radioactive fallout


Summary: The material that descends to the earth or water well beyond the site of a surface or subsurface nuclear explosion. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Stepanenko V, Gavrilin Y, Snykov V, Shevchuk V, Göksu H, Voillequé P, et al. Elevated exposure rates under inclined birch trees indicate the occurrence of rainfall during radioactive fallout from Chernobyl. Health Phys. 2002;82:240-3 pubmed
    ..01+/-0.02 for similarly inclined trees. Because birch trees are a common feature in the contaminated territories, this effect has a wide potential for use in determining whether the fallout in many areas was due to wet or dry deposition. ..
  2. Kinoshita N, Sueki K, Sasa K, Kitagawa J, Ikarashi S, Nishimura T, et al. Assessment of individual radionuclide distributions from the Fukushima nuclear accident covering central-east Japan. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:19526-9 pubmed publisher
  3. Lyon J, Alder S, Stone M, Scholl A, Reading J, Holubkov R, et al. Thyroid disease associated with exposure to the Nevada nuclear weapons test site radiation: a reevaluation based on corrected dosimetry and examination data. Epidemiology. 2006;17:604-14 pubmed
    ..0 to 10.0). There were too few malignant thyroid neoplasms to estimate risk. Persons exposed to radioactive iodine as children have an increased risk of thyroid neoplasms and autoimmune thyroiditis up to 30 years after exposure. ..
  4. Ju Y, Jhun H, Kim J, Kim J. Non-cancer diseases of Korean atomic bomb survivors in residence at Hapcheon, Republic of Korea. J Korean Med Sci. 2006;21:385-90 pubmed
    ..06-1.44), chronic liver disease (2.07; 1.51-2.84), and hypercholesterolemia (1.79; 1.11-2.90) than controls. This study suggests that A-bomb exposure is associated with a higher prevalence of non-cancer diseases in Korean survivors. ..
  5. Zhumadilov K, Ivannikov A, Apsalikov K, Zhumadilov Z, Toyoda S, Zharlyganova D, et al. Radiation dose estimation by tooth enamel EPR dosimetry for residents of Dolon and Bodene. J Radiat Res. 2006;47 Suppl A:A47-53 pubmed
    ..residents of the Dolon and Bodene settlements of the Beskaragay district, which is the area adjacent to the radioactive fallout of the most contaminating nuclear test of 1949...
  6. Zhumadilov K, Ivannikov A, Zharlyganova D, Zhumadilov Z, Stepanenko V, Apsalikov K, et al. ESR dosimetry study on population of settlements nearby Ust-Kamenogorsk city, Kazakhstan. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2009;48:419-25 pubmed publisher
    ..settlements (Ust-Kamenogorsk city, Glubokoe, Tavriya, Gagarino) are located near the central axis of the radioactive fallout trace that originated from the surface nuclear test on 24 August 1956, while the Kokpekty settlement (..
  7. Bolsunovsky A, Dementyev D. Evidence of the radioactive fallout in the center of Asia (Russia) following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident. J Environ Radioact. 2011;102:1062-4 pubmed publisher
    It was recently reported that radioactive fallout due to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident was detected in environmental samples collected in the USA and Greece, which are very far away from Japan...
  8. Yasunari T, Stohl A, Hayano R, Burkhart J, Eckhardt S, Yasunari T. Cesium-137 deposition and contamination of Japanese soils due to the Fukushima nuclear accident. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:19530-4 pubmed publisher
    ..7 and 1.3 PBq, [corrected] respectively.We hope our (137)Cs deposition maps will help to coordinate decontamination efforts and plan regulatory measures in Japan...
  9. Kroizman Sheiner E, Brickner D, Canfi A, Schwarzfuchs D. [Blocking of the thyroid against I-131 following a nuclear disaster]. Harefuah. 2005;144:497-501, 526, 525 pubmed
    ..When this treatment is contraindicated, iodine free thionamides or potassium perchlorate are suggested. ..

More Information


  1. Buesseler K, Jayne S, Fisher N, Rypina I, Baumann H, Baumann Z, et al. Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the ocean and biota off Japan. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:5984-8 pubmed publisher
  2. Cardis E, Krewski D, Boniol M, Drozdovitch V, Darby S, Gilbert E, et al. Estimates of the cancer burden in Europe from radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Int J Cancer. 2006;119:1224-35 pubmed
    ..The objective of the present study was to evaluate the human cancer burden in Europe as a whole from radioactive fallout from the accident...
