radioactive waste


Summary: Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Bickerstaff K, Lorenzoni I, Pidgeon N, Poortinga W, Simmons P. Reframing nuclear power in the UK energy debate: nuclear power, climate change mitigation and radioactive waste. Public Underst Sci. 2008;17:145-69 pubmed
    ..A mixed-methods analysis of citizen views of climate change and radioactive waste is presented, integrating focus group data and a nationally representative survey...
  2. Robinson C, Smith K, Norris S. Impacts on non-human biota from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste: some key assessment issues. J Radiol Prot. 2010;30:161-73 pubmed publisher
    ..It explores philosophical, methodological and practical assessment issues and reviews the implications of test assessment results in the context of recent and on-going challenges and debates. ..
  3. Nedelkova M, Merroun M, Rossberg A, Hennig C, Selenska Pobell S. Microbacterium isolates from the vicinity of a radioactive waste depository and their interactions with uranium. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2007;59:694-705 pubmed
    ..bacterial strains were cultured from the ground water of the deep-well monitoring site S15 of the Siberian radioactive waste depository Tomsk-7, Russia. They were affiliated with Actinobacteria from the genus Microbacterium...
  4. Brennwald M, van Dorp F. Radiological risk assessment and biosphere modelling for radioactive waste disposal in Switzerland. J Environ Radioact. 2009;100:1058-61 pubmed publisher
    Long-term safety assessments for geological disposal of radioactive waste in Switzerland involve the demonstration that the annual radiation dose to humans due to the potential release of radionuclides from the waste repository into the ..
  5. Sobek S, Söderbäck B, Karlsson S, Andersson E, Brunberg A. A carbon budget of a small humic lake: an example of the importance of lakes for organic matter cycling in boreal catchments. Ambio. 2006;35:469-75 pubmed
    ..a carbon budget for a small humic Swedish lake in the vicinity of a potential final repository for radioactive waste in Sweden, in order to assess its potential impact on the environmental fate of radionuclides associated ..
  6. Ambashta R, Sillanpää M. Membrane purification in radioactive waste management: a short review. J Environ Radioact. 2012;105:76-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The present review describes the recent advances made in radioactive waste treatment using membrane separation technology...
  7. Tuovinen T, Roivainen P, Makkonen S, Kolehmainen M, Holopainen T, Juutilainen J. Soil-to-plant transfer of elements is not linear: Results for five elements relevant to radioactive waste in five boreal forest species. Sci Total Environ. 2011;410-411:191-7 pubmed publisher
    ..transfer of three essential (Mo, Ni, Zn) and two non-essential (Pb, U) elements relevant to the safety of radioactive waste disposal was studied...
  8. Chung J, Kim H, Rho S. Analysis of local acceptance of a radioactive waste disposal facility. Risk Anal. 2008;28:1021-32 pubmed publisher
    Like many other countries in the world, Korea has struggled to site a facility for radioactive waste for almost 30 years because of the strong opposition from local residents...
  9. Kumblad L, Söderbäck B, Löfgren A, Lindborg T, Wijnbladh E, Kautsky U. Pools and fluxes of organic matter in a boreal landscape: implications for a safety assessment of a repository for nuclear waste. Ambio. 2006;35:496-504 pubmed
    ..These focal points may constitute a potential risk for exposure to humans in a future landscape as, due to post-glacial land uplift, previous accumulation bottoms are likely to be used for future agricultural purposes. ..

More Information


  1. Wijnbladh E, Jönsson B, Kumblad L. Marine ecosystem modeling beyond the box: using GIS to study carbon fluxes in a coastal ecosystem. Ambio. 2006;35:484-95 pubmed
    ..As many radionuclides are expected to follow the pathways of organic matter in the environment, these findings enhance our abilities to realistically describe and predict their fate in the ecosystem. ..
  2. Lindborg T, Lindborg R, Löfgren A, Söderbäck B, Bradshaw C, Kautsky U. A strategy for describing the biosphere at candidate sites for repositories of nuclear waste: linking ecosystem and landscape modeling. Ambio. 2006;35:418-24 pubmed
    ..This type of integrated ecosystem-landscape characterization model has an important role in forming the implementation of a safety assessment for a deep repository. ..
  3. Aviam O, Bar Nes G, Zeiri Y, Sivan A. Accelerated biodegradation of cement by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria as a bioassay for evaluating immobilization of low-level radioactive waste. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:6031-6 pubmed
    Disposal of low-level radioactive waste by immobilization in cement is being evaluated worldwide. The stability of cement in the environment may be impaired by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria that corrode the cement by producing sulfuric acid...
