tissue extracts


Summary: Preparations made from animal tissues or organs (ANIMAL STRUCTURES). They usually contain many components, any one of which may be pharmacologically or physiologically active. Tissue extracts may contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific actions.

Top Publications

  1. Rastogi A, Biswas S, Sarkar A, Chakrabarty D. Anticoagulant activity of Moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) tentacle extract. Toxicon. 2012;60:719-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Autolytic degradation of the high molecular weight protein was also noted. Autolysis slowed down, but did not abolish the fibrinogenolytic activity of the extract...
  2. Tang Z, Guengerich F. Dansylation of unactivated alcohols for improved mass spectral sensitivity and application to analysis of cytochrome P450 oxidation products in tissue extracts. Anal Chem. 2010;82:7706-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, dansylation is a potential method of modifying many alcohols for detection by fluorescence and LC-MS analysis. ..
  3. Kantoff P, Higano C, Shore N, Berger E, Small E, Penson D, et al. Sipuleucel-T immunotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:411-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of sipuleucel-T prolonged overall survival among men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. No effect on the time to disease progression was observed. (Funded by Dendreon; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00065442.) ..
  4. Drake C. Prostate cancer as a model for tumour immunotherapy. Nat Rev Immunol. 2010;10:580-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Although this Review focuses on immunotherapy for prostate cancer, the principles discussed are applicable to many tumour types, and the approaches discussed are highlighted in that context. ..
  5. Iwata S, Matsuura T, Yamamoto S, Tahara T, Shin M, Ito Y, et al. Inhibition of Na currents by the toxin extracts from puffer fishes captured in the sea coast of Japan. Toxicon. 2010;56:999-1006 pubmed publisher
    ..rubripes, also eaten. This observation suggests that caution should be taken concerning the maximal edible amount of muscle prepared from T. rubripes...
  6. Sepcic K, Kauferstein S, Mebs D, Turk T. Biological activities of aqueous and organic extracts from tropical marine sponges. Mar Drugs. 2010;8:1550-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The aqueous extract from Myrmekioderma styx possessed the strongest hemagglutinating activity, whilst AChE inhibiting activity was found only in a few sponges and was generally weak, except in the methanolic extract of T. ophiraphidites...
  7. Hall S, Klotz L, Pantuck A, George D, Whitmore J, Frohlich M, et al. Integrated safety data from 4 randomized, double-blind, controlled trials of autologous cellular immunotherapy with sipuleucel-T in patients with prostate cancer. J Urol. 2011;186:877-81 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no evidence of a treatment related increase in autoimmune complications or secondary malignancies after treatment with sipuleucel-T. Sipuleucel-T can be administered safely in the outpatient setting. ..
  8. Molnar E, Fabian G, Klem J, Darula Z, Hunyadi Gulyas E, Medgyesi A, et al. Removal of nonspecific binding proteins from cell and tissue extracts using 2-aminobenzimidazole-tethered affinity resin. Pharmazie. 2011;66:662-5 pubmed
    ..depletion resin designed for removal of these proteins, and tested it on human lung carcinoma cell and rat tissue extracts. Column-bound proteins were identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MS...
  9. Perrigault M, Buggé D, Hao C, Allam B. Modulatory effects of hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) tissue extracts on the in vitro growth of its pathogen QPX. J Invertebr Pathol. 2009;100:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we used in vitro QPX cultures to investigate the effect of plasma and tissue extracts from two different clam stocks on parasite survival and growth...

More Information


  1. Beckonert O, Keun H, Ebbels T, Bundy J, Holmes E, Lindon J, et al. Metabolic profiling, metabolomic and metabonomic procedures for NMR spectroscopy of urine, plasma, serum and tissue extracts. Nat Protoc. 2007;2:2692-703 pubmed
  2. Small E, Schellhammer P, Higano C, Redfern C, Nemunaitis J, Valone F, et al. Placebo-controlled phase III trial of immunologic therapy with sipuleucel-T (APC8015) in patients with metastatic, asymptomatic hormone refractory prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:3089-94 pubmed
    ..While the improvement in the primary end point TTP did not achieve statistical significance, this study suggests that sipuleucel-T may provide a survival advantage to asymptomatic HRPC patients. Supportive studies are underway. ..
  3. Rini B, Weinberg V, Fong L, Conry S, Hershberg R, Small E. Combination immunotherapy with prostatic acid phosphatase pulsed antigen-presenting cells (provenge) plus bevacizumab in patients with serologic progression of prostate cancer after definitive local therapy. Cancer. 2006;107:67-74 pubmed
    ..01). All patients demonstrated induction of an immune response against PA2024. The combination of APC8015 and bevacizumab induces an immune response and modulates PSA in patients with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer. ..