  3. Land C, Zhumadilov Z, Gusev B, Hartshorne M, Wiest P, Woodward P, et al. Ultrasound-detected thyroid nodule prevalence and radiation dose from fallout. Radiat Res. 2008;169:373-83 pubmed publisher
    Settlements near the Semipalatinsk Test Site (SNTS) in northeastern Kazakhstan were exposed to radioactive fallout during 1949-1962...
  4. Ivannikov A, Zhumadilov K, Tieliewuhan E, Jiao L, Zharlyganova D, Apsalikov K, et al. Results of EPR dosimetry for population in the vicinity of the most contaminating radioactive fallout trace after the first nuclear test in the Semipalatinsk test site. J Radiat Res. 2006;47 Suppl A:A39-46 pubmed
    ..These villages are located near the central axis of the radioactive fallout trace of the most contaminating surface nuclear test conducted in 1949...
  5. Drozdovitch V, Bouville A, Doyon F, Brindel P, Cardis E, de Vathaire F. Reconstruction of individual radiation doses for a case-control study of thyroid cancer in French Polynesia. Health Phys. 2008;94:418-33 pubmed publisher
    ..A thorough compilation of the results of all radiation monitoring that was performed in French Polynesia in 1966-1974 would be likely to greatly improve the reliability and the precision of the dose estimates...
  6. Stepanenko V, Hoshi M, Bailiff I, Ivannikov A, Toyoda S, Yamamoto M, et al. Around Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: progress of dose estimations relevant to the consequences of nuclear tests (a summary of 3rd Dosimetry Workshop on the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area, RIRBM, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, 9-11 of March. J Radiat Res. 2006;47 Suppl A:A1-13 pubmed
    ..The results of investigation of psychological consequences of nuclear tests, which are expressed in the form of verbal behaviour, were presented at this session as well. ..
  7. Imanaka T, Fukutani S, Yamamoto M, Sakaguchi A, Hoshi M. Width and center-axis location of the radioactive plume that passed over Dolon and nearby villages on the occasion of the first USSR A-bomb test in 1949. J Radiat Res. 2005;46:395-9 pubmed
    ..5 km. Additional soil contamination data around Dolon and other villages are necessary for more detailed discussion. ..
  8. Simon S, Bouville A, Land C, Beck H. Radiation doses and cancer risks in the Marshall Islands associated with exposure to radioactive fallout from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapons tests: summary. Health Phys. 2010;99:105-23 pubmed publisher
    ..resulted in exposures of the resident population of the present-day Republic of the Marshall Islands to radioactive fallout. This paper summarizes the results of a thorough and systematic reconstruction of radiation doses to that ..
  9. Boice J. Thyroid disease 60 years after Hiroshima and 20 years after Chernobyl. JAMA. 2006;295:1060-2 pubmed
  10. Pacini F, Vorontsova T, Molinaro E, Kuchinskaya E, Agate L, Shavrova E, et al. Prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies in children and adolescents from Belarus exposed to the Chernobyl radioactive fallout. Lancet. 1998;352:763-6 pubmed
    ..thyroid immunity and function in two groups of children from Belarus, one of whom was exposed to the radioactive fallout of Chernobyl...
  11. Moysich K, Menezes R, Michalek A. Chernobyl-related ionising radiation exposure and cancer risk: an epidemiological review. Lancet Oncol. 2002;3:269-79 pubmed
    ..Among adult populations, there is no strong evidence to suggest that risk of thyroid cancer, leukaemia, or other malignant disease has increased as a result of the Chernobyl accident...
  12. Garger E, Kashpur V, Paretzke H, Tschiersch J. Measurement of resuspended aerosol in the Chernobyl area. Part II. Size distribution of radioactive particles. Radiat Environ Biophys. 1998;36:275-83 pubmed
    ..Apparently, the radioactive aerosol was of fuel origin. During a forest fire at a distance of 17 km, the majority of the radioactivity was associated with submicrometer particles with median diameters in the range 0.28-0.50 micron...
  13. Zanzonico P, Becker D. Effects of time of administration and dietary iodine levels on potassium iodide (KI) blockade of thyroid irradiation by 131I from radioactive fallout. Health Phys. 2000;78:660-7 pubmed
  14. Auvinen A, Vahteristo M, Arvela H, Suomela M, Rahola T, Hakama M, et al. Chernobyl fallout and outcome of pregnancy in Finland. Environ Health Perspect. 2001;109:179-85 pubmed
    ..Further, there is little support in the epidemiologic literature on effects of very low doses of radiation on pregnancy outcome. ..
