitute the cytokines required in hematopoietic induction of hESCs. ..
  9. Akase T, Yamashina S, Akase T, Onodera S, Okuda H, Tashiro S. Effects of liver-supplemented food on the development of embryos in mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003;26:553-6 pubmed

More Information


  1. Tesiram Y, Saunders D, Towner R. Chemical speciation by selective heteronuclear single-quantum coherence spectroscopy: determination of double-bond quantity in unsaturated fatty acid compounds. NMR Biomed. 2008;21:345-56 pubmed
  2. Miwa S, Lawless C, von Zglinicki T. Mitochondrial turnover in liver is fast in vivo and is accelerated by dietary restriction: application of a simple dynamic model. Aging Cell. 2008;7:920-3 pubmed publisher
    ..83 days, and this decreased to 1.16 days following 3 months of dietary restriction, supporting the hypothesis that this intervention might promote mitochondrial turnover as a part of its beneficial effects. ..
  3. Hsieh H, Chen Y, Li J, Chou T, Chang M, Huang S, et al. Protein profilings in mouse liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy using iTRAQ technology. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:1004-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe this is the first report to profile the protein changes in liver regeneration utilizing the iTRAQ proteomic technique. ..
  4. Haji Hosseini Baghdad Abadi R. Nucleotide profile of mouse liver: response to 2'-O-dibutyryl cytidene 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate. Anal Biochem. 2003;312:91-100 pubmed
    ..A high-pressure liquid chromatographic anion-exchange procedure was used and gave good resolution of the free nucleotides on a single column. ..
  5. Cowan K, Storey K. Urea and KCl have differential effects on enzyme activities in liver and muscle of estivating versus nonestivating species. Biochem Cell Biol. 2002;80:745-55 pubmed
  6. Milosavljevic T, Petrovic M, Cvetkovic I, Grigorov I. DNA binding activity of C/EBPbeta and C/EBPdelta for the rat alpha2-macroglobulin gene promoter is regulated in an acute-phase dependent manner. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2002;67:918-26 pubmed
    ..Based on these data we concluded that transcriptional induction of the rat alpha2-MG gene during AP response correlates with both increased synthesis and phosphorylation-induced binding of 35-kD C/EBPbeta and 27-kD C/EBPdelta. ..
  7. Liu Y, Yue W, Ji L, Nan X, Pei X. Production of erythriod cells from human embryonic stem cells by fetal liver cell extract treatment. BMC Dev Biol. 2010;10:85 pubmed publisher
    ..Cell extract exposure with the addition of cytokines resulted in robust erythroid -like differentiation of hEBs and these hEBs-derived erythroid cells possessed functions similar to mature red blood cells. ..
  8. Liu F, Chen X, Fu M, Chen Y. [Determination of arsenic in animal liver by atomic fluorescence spectrometry]. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2002;22:491-2 pubmed
    ..mL-1 with correlation coefficient of 0.9996. The limit of detection was 0.4 ng.mL-1, and the recovery was 94.2%-98.5%. ..
  9. Shannon E, Sandoval F. Thalidomide and thalidomide transformed by pH-dependent hydrolysis or by liver enzyme treatment does Not impede the proliferation of endothelial cells. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2008;30:307-16 pubmed
    ..Proliferation was determined by measuring incorporation of (3)H-thymidine. Regardless of the solvent used to dissolve thalidomide, the HUVECs treated with thalidomide were not inhibited in their ability to incorporate (3)H-thymidine. ..
  10. Calixto L, Bonato P. Simultaneous determination of rosiglitazone and its metabolites in rat liver microsomal fraction using hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction for sample preparation. J Sep Sci. 2010;33:2872-80 pubmed publisher
    ..9960, for all analytes. The validated method was employed to study the in vitro biotransformation of rosiglitazone using rat liver microsomal fraction. ..
  11. Li Y, Yan B, Deng C, Yu W, Xu X, Yang P, et al. Efficient on-chip proteolysis system based on functionalized magnetic silica microspheres. Proteomics. 2007;7:2330-9 pubmed
    ..This microreactor was also successfully applied to the analysis of an RPLC fraction of the rat liver extract. This opens a route for its further application in top-down proteomic analysis. ..
  12. Drahos K, Tran H, Kiri A, Lan W, McRorie D, Horn M. Comparison of Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum proteins from livers of juvenile and aged rats using a novel technique for separation and enrichment of organelles. J Biomol Tech. 2005;16:347-55 pubmed
    ..The technique described here for fractionation and enrichment of organelles demonstrated a useful tool for proteomics research, including identification of low-abundance proteins and post-translational modifications. ..