  4. Fredrickson J, Zachara J, Balkwill D, Kennedy D, Li S, Kostandarithes H, et al. Geomicrobiology of high-level nuclear waste-contaminated vadose sediments at the hanford site, washington state. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:4230-41 pubmed
    ..that gram-positive bacteria, predominantly from phyla high in G+C content, are indigenous to Hanford vadose sediments and that some are effective at surviving the extreme physical and chemical stress associated with radioactive waste.
  5. Brim H, Venkateswaran A, Kostandarithes H, Fredrickson J, Daly M. Engineering Deinococcus geothermalis for bioremediation of high-temperature radioactive waste environments. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:4575-82 pubmed
    ..These characteristics support the prospective development of this thermophilic radiophile for bioremediation of radioactive mixed waste environments with temperatures as high as 55 degrees C. ..
  6. Warwick P, Allinson S, Beckett K, Eilbeck A, Fairhurst A, Russel Flint K, et al. Sampling and analyses of colloids at the Drigg low level radioactive waste disposal site. J Environ Monit. 2002;4:229-34 pubmed
    ..extracted from inside (from standpipes) and from outside (from boreholes) of the trenches at the low level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg in Cumbria, UK. The samples were taken anaerobically from between 8.5 and 10...
  7. Driver I, Packer S. Radioactive waste discharge quantities for patients undergoing radioactive iodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma. Nucl Med Commun. 2001;22:1129-32 pubmed
    ..There was no significant difference in levels of discharge between those patients undergoing inaugural ablation therapy and those having further treatments with radioactive iodine. ..
  8. Guizard A, Boutou O, Pottier D, Troussard X, Pheby D, Launoy G, et al. The incidence of childhood leukaemia around the La Hague nuclear waste reprocessing plant (France): a survey for the years 1978-1998. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2001;55:469-74 pubmed
    ..A previous study has suggested an increased incidence rate of leukaemia from 1978 to 1992 in people aged 0 to 24 years and living in the vicinity of the La Hague nuclear waste reprocessing plant without considering age and cytological type...
  9. Lloyd J, Renshaw J. Bioremediation of radioactive waste: radionuclide-microbe interactions in laboratory and field-scale studies. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2005;16:254-60 pubmed
    ..Recent advances have been made in understanding the microbial colonization of radioactive environments and the biological basis of microbial transformations of radioactive waste in these settings.
  10. Mokrov Y. Reconstruction of the radionuclide spectrum of liquid radioactive waste released into the Techa river in 1949-1951. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2003;42:7-15 pubmed
    The major part of the liquid radioactive waste released by the Mayak Production Association (PA) radiochemical plant into the Techa river occurred in 1949-1951, but there is information on only one single radiochemical analysis of a ..
  11. Crawford R, Toole J, Innes S. Studies at Dounreay on the repopulation of offshore sediments by hot particles. J Radiol Prot. 2007;27:A61-76 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that little further benefit will be obtained from the continued retrieval of additional and similar information. ..
  12. Watanabe H, Yamaguchi I, Kida T, Hiraki H, Fujibuchi T, Maehara Y, et al. [Current status on storage, processing and risk communication of medical radioactive waste in Japan]. Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi. 2013;69:278-83 pubmed
    Decay-in-storage for radioactive waste including that of nuclear medicine has not been implemented in Japan...
  13. Pedersen K. Analysis of copper corrosion in compacted bentonite clay as a function of clay density and growth conditions for sulfate-reducing bacteria. J Appl Microbiol. 2010;108:1094-104 pubmed publisher
    ..bentonite densities and copper sulfide generation under circumstances relevant to underground, high-level radioactive waste repositories...
  14. Tripathi R, Sahoo S, Mohapatra S, Patra A, Lenka P, Dubey J, et al. An assessment of the radiological scenario around uranium mines in Singhbhum East district, Jharkhand, India. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2012;150:458-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The terrestrial dose rates in all the three regions are comparable with other reported values worldwide, except for a few high values in Greece, Rio Grande Do Norte (Brazil) and Kalpakkam (India). ..
  15. Liu H, Pan Z. NORM situation in non-uranium mining in China. Ann ICRP. 2012;41:343-51 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, environmental radiation monitoring and assessment have been introduced recently. Regulatory control of NORM is very important in order to take effective measures to lower the dose. ..