  15. Gastberger M, Steinhausler F, Gerzabek M, Hubmer A. Fallout strontium and caesium transfer from vegetation to cow milk at two lowland and two Alpine pastures. J Environ Radioact. 2001;54:267-73 pubmed
    ..0005 to 0.0012 dl-1 and correlated with the stable strontium transfer coefficient (0.0006-0.0013 dl-1) with the lower values found on the intensively managed pastures. The 137Cs transfer coefficient ranged from 0.0009-0.0045 dl-1. ..
  16. Carbol P, Solatie D, Erdmann N, Nylen T, Betti M. Deposition and distribution of Chernobyl fallout fission products and actinides in a Russian soil profile. J Environ Radioact. 2003;68:27-46 pubmed
    ..The results presented in this article are valid for this single soil profile and should not be generalised unless validated in a more rigorous study of a larger number of soil profiles. ..
  17. Geraskin S, Dikarev V, Zyablitskaya Y, Oudalova A, Spirin Y, Alexakhin R. Genetic consequences of radioactive contamination by the Chernobyl fallout to agricultural crops. J Environ Radioact. 2003;66:155-69 pubmed
    ..Analysis of genetic variability in three sequential generations of rye and wheat revealed increased cytogenetic damage in plants exposed to chronic irradiation during the 2nd and 3rd years. ..
  18. Sasaki H, Wong F, Yamada M, Kodama K. The effects of aging and radiation exposure on blood pressure levels of atomic bomb survivors. J Clin Epidemiol. 2002;55:974-81 pubmed
    ..This phenomenon is compatible with the degenerative effect of ionizing radiation on blood vessels. ..
  19. Anspaugh L, Simon S, Gordeev K, Likhtarev I, Maxwell R, Shinkarev S. Movement of radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems by physical processes. Health Phys. 2002;82:669-79 pubmed
    ..Chernobyl-related results on the movement of radionuclides into the soil column are presented, as is a revised model for this process based upon recent results from Ukraine. ..
  20. Gordeev K, Vasilenko I, Lebedev A, Bouville A, Luckyanov N, Simon S, et al. Fallout from nuclear tests: dosimetry in Kazakhstan. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2002;41:61-7 pubmed
  21. Pietrzak Flis Z, Krajewski P, Radwan I, Muramatsu Y. Retrospective evaluation of 131I deposition density and thyroid dose in Poland after the Chernobyl accident. Health Phys. 2003;84:698-708 pubmed
    ..The highest thyroid doses from inhalation and ingestion without countermeasures were 178 mSv, 120 mSv, and 45 mSv for 5-y-old children, 10-y-old children, and adults, respectively. The countermeasures reduced these doses by about 30%. ..
  22. de Vathaire F, Le Vu B, Vathaire C. Thyroid cancer in French Polynesia between 1985 and 1995: influence of atmospheric nuclear bomb tests performed at Mururoa and Fangataufa between 1966 and 1974. Cancer Causes Control. 2000;11:59-63 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, a surveillance of the population born close to Mururoa is necessary to confirm or deny the existence of a higher risk of thyroid cancer in this population. ..
  23. Richards A, Sallafranque R. Emergency preparedness--an early childhood educator's perspective. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2010;142:68-9 pubmed publisher
  24. Straume T, Anspaugh L, Marchetti A, Voigt G, Minenko V, Gu F, et al. Measurement of 129 I and 137 Cs in soils from Belarus and reconstruction of 131I deposition from the Chernobyl accident. Health Phys. 2006;91:7-19 pubmed
    ..It was also noted that total iodine concentrations in topsoil from Belarus are low compared with other regions of the world where radiogenic thyroid cancer has been studied. ..
  25. Fischetti M. The nuclear threat. Sci Am. 2007;297:76-9 pubmed
  26. Ramzaev V, Yonehara H, Hille R, Barkovsky A, Mishine A, Sahoo S, et al. Gamma-dose rates from terrestrial and Chernobyl radionuclides inside and outside settlements in the Bryansk Region, Russia in 1996-2003. J Environ Radioact. 2006;85:205-27 pubmed
    ..39-1.34 mSvy(-1) in 2001. The average external effective doses from natural radionuclides appeared to be lower than those from the Chernobyl fallout ranging from 0.15 to 0.27 mSvy(-1). ..
  27. Durović B, Spasic Jokic V, Raden S, Dobric S. [Chernobyl accident--consequences and lessons]. Vojnosanit Pregl. 2006;63:470-6 pubmed
  28. Tondel M, Lindgren P, Hjalmarsson P, Hardell L, Persson B. Increased incidence of malignancies in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident--a promoting effect?. Am J Ind Med. 2006;49:159-68 pubmed
    ..042 95% confidence limit 0.001;0.084. An excess for thyroid cancer or leukemia could not be ruled out. Increased incidence of total malignancies possibly related to the fallout from the Chernobyl accident is seen. ..