  4. Giri B, Debnath A, Saha A, Biswas A, Dasgupta S, Gomes A. Antiproliferative, cytotoxic and apoptogenic activity of Indian toad (Bufo melanostictus, Schneider) skin extract on U937 and K562 cells. Toxicon. 2006;48:388-400 pubmed
    ..The findings from the present study suggested that TSE might possess potent antineoplastic agent having antiproliferative, cytotoxic and apoptogenic activity against U937 and K562 myeloid leukemic cells. ..
  5. Higano C, Schellhammer P, Small E, Burch P, Nemunaitis J, Yuh L, et al. Integrated data from 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trials of active cellular immunotherapy with sipuleucel-T in advanced prostate cancer. Cancer. 2009;115:3670-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The generally modest toxicity profile, coupled with the survival benefit, suggests a favorable risk-benefit ratio for sipuleucel-T in patients with advanced prostate cancer. ..
  6. Nikbakhtzadeh M, Tirgari S, Fakoorziba M, Alipour H. Two volatiles from the venom gland of the Samsum ant, Pachycondyla sennaarensis. Toxicon. 2009;54:80-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The venom gland secretions of Pachycondyla species are known contain a variety of volatiles, making the members of this genus distinctive among the ponerine ants. ..
  7. Balamurugan M, Parthasarathi K, Cooper E, Ranganathan L. Anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of earthworm extract-Lampito mauritii (Kinberg). J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;121:330-2 pubmed publisher
  8. Sheikh N, Jones L. CD54 is a surrogate marker of antigen presenting cell activation. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2008;57:1381-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus these data support the use of CD54 upregulation as a surrogate for assessing human APC activation and validates its utility as a potency measure of sipuleucel-T. ..
  9. Sasaki K, Takayama Y, Tahara T, Anraku K, Ito Y, Akaike N. Quantitative analysis of toxin extracts from various tissues of wild and cultured puffer fish by an electrophysiological method. Toxicon. 2008;51:606-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We calculated the maximum edible amount for each tissue, assuming that the lethal dose of TTX is 1-10 microg/kg, and we found that the liver or ovary was edible in the case of cultured puffer fish...
  10. Guo G, Booms P, Halushka M, Dietz H, Ney A, Stricker S, et al. Induction of macrophage chemotaxis by aortic extracts of the mgR Marfan mouse model and a GxxPG-containing fibrillin-1 fragment. Circulation. 2006;114:1855-62 pubmed
    ..They provide a plausible molecular mechanism for the inflammatory infiltrates observed in the mgR mouse model and suggest that inflammation may represent a component of the complex pathogenesis of MFS. ..
  11. Dieni C, Storey K. Regulation of hexokinase by reversible phosphorylation in skeletal muscle of a freeze-tolerant frog. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2011;159:236-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the activity and structure of HK from frozen frogs is more sensitive to non-compatible osmolytes than the enzyme in control frogs. ..
  12. Jung Y, Kim S, Kwon D, Kim Y. Metabolomic analysis of sulfur-containing substances and polyamines in regenerating rat liver. Amino Acids. 2012;42:2095-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Hepatic concentrations of polyamines after PHx are closely associated with the alteration in the metabolomics of sulfur-containing substances. The implication of these changes in the progression of liver regeneration is discussed. ..
  13. Sithigorngul P, Jarecki J, Stretton A. A specific antibody to neuropeptide AF1 (KNEFIRFamide) recognizes a small subset of neurons in Ascaris suum: differences from Caenorhabditis elegans. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:1546-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Other, less specific monoclonal antibodies recognize AF1, as well as other peptides to differing degrees; these antibodies are useful reagents for determination of neuronal morphology. ..
  14. Aldebert D, Hypolite M, Cavailles P, Touquet B, Flori P, Loeuillet C, et al. Development of high-throughput methods to quantify cysts of Toxoplasma gondii. Cytometry A. 2011;79:952-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This reliable and easy protocol allow the specific detection of Toxoplasma cysts in brain, even at low concentrations; it could be a new way to detect them in water and in contaminate food. ..
  15. Rifflet A, Tene N, Orivel J, Treilhou M, Dejean A, Vetillard A. Paralyzing action from a distance in an arboreal African ant species. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28571 pubmed publisher
  16. Johnson E, Førland D, Hetland G, Sætre L, Olstad O, Lyberg T. Effect of AndoSan™ on expression of adhesion molecules and production of reactive oxygen species in human monocytes and granulocytes in vivo. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2012;47:984-92 pubmed publisher
    ..In this foremost in vivo study, the aim was to examine the effect of such AndoSan™ consumption on the expression of adhesion molecules CD11b, CD11c and CD62L and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in leukocytes...