  16. Gadly T, Mohapatra P, Patre D, Gujar R, Gupta A, Ballal A, et al. Superparamagnetic graphene oxide-magnetite nanoparticle composites for uptake of actinide ions from mildly acidic feeds. J Chromatogr A. 2017;1513:18-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The very high uptake values suggest possible application of the magnetic nanoparticles in radioactive waste remediation in natural ground water.
  17. Anirudhan T, Radhakrishnan P. Improved performance of a biomaterial-based cation exchanger for the adsorption of uranium(VI) from water and nuclear industry wastewater. J Environ Radioact. 2009;100:250-7 pubmed publisher
    ..0M)+HCl (0.5M) solution mixture to de-extract the U(VI). The results show that the PGTFS-COOH tested is very promising for the recovery of U(VI) from water and wastewater...
  18. Jordan N, Marmier N, Lomenech C, Giffaut E, Ehrhardt J. Competition between selenium (IV) and silicic acid on the hematite surface. Chemosphere. 2009;75:129-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Experimental data matched DDLM predictions, confirming the ability of the surface complexation model to predict quantitatively and qualitatively the ternary system selenium (IV)/H(4)SiO(4)/hematite. ..
  19. Kryshev I, Boyer P, Monte L, Brittain J, Dzyuba N, Krylov A, et al. Model testing of radioactive contamination by 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu of water and bottom sediments in the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia). Sci Total Environ. 2009;407:2349-60 pubmed publisher
    ..from the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia), which was contaminated as a result of discharges of liquid radioactive waste into the river...
  20. Standring W, Dowdall M, Sneve M, Selnaes Ø, Amundsen I. Environmental, health and safety assessment of decommissioning radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) in northwest Russia. J Radiol Prot. 2007;27:321-31 pubmed
    ..Doses to humans and biota under the worst-case scenario were lower than threshold limits given in ICRP and IAEA literature. ..
  21. Sidborn M, Neretnieks I. Long-term oxygen depletion from infiltrating groundwaters: model development and application to intra-glaciation and glaciation conditions. J Contam Hydrol. 2008;100:72-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Ongoing and planned experiments are expected to reduce these uncertainties, which are required in order to make more reliable predictions for a safety assessment of a nuclear waste repository. ..
  22. Gaona X, Dähn R, Tits J, Scheinost A, Wieland E. Uptake of Np(IV) by C-S-H phases and cement paste: an EXAFS study. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:8765-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that C-S-H phases are responsible for the Np(IV) uptake by cementitious materials and further that incorporation in the interlayer of the C-S-H structure is the dominant uptake mechanism...
  23. Shagina N, Tolstykh E, Degteva M, Anspaugh L, Napier B. Cortical bone resorption rate in elderly persons: estimates from long-term in vivo measurements of (90)Sr in the skeleton. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2012;54:e411-8 pubmed publisher
    ..5%/year. Comparison of the rate of cortical bone resorption in men and women older than 55 years showed that women expressed significantly higher levels of cortical bone resorption. ..
  24. Meisenhelder J, Semba K. Safe use of radioisotopes. Curr Protoc Cell Biol. 2001;Appendix 1:Appendix 1D pubmed publisher
    ..It is essential to use good safety practices and proper protection to handle radioactive substances. This unit discusses storage, handling, and disposal of 35S, 32P, 33P, and 125I. ..
  25. Berlizov A, Van Belle P, Zuleger E, Ottmar H. Experimental re-evaluation of the ?-ray energy and emission probability for the 159 keV transition in 238U following the ?-decay of 242Pu. Appl Radiat Isot. 2011;69:531-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The obtained new emission probability P(2)=(2.20±0.08)10(-6) turned out to be ?35% smaller than the currently adopted value. The study also suggested a new value E(2)=159.018±0.016 keV for the energy of the respective ?-ray. ..
  26. Ishimori K, Kameo Y, Matsue H, Ohki Y, Nakashima M, Takahashi K. Carbon-14 analysis in solidified product of non-metallic solid waste by a combination of alkaline fusion and gaseous CO2 trapping. Appl Radiat Isot. 2011;69:506-10 pubmed publisher
  27. Um W, Wang Z, Serne R, Williams B, Brown C, Dodge C, et al. Uranium phases in contaminated sediments below Hanford's U tank farm. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:4280-6 pubmed
  28. Wouters K, Moors H, Boven P, Leys N. Evidence and characteristics of a diverse and metabolically active microbial community in deep subsurface clay borehole water. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2013;86:458-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this study shows the possibility of a microbial community of relative complexity to persist in subsurface Boom Clay borehole water. ..