  13. Roussa E, Bertram J, Berge K, Labori K, Thevenod F, Raeder M. Differential regulation of vacuolar H+ -ATPase and Na+/H+ exchanger 3 in rat cholangiocytes after bile duct ligation. Histochem Cell Biol. 2006;125:419-28 pubmed
    ..Apical localization of V-ATPase in cholangiocytes may indicate its involvement in pH regulation and/or HCO (3)(-) salvage to compensate for NHE3 down-regulation in BDL. ..
  14. Tang Z, Martin M, Guengerich F. Elucidation of functions of human cytochrome P450 enzymes: identification of endogenous substrates in tissue extracts using metabolomic and isotopic labeling approaches. Anal Chem. 2009;81:3071-8 pubmed publisher
    ..using human P450 7A1 as an initial model to identify its known product, 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol, in liver extracts. The strategy was then applied to human P450s 1A2, 2C8, and 2C9 in untargeted substrate searches with human ..
  15. Mathie R, Frye J, Fisher P. Homeopathic Oscillococcinum(®) for preventing and treating influenza and influenza-like illness. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;12:CD001957 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no evidence of clinically important harms due to Oscillococcinum(®). ..
  16. Kang H, Cho Y, Jung H, Choi K, Sohn S, Baek S, et al. Pharmacokinetics and first-pass effects of liquiritigenin in rats: low bioavailability is primarily due to extensive gastrointestinal first-pass effect. Xenobiotica. 2009;39:465-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with rats, the higher F-value of liquiritigenin could be expected in humans. ..
  17. Schmidt F, Dahlmann B, Janek K, Kloss A, Wacker M, Ackermann R, et al. Comprehensive quantitative proteome analysis of 20S proteasome subtypes from rat liver by isotope coded affinity tag and 2-D gel-based approaches. Proteomics. 2006;6:4622-32 pubmed
    ..However, ICAT in conjunction with LC/MALDI-MS was the most accurate method for quantification. The experimental data of this investigation are accessible via ..
  18. Hatfield M, Gillespie S, Chen Y, Li Z, Cassady C, Vincent J. Low-molecular-weight chromium-binding substance from chicken liver and American alligator liver. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;144:423-31 pubmed
    ..The chicken and alligator oligopeptides may possess intrinsic phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity. ..
  19. Mori Y, Koide A, Fuwa K, Kobayashi Y. N-benzylimidazole for preparation of S9 fraction with multi-induction of metabolizing enzymes in short-term genotoxicity assays. Mutagenesis. 2001;16:479-86 pubmed
  20. Graham J. Homogenization of Mammalian tissues. ScientificWorldJournal. 2002;2:1626-9 pubmed
    ..Some of these points are addressed in the Notes section. ..
  21. Sabater Vilar M, Kuilman Wahls M, Fink Gremmels J. Inhibition of aflatoxin B1 mutagenicity by cyclopiazonic acid in the presence of human liver preparations. Toxicol Lett. 2003;143:291-9 pubmed
    ..These findings might be of relevance to the epidemiology of food-borne mycotoxicosis as similar molar ratios to those investigated here have been reported in food commodities. ..
  22. Bederman I, Kasumov T, Reszko A, David F, Brunengraber H, Kelleher J. In vitro modeling of fatty acid synthesis under conditions simulating the zonation of lipogenic [13C]acetyl-CoA enrichment in the liver. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:43217-26 pubmed
    ..ISA uses all mass isotopomers, correctly identified imposed gradients of precursor enrichment, and estimated the expected values of fractional synthesis within the constraints of the data. ..
  23. Ulusu N, Tandogan B. Purification and kinetic properties of glutathione reductase from bovine liver. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007;303:45-51 pubmed
    ..In this study, kinetic data are consistent with a branching reaction mechanism previously proposed for GR from other sources by other studies. ..
  24. Ratziu V, Bugianesi E, Dixon J, Fassio E, Ekstedt M, Charlotte F, et al. Histological progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a critical reassessment based on liver sampling variability. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007;26:821-30 pubmed
    ..Sampling variability of liver biopsy is an overlooked confounding factor that should be considered systematically when interpreting histological progression in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. ..
  25. Matunis M. Isolation and fractionation of rat liver nuclear envelopes and nuclear pore complexes. Methods. 2006;39:277-83 pubmed
    ..It is anticipated that these procedures can be used as a starting point for further molecular and biochemical analysis of the mammalian nuclear envelope, NPCs, and NPC-associated proteins. ..
  26. Werdenberg D, Joshi R, Wolffram S, Merkle H, Langguth P. Presystemic metabolism and intestinal absorption of antipsoriatic fumaric acid esters. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2003;24:259-73 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that for fumarates, an increase in intestinal permeability of the more lipophilic derivatives is counterbalanced by an increase in first-pass extraction. ..