  17. Wilson Sanchez G, Moreno Félix C, Velazquez C, Plascencia Jatomea M, Acosta A, Machi Lara L, et al. Antimutagenicity and antiproliferative studies of lipidic extracts from white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Mar Drugs. 2010;8:2795-809 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that the lipid fraction of the tested species contained compounds with chemoprotective properties that reduce the mutagenicity of AFB(1) and proliferation of a cancer cell line. ..
  18. Zheng C, Wang L, Li R, Ma B, Tu L, Xu X, et al. Gene delivery of cytochrome p450 epoxygenase ameliorates monocrotaline-induced pulmonary artery hypertension in rats. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010;43:740-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that gene therapy with CYP2J2 may have potential as a novel therapeutic approach to this progressive and oftentimes lethal disorder. ..
  19. Canducci F, Saita D, Foglieni C, Piscopiello M, Chiesa R, Colombo A, et al. Cross-reacting antibacterial auto-antibodies are produced within coronary atherosclerotic plaques of acute coronary syndrome patients. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42283 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrated that in human atherosclerotic plaques a local cross-reactive immune response takes place. ..
  20. Schweighauser M, Bacioglu M, Fritschi S, Shimshek D, Kahle P, Eisele Y, et al. Formaldehyde-fixed brain tissue from spontaneously ill ?-synuclein transgenic mice induces fatal ?-synucleinopathy in transgenic hosts. Acta Neuropathol. 2015;129:157-9 pubmed publisher
  21. Ledford H. Therapeutic cancer vaccine survives biotech bust. Nature. 2015;519:17-8 pubmed publisher
  22. Boyd A, Klug G, Schonberger L, McGlade A, Brandel J, Masters C, et al. Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Australia: time to amend infection control measures for pituitary hormone recipients?. Med J Aust. 2010;193:366-9 pubmed
    ..These recommendations should not be misunderstood as implying that there is no ongoing risk, but that the risk is acceptably low and generally in keeping with guidelines that stratify the risk. ..
  23. Goetz D. New options for the management of castration-resistant prostate cancer: a case perspective. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2011;9 Suppl 3:S13-23; quiz S24 pubmed
    ..Therefore, much research has gone into developing other suitable therapies with potentially less toxicity. This article uses a case study approach to discuss new options for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer. ..
  24. Raspotnig G, Leutgeb V, Krisper G, Leis H. Discrimination of Oribotritia species by oil gland chemistry (Acari, Oribatida). Exp Appl Acarol. 2011;54:211-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings emphasize the potential of chemosystematics using oil gland secretion profiles in the discrimination of morphologically very similar, syntopically living or even cryptic oribatid species. ..
  25. Kihara M, Igarashi M, Suzuki T, Itou F, Kozeni S, Toyomane M, et al. Stimulative effect of skipjack tuna soluble extract on pepsin-like protease in the stomach of rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii) using an in vitro perfusion method. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2011;158:444-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that isolated stomach can receive mucosal side stimulants in vitro. It is likely that some effective components for stomach digestion in fish exist in skipjack tuna soluble extract. ..
  26. Chulanetra M, Sookrung N, Srimanote P, Indrawattana N, Thanongsaksrikul J, Sakolvaree Y, et al. Toxic marine puffer fish in Thailand seas and tetrodotoxin they contained. Toxins (Basel). 2011;3:1249-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Conventional mouse bioassay was used to determine the toxicity in all fish tissue extracts, i.e., liver, reproductive tissue, digestive tissue and muscle. One of each of the species L. lunaris and L...
  27. Ouberai M, Wang J, Swann M, Galvagnion C, Guilliams T, Dobson C, et al. ?-Synuclein senses lipid packing defects and induces lateral expansion of lipids leading to membrane remodeling. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:20883-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of ?-Syn to sense lipid packing defects and to remodel membrane structure supports its proposed role in vesicle trafficking. ..
  28. Jha S, Waghdhare S, Reddi R, Bhattacharya P. Thyroid storm due to inappropriate administration of a compounded thyroid hormone preparation successfully treated with plasmapheresis. Thyroid. 2012;22:1283-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Plasmapheresis is probably a life-saving treatment in patients who are exposed to amounts of thyroid hormone far in excess of that usually produced by the thyroid gland. ..
  29. Wang S, Taraballi F, Tan L, Ng K. Human keratin hydrogels support fibroblast attachment and proliferation in vitro. Cell Tissue Res. 2012;347:795-802 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results demonstrate that keratin hydrogels can be used as substrates for cell culture. Such gels might find applications as templates for soft tissue regeneration. ..