  29. Grambow B. Mobile fission and activation products in nuclear waste disposal. J Contam Hydrol. 2008;102:180-6 pubmed publisher
    ..An important issue is whether redox states or organic/inorganic speciation change from their initial state at the moment of release from the waste during long term contact with surfaces, hydrogen saturated environments, etc. ..
  30. Metyko J, Williford J, Erwin W, Poston J, Jiménez S. Long-lived impurities of 90Y-labeled microspheres, TheraSphere and SIR-spheres, and the impact on patient dose and waste management. Health Phys. 2012;103:S204-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) liver and lung dose estimates, the long-lived impurities would be expected to increase an administered dose by less than 0.1% from the prescribed dose. ..
  31. Boryło A, Skwarzec B, Olszewski G. The radiochemical contamination (²¹?Po and ²³?U) of zone around phosphogypsum waste heap in Wi?linka (northern Poland). J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2012;47:675-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The general conclusion of realized study is higher influence of phosphogypsum on radioactive contamination of environmental zone around heap waste in Wi?linka (northern Poland)...
  32. Larmour R, Gilmore B. Handling radioactive therapeutic waste. Health Estate. 2007;61:23-4 pubmed
    ..In its development of cancer treatment services, Belfast City Hospital Trust has installed a vacuum drainage system for the control and containment of radioactive therapeutic waste. ..
  33. Williamson A, Morris K, Shaw S, Byrne J, Boothman C, Lloyd J. Microbial reduction of Fe(III) under alkaline conditions relevant to geological disposal. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79:3320-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential impact of such processes on the biogeochemistry of a geological disposal facility is discussed, including possible coupling to the redox conditions and solubility of key radionuclides. ..
  34. Janovics R, Kelemen D, Kern Z, Kapitány S, Veres M, Jull A, et al. Radiocarbon signal of a low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility in nearby trees. J Environ Radioact. 2016;153:10-14 pubmed publisher
    Tree ring series were collected from the vicinity of a Hungarian radioactive waste treatment and disposal facility and from a distant control background site, which is not influenced by the radiocarbon discharge of the disposal facility ..
  35. Gao W, Francis A. Reduction of uranium(VI) to uranium(IV) by clostridia. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:4580-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The optimal pH for U(VI) reduction is 5 to 6 in most cases; a Clostridium sp. showed the highest rate at pH 4. Nitrate did not affect U(VI) reduction, indicating that this process in clostridia is nitrate independent...
  36. Holmes T, Guilmette R, Cheng Y, Parkhurst M, Hoover M. Aerosol sampling system for collection of Capstone depleted uranium particles in a high-energy environment. Health Phys. 2009;96:221-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The aerosol sampling arrays and control systems for the Capstone study provided the needed aerosol samples for physicochemical analysis, and the resultant data were used for risk assessment of exposure to DU aerosol. ..
  37. Arcos D, Grandia F, Domenech C, Fernandez A, Villar M, Muurinen A, et al. Long-term geochemical evolution of the near field repository: insights from reactive transport modelling and experimental evidences. J Contam Hydrol. 2008;102:196-209 pubmed publisher
    ..In this case, the dissolution of carbonate minerals is enhanced, increasing pH in the bentonite pore water. Moreover, a rapid change in the population of exchange sites in the smectite is expected due to the replacement of Na for Ca. ..
  38. Lumetta G, McNamara B, Buck E, Fiskum S, Snow L. Characterization of high phosphate radioactive tank waste and simulant development. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:7843-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The bismuth in the sludge solids is best described as BiFeO3. The behavior of phosphorus during caustic leaching of the bismuth phosphate process sludge solids is also discussed. ..
  39. Jackson D, Stone D, Smith K, Morgan G, Shimmield T. Assessing the environmental risk from hot particles in the vicinity of Dounreay--a case for inaction?. J Radiol Prot. 2007;27:A111-8 pubmed
    ..It does, however, suggest that any decision to remediate, if based predominantly on environmental considerations, should be cognisant of the damage caused by remediation itself and subsequent exploitation of the environment by humans. ..
  40. Nikitin A, Chumichev V, Valetova N, Katrich I, Kabanov A, Dunaev G, et al. The current content of artificial radionuclides in the water of the Tobol-Irtysh river system (from the mouth of the Iset River to the confluence with the Ob River). J Environ Radioact. 2007;96:138-43 pubmed
    ..It is shown that the impact of "Mayak" PA waste transport by (90)Sr is distinctly traced as far as the area of the Irtysh and Ob confluence...
  41. Davies G, Kendall G, Soane E, Li J, Rocks S, Jude S, et al. Regulators as agents: modelling personality and power as evidence is brokered to support decisions on environmental risk. Sci Total Environ. 2014;466-467:74-83 pubmed publisher
    ..for the sufficiency of evidence is applied to decisions about salt intake, animal carcass disposal and radioactive waste. A dynamic version of the model assigned personality traits to agents, to explore their receptivity to ..
  42. Wang F, Xie F, Xue X, Wang Z, Fan B, Ha Y. Structure elucidation and toxicity analyses of the radiolytic products of aflatoxin B1 in methanol-water solution. J Hazard Mater. 2011;192:1192-202 pubmed publisher
    ..For this reason, gamma irradiation is deemed an effective tool for the detoxification of AFB(1). ..
  43. Kautenburger R, Beck H. Waste disposal in clay formations: influence of humic acid on the migration of heavy-metal pollutants. ChemSusChem. 2008;1:295-7 pubmed publisher
  44. Kelkar S, Ding M, Chu S, Robinson B, Arnold B, Meijer A, et al. Modeling solute transport through saturated zone ground water at 10 km scale: example from the Yucca Mountain license application. J Contam Hydrol. 2010;117:7-25 pubmed publisher
  45. Skarlatidou A, Cheng T, Haklay M. What do lay people want to know about the disposal of nuclear waste? A mental model approach to the design and development of an online risk communication. Risk Anal. 2012;32:1496-511 pubmed publisher
  46. Johansen M, Barnett C, Beresford N, Brown J, Cerne M, Howard B, et al. Assessing doses to terrestrial wildlife at a radioactive waste disposal site: inter-comparison of modelling approaches. Sci Total Environ. 2012;427-428:238-46 pubmed publisher
  47. Narita H, Tsuchiya Y, Hirase K, Uchiyama M, Fukushi M. [Development of a simple quantitative method for the strontium-89 concentration of radioactive liquid waste using the plastic scintillation survey meter for beta rays]. Kaku Igaku. 2012;49:351-5 pubmed
    ..Reducing self-absorption of the beta ray in the solution by counting on the polyethlene paper improved the counting efficiency. Our method made it easy to manage the radioactive liquid waste under the legal restrictions. ..
  48. Liu C, Shi Z, Zachara J. Kinetics of uranium(VI) desorption from contaminated sediments: effect of geochemical conditions and model evaluation. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:6560-6 pubmed
  49. Hrncir T, Panik M, Ondra F, Necas V. The impact of radioactive steel recycling on the public and professionals. J Hazard Mater. 2013;254-255:98-106 pubmed publisher
    ..However, issues connected with public acceptance, technical difficulties and financing of potential realization are still open and they have to be examined in more detail. ..
  50. Savoye S, Goutelard F, Beaucaire C, Charles Y, Fayette A, Herbette M, et al. Effect of temperature on the containment properties of argillaceous rocks: The case study of Callovo-Oxfordian claystones. J Contam Hydrol. 2011;125:102-12 pubmed publisher
    ..All these results suggest that at the lab scale the heating of rock samples would not alter the claystone containment properties. ..
  51. Prakash O, Green S, Jasrotia P, Overholt W, Canion A, Watson D, et al. Rhodanobacter denitrificans sp. nov., isolated from nitrate-rich zones of a contaminated aquifer. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2012;62:2457-62 pubmed publisher
    ..nov. is proposed. The type strain is 2APBS1(T) (?=?DSM 23569(T)?=?JCM 17641(T)). ..
  52. Kim S, Min J, Lee J, Baik M, Choi J, Shin H. Effects of pH and anions on the sorption of selenium ions onto magnetite. J Environ Radioact. 2012;104:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..on the sorption of selenium ions onto magnetite in order to understand the behaviors of selenium in a radioactive waste repository...
  53. Yapici S, Eroglu H, Varoglu E. Bio-sorption of Tl-201 radionuclide on olive pomace. Appl Radiat Isot. 2011;69:614-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The initial pH of the solution was found to be the most effective parameter. Thermodynamic analysis gave negative values for ?G and ?H. The kinetics of the bio-sorption process fitted very well to the pseudo-second order rate model...