  27. He P, Shen F, Wu M, Li L, Guo Y. Induction of hepatocyte proliferation and prevention of hepatocyte apoptosis by phenobarbital related to local humoral factor in mouse liver. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1998;19:557-60 pubmed
    ..On the chromatograms PMLE-95 had 5 main peaks, while NMLE-95 had only 4 peaks. The effects of Phe on the liver were mediated by an intrinsic protein or peptide substance produced in response for the stimulation of Phe in mouse liver. ..
  28. Voutsinas G, Kappas A, Demopoulos N, Catsoulacos P. Comparative study on the mutagenicity of three structurally related substituted aniline mustards in the Salmonella/microsome assay. Mutat Res. 1993;298:261-7 pubmed
  29. Rosengren L, Simko H, Aryan L, Axelsson Lendin P, Chmielewska J, Mode A, et al. Antisense and sense RNA probe hybridization to immobilized crude cellular lysates: a tool to screen growth hormone antagonists. J Biomol Screen. 2005;10:260-9 pubmed
  30. Burra P, Tomat S, Conconi M, Macchi C, Russo F, Parnigotto P, et al. Acellular liver matrix improves the survival and functions of isolated rat hepatocytes cultured in vitro. Int J Mol Med. 2004;14:511-5 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings indicate that HAM strongly improves viability and functional activity of rat hepatocytes cultured in vitro. ..
  31. Ichikawa A, Ishizaki J, Morita M, Tanaka K, Ikura K. Identification of new amine acceptor protein substrate candidates of transglutaminase in rat liver extract: use of 5-(biotinamido) pentylamine as a probe. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2008;72:1056-62 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that these two enzymes are the new protein substrate candidates of TG and that they can be modified post-translationally by cellular TG. ..
  32. Pelinka L, Harada N, Szalay L, Jafarmadar M, Redl H, Bahrami S. Release of S100B differs during ischemia and reperfusion of the liver, the gut, and the kidney in rats. Shock. 2004;21:72-6 pubmed
  33. Wilcox F. Genetic variation of a major liver protein in the mouse. J Hered. 1972;63:60-2 pubmed
  34. Gorczynski R, Alexander C, Bessler W, Brandenburg K, Fournier K, Mach J, et al. An alteration in the levels of populations of CD4+ Treg is in part responsible for altered cytokine production by cells of aged mice which follows injection with a fetal liver extract. Immunol Lett. 2007;109:101-12 pubmed
    ..Infusion of anti-TGFbeta and anti-IL-10 antibodies in vivo altered Treg development following FSLE treatment, and attenuated FSLE-induced alterations in cytokine production profiles. ..
  35. Li N, Klaassen C. Role of liver-enriched transcription factors in the down-regulation of organic anion transporting polypeptide 4 (oatp4; oatplb2; slc21a10) by lipopolysaccharide. Mol Pharmacol. 2004;66:694-701 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that the LPS-induced down-regulation of Oatp4 is likely due to reduction in the binding of HNF1alpha, C/EBP, HNF3, and RXR:RAR to the Oatp4 promoter. ..
  36. Paolucci M, Buono S, Sciarrillo R, Putti R. Effects of leptin administration on the endocrine pancreas and liver in the lizard Podarcis sicula. J Exp Zool A Comp Exp Biol. 2006;305:383-95 pubmed
    ..Moreover, leptin treatment brought about a decrease of glycogen and the appearance of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in the liver. This study shows that in the lizard P. sicula leptin is involved in glucose metabolism. ..
  37. Gardmo C, Mode A. In vivo transfection of rat liver discloses binding sites conveying GH-dependent and female-specific gene expression. J Mol Endocrinol. 2006;37:433-41 pubmed
    ..Based on our present results, we propose that adjacent binding sites for NF1 and HNF6 constitute a gene regulatory unit of importance for transducing the female-specific effect of GH in rat liver. ..
  38. Teufel A, Weinmann A, Krupp M, Budinger M, Galle P. Genome-wide analysis of factors regulating gene expression in liver. Gene. 2007;389:114-21 pubmed
  39. Tajima T, Hirakawa K, Kawaguchi H, Sakamoto A. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance and pattern recognition analysis of liver extracts from rats under different anesthetics. BMC Med Imaging. 2012;12:28 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, liver metabolism was markedly altered after exposure to propofol. The effect of anesthesia on the liver under propofol or dexmedetomidine resolved rapidly when compared with the effect under sevoflurane or isoflurane. ..
  40. Duarte I, Stanley E, Holmes E, Lindon J, Gil A, Tang H, et al. Metabolic assessment of human liver transplants from biopsy samples at the donor and recipient stages using high-resolution magic angle spinning 1H NMR spectroscopy. Anal Chem. 2005;77:5570-8 pubmed
    ..This technology might therefore provide a novel screening approach for donor organ quality and a means to assess function in the recipient after transplantation. ..