  30. Wesley J, Whitmore J, Trager J, Sheikh N. An overview of sipuleucel-T: autologous cellular immunotherapy for prostate cancer. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2012;8:520-7 pubmed publisher
    ..As the first autologous cellular immunotherapy to demonstrate a survival benefit, sipuleucel-T is a novel oncologic therapeutic that warrants the reassessment of the current prostate cancer treatment paradigm. ..
  31. Bourinbaiar A, Jirathitikal V. Safety and efficacy trial of adipose-tissue derived oral preparation V-6 Immunitor (V-6): results of open-label, two-month, follow-up study. Lipids Health Dis. 2010;9:14 pubmed publisher
    ..000003). TG/HDL ratio--a marker of insulin resistance--was reduced from 4.78 to 2.56 (-46.5%; p=0.04). These results demonstrate that V-6 is safe and has a potential as an anti-atherogenic and overweight/obesity immune intervention. ..
  32. Li J, Feng J, Ma L, de la Fuente Nunez C, Gölz G, Lu X. Effects of meat juice on biofilm formation of Campylobacter and Salmonella. Int J Food Microbiol. 2017;253:20-28 pubmed publisher
  33. Messerschmidt J, Prendergast G, Messerschmidt G. How Cancers Escape Immune Destruction and Mechanisms of Action for the New Significantly Active Immune Therapies: Helping Nonimmunologists Decipher Recent Advances. Oncologist. 2016;21:233-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The present report explains the up-to-date basic immune normal and abnormal function and prepares the oncologist to understand how the new drugs work, why they work, and why there are associated adverse events. ..
  34. Wang C, Xia W, Xu Y, Jiang Q, Yin S, Yang Y, et al. Anti-platelet-activating factor, antibacterial, and antiradical activities of lipids extract from silver carp brain. Lipids Health Dis. 2013;12:94 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study may help to explain the protective role of fish lipids against diseases and may be responsible for the effectiveness of fish brain in benefiting health. ..
  35. Musser R, Hum Musser S, Lee H, Desrochers B, Williams S, Vogel H. Caterpillar labial saliva alters tomato plant gene expression. J Chem Ecol. 2012;38:1387-401 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that caterpillar labial saliva is an important component of herbivory that can alter plant gene expression. ..
  36. Aqil F, Zahin M, El Sayed K, Ahmad I, Orabi K, Arif J. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antimutagenic activities of selected marine natural products and tobacco cembranoids. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2011;34:167-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study seems to provide some novel antimicrobial leads with strong antioxidant potential and the associated ability of antimutagenicity. ..
  37. Adhikari S, Karmahapatra S, Karve T, Bandyopadhyay S, Woodrick J, Manthena P, et al. Characterization of magnesium requirement of human 5'-tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase mediated reaction. BMC Res Notes. 2012;5:134 pubmed publisher
    ..This study also showed that there is an optimal Mg2+ concentration above which it is inhibitory for hTDP2 activity. These results altogether reveal the optimal Mg2+ requirement in hTDP2 mediated reaction. ..
  38. Su S, McArthur J, Friedrich M, Truscott R, Aquilina J. Understanding the ?-crystallin cell membrane conjunction. Mol Vis. 2011;17:2798-807 pubmed
    ..Less well understood, is the mechanism driving this age-dependent membrane association. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the membrane and its associated proteins and peptides in the binding of ?-crystallin...
  39. Agarwal N, Sonpavde G, Sternberg C. Novel molecular targets for the therapy of castration-resistant prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2012;61:950-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The strides made in identifying multiple other novel molecular targets offer potential opportunities for further improving outcomes. ..
  40. Sawitzky M, Zeissler A, Langhammer M, Bielohuby M, Stock P, Hammon H, et al. Phenotype selection reveals coevolution of muscle glycogen and protein and PTEN as a gate keeper for the accretion of muscle mass in adult female mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39711 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results further reveal coevolution of high protein and high glycogen content during the selection experiment and identify PTEN as gate keeper for muscle mass in mid-aged female DU6P mice. ..
  41. Liu C. The application of SELDI-TOF-MS in clinical diagnosis of cancers. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2011;2011:245821 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper summarizes some recent results with this technique for cancer diagnosis. ..
  42. Chiou S, Huang C, Lee I, Wang Y, Liu N, Tsay Y, et al. Identification of in vivo phosphorylation sites of lens proteins from porcine eye lenses by a gel-free phosphoproteomics approach. Mol Vis. 2010;16:294-302 pubmed
    ..proteomic strategies have been compared and evaluated for the study of crystallin phosphorylation from whole tissue extracts of porcine eye lenses...