  29. Hunter N, Muirhead C, Zhang W. Possible selection effects for radiation risk estimates in Japanese A-bomb survivors: reanalysis of acute radiation symptoms data. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2006;45:17-26 pubmed
    ..With the exception of leukaemia, the findings from the present work are inconsistent with those of Stewart and Kneale. ..
  30. Hutton D. Vulnerability of children: more than a question of age. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2010;142:54-7 pubmed publisher
  31. Takeishi M, Shibamichi M, Malins A, Kurikami H, Murakami M, Saegusa J, et al. Using two detectors concurrently to monitor ambient dose equivalent rates in vehicle surveys of radiocesium contaminated land. J Environ Radioact. 2017;177:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The ratio of ambient dose equivalent rates reported by detectors mounted at different heights in a dual-detector setup indicates whether radiocesium is deficient on the road compared to the adjacent land. ..
  32. Talerko N. Reconstruction of (131)I radioactive contamination in Ukraine caused by the Chernobyl accident using atmospheric transport modelling. J Environ Radioact. 2005;84:343-62 pubmed
  33. Skipperud L, Salbu B, Oughton D, Drozcho E, Mokrov Y, Strand P. Plutonium contamination in soils and sediments at Mayak PA, Russia. Health Phys. 2005;89:255-66 pubmed
    ..Enhanced 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in river sediment upper layers (0-2 cm) between 50 and 250 km downstream from the plant indicate a contribution from other, non-fallout sources...
  34. Lehmann H, Wadsworth J. The impact of Chernobyl on health and labour market performance. J Health Econ. 2011;30:843-57 pubmed publisher
    ..There is also some evidence to suggest that those who lived in areas more exposed to Chernobyl-induced radiation have significantly lower levels of labour market performance 20 years on. ..
  35. Scherb H, Voigt K. The human sex odds at birth after the atmospheric atomic bomb tests, after Chernobyl, and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2011;18:697-707 pubmed publisher
    ..The birth sex odds near nuclear facilities are also distorted. The persistently disturbed secular human sex odds trends allow the estimation of the global deficit of births in the range of several millions. ..
  36. Florou H, Trabidou G, Nicolaou G. An assessment of the external radiological impact in areas of Greece with elevated natural radioactivity. J Environ Radioact. 2007;93:74-83 pubmed
  37. Akata N, Hasegawa H, Kawabata H, Chikuchi Y, Sato T, Ohtsuka Y, et al. Deposition of 137Cs in Rokkasho, Japan and its relation to Asian dust. J Environ Radioact. 2007;95:1-9 pubmed
    ..Backward trajectory analysis suggested southern Mongolian and northeastern China regions as sources of the significant (137)Cs depositions. ..
  38. Fukuyama T, Fujiwara H. Contribution of Asian dust to atmospheric deposition of radioactive cesium ((137)Cs). Sci Total Environ. 2008;405:389-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the primary source of atmospheric (137)Cs in Japan is dust transported from the East Asian continent. ..
  39. Gordeev K, Shinkarev S, Ilyin L, Bouville A, Hoshi M, Luckyanov N, et al. Retrospective dose assessment for the population living in areas of local fallout from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site Part I: External exposure. J Radiat Res. 2006;47 Suppl A:A129-36 pubmed
    ..S. National Cancer Institute in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Recently revised methods and estimates of external exposure for that cohort are given in another paper (Simon et al.) in this conference. ..
  40. Rääf C, Hubbard L, Falk R, Agren G, Vesanen R. Ecological half-time and effective dose from chernobyl debris and from nuclear weapons fallout of 137Cs as measured in different Swedish populations. Health Phys. 2006;90:446-58 pubmed
  41. Montanaro F, Pury P, Bordoni A, Lutz J. Unexpected additional increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among a recent birth cohort in Switzerland. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2006;15:178-86 pubmed
    ..Assuming a higher sensitivity to ionizing radiation among the youngest people, a Chernobyl effect cannot be definitively excluded and continuous study of this topic should be encouraged. ..
  42. Steinhauser G, Brandl A, Johnson T. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: a review of the environmental impacts. Sci Total Environ. 2014;470-471:800-17 pubmed publisher
    ..This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. ..
  43. Sato O, Nonaka S, Tada J. Intake