  41. Jiang X, Zhou H, Zhang L, Sheng Q, Li S, Li L, et al. A high-throughput approach for subcellular proteome: identification of rat liver proteins using subcellular fractionation coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analysis. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2004;3:441-55 pubmed
  42. Achouri Y, Noel G, Vertommen D, Rider M, Veiga da Cunha M, van Schaftingen E. Identification of a dehydrogenase acting on D-2-hydroxyglutarate. Biochem J. 2004;381:35-42 pubmed
    ..The corresponding human protein was expressed in HEK-293 cells and it was shown to catalyse the detritiation of DL-2-hydroxy[2-3H]glutarate with similar properties as the purified rat enzyme. ..
  43. Shimizu M, Tanabe S, Morimatsu F, Nagao K, Yanagita T, Kato N, et al. Consumption of pork-liver protein hydrolysate reduces body fat in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats by suppressing hepatic lipogenesis. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006;70:112-8 pubmed
    ..In the LETO rats, growth and adipose tissue weight were unaffected by dietary treatment. The results suggest that PLH is a novel ingredient suppressing body fat in genetically obese rats by reducing lipogenesis. ..
  44. Ban R, Takitani K, Kim H, Murata T, Morinobu T, Ogihara T, et al. alpha-Tocopherol transfer protein expression in rat liver exposed to hyperoxia. Free Radic Res. 2002;36:933-8 pubmed
    ..Expression of Mn-SOD mRNA and protein, as well as the expression of GPX mRNA, were stable after hyperoxia. These findings indicate that mRNA for hepatic alpha TTP, rather than Mn-SOD or GPX, may be highly responsive to oxidative stress. ..
  45. Tikhaze A, Konovalova G, Lankin V, Kaminnyi A, Kaminnaja V, Ruuge E, et al. Effect of ubiquinone Q(10) and antioxidant vitamins on free radical oxidation of phospholipids in biological membranes of rat liver. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2005;140:181-3 pubmed
    ..It can be expected that reduced ubiquinone Q(10) in vivo should produce a more pronounced protective effect due to activity of the system for bioregeneration of this natural antioxidant. ..
  46. Huang F, Wu W. Study on the antidiabetic mechanism of a shark liver peptide, S-8300, in alloxan-induced diabetes. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2009;61:789-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with S-8300 also attenuated DNA ladder formation. The results suggest that S-8300 inhibits Fas protein-mediated apoptosis of pancreas cells. ..
  47. Venditti P, Masullo P, Meo S. Hemoproteins affect H(2)O(2) removal from rat tissues. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2001;33:293-301 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the different capacities of the mitochondria from the three tissues to produce reactive oxygen species are due to differences in the concentration of respiratory mitochondrial chain components in the reduced form. ..
  48. Panda P, Chaturvedi M, Panda A, Suar M, Purohit J. Purification and characterization of a novel histone H2A specific protease (H2Asp) from chicken liver nuclear extract. Gene. 2013;512:47-54 pubmed publisher
    ..It was also seen that H2Asp activity also exists in other classes of vertebrates from Pisces to Mammals. This report forms the first such report describing purification of a histone H2A specific protease. ..
  49. McGraw K, Schuetz J. The evolution of carotenoid coloration in estrildid finches: a biochemical analysis. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;139:45-51 pubmed
    ..g., in the Poephilini), suggesting that the occurrence of carotenoid metabolism can be labile and is likely shaped by the relative costs and benefits of color signaling across different species. ..
  50. Napoletano C, Taurino F, Biffoni M, De Majo A, Coscarella G, Bellati F, et al. RFA strongly modulates the immune system and anti-tumor immune responses in metastatic liver patients. Int J Oncol. 2008;32:481-90 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that RFA application can exert an activating effect on the immune system in metastatic cancer patients, favouring trafficking of lymphocyte subsets and enhancing tumor antigen specific cellular immune responses. ..
  51. Hummel A, Brüsehaber E, Böttcher D, Trauthwein H, Doderer K, Bornscheuer U. Isoenzymes of pig-liver esterase reveal striking differences in enantioselectivities. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2007;46:8492-4 pubmed
  52. Trejo J, Piriz J, Llorens Martin M, Fernandez A, Bolos M, LeRoith D, et al. Central actions of liver-derived insulin-like growth factor I underlying its pro-cognitive effects. Mol Psychiatry. 2007;12:1118-28 pubmed
    ..Declining levels of serum IGF-I during aging may therefore contribute to age-associated cognitive loss. ..
  53. Schweikl H, Schmalz G, Weinmann W. The induction of gene mutations and micronuclei by oxiranes and siloranes in mammalian cells in vitro. J Dent Res. 2004;83:17-21 pubmed
    ..Est-Ep and Eth-Ep also induced gene mutations. Our analyses indicated low mutagenic potentials of siloranes; however, some oxiranes induced strong effects at two genetic endpoints. ..