  43. Hine C, Mitchell J. Endpoint or Kinetic Measurement of Hydrogen Sulfide Production Capacity in Tissue Extracts. Bio Protoc. 2017;7: pubmed publisher
    ..H2S released into the head space above a biological sample reacts with lead acetate to form lead sulfide, which is measured on a continuous basis using a plate reader or as an endpoint assay...
  44. Novotna B, Herynek V, Rossner P, Turnovcova K, Jendelova P. The effects of grafted mesenchymal stem cells labeled with iron oxide or cobalt-zinc-iron nanoparticles on the biological macromolecules of rat brain tissue extracts. Int J Nanomedicine. 2017;12:4519-4526 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, immunohistochemistry did not indicate any serious tissue impairment around the graft. Both tested types of nanoparticles appear to be prospective and safe labels for tracking the transplanted cells by MR. ..
  45. Vigneron S, Brioudes E, Burgess A, Labbe J, Lorca T, Castro A. RSK2 is a kinetochore-associated protein that participates in the spindle assembly checkpoint. Oncogene. 2010;29:3566-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that this kinase might also participate in the maintenance of the SAC in mammalian cells as Rsk2 knockdown in these cells prevents the kinetochore localization of Mad1, Mad2 and CENP-E under checkpoint conditions. ..
  46. Zhukareva V, Obrocka M, Houle J, Fischer I, Neuhuber B. Secretion profile of human bone marrow stromal cells: donor variability and response to inflammatory stimuli. Cytokine. 2010;50:317-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of cultured MSC with pro-inflammatory cytokines or tissue extracts from injured spinal cord resulted in up-regulation of selected cytokines, whereas treatment with an anti-..
  47. Melusova M, Slamenova D, Kozics K, Jantova S, Horvathova E. Carvacrol and rosemary essential oil manifest cytotoxic, DNA-protective and pro-apoptotic effect having no effect on DNA repair. Neoplasma. 2014;61:690-9 pubmed
    ..In this paper we also showed that carvacrol and rosemary oil can trigger apoptotic cell death pathways in HepG2 cells, which is probably connected with their cytotoxicity. ..
  48. Wiktorska J, Lewinski A, Stuss M, Nowak D, Pietras T, Sewerynek E. Effects of certain antioxidants on lipid peroxidation process in lung homogenates of L thyroxine-receiving rats. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2010;31:137-46 pubmed
    ..that in Group 1. 1) L-T4 suppresses LPO, 2) MEL, AMB and NAC protect against LPO, 3) PTU is an antioxidant in thyreotoxicosis, however, when administered alone, it enhances LPO, 4) stress accelerate LPO. ..
  49. Xiao X, Luo P, Zhao H, Chen J, He H, Xu Y, et al. Amniotic membrane extract ameliorates benzalkonium chloride-induced dry eye in a murine model. Exp Eye Res. 2013;115:31-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data provide further support for BAC induced dry eye model as a valuable for dry eye study and suggest a great potential for AE as a therapeutic agent in the clinical treatment of dry eye. ..
  50. Lee P, McFall Ngai M, Callaerts P, de Couet H. Preparation of genomic DNA from Hawaiian bobtail squid (Euprymna scolopes) tissue by cesium chloride gradient centrifugation. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2009;2009:pdb.prot5319 pubmed publisher
    ..It can also be adapted to the purification of RNA, which has a higher buoyant density than DNA. Unfortunately, this method is somewhat involved and expensive and produces large amounts of ethidium bromide waste. ..
  51. de Medina P, Paillasse M, Segala G, Voisin M, Mhamdi L, Dalenc F, et al. Dendrogenin A arises from cholesterol and histamine metabolism and shows cell differentiation and anti-tumour properties. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1840 pubmed publisher
    ..The discovery of dendrogenin A reveals a new metabolic pathway at the crossroads of cholesterol and histamine metabolism and the existence of steroidal alkaloids in mammals...
  52. Jara J, Lledo E. Historical approach to the surgical treatment of erectile dysfunction. Actas Urol Esp. 2013;37:445-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The achievements and apparent failures provide a reason for reflection on how we far we have come and how far we can go in the near future. ..
  53. Arai T, Uehata M, Akatsuka H, Kamiyama T. A quantitative analysis to unveil specific binding proteins for bioactive compounds. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2013;26:249-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The binding affinity of CaM to W-7 is not very high (dissociation constant: 1.6 × 10(-5) M), showing that the recognition specificity is applicable to compounds with very low binding affinities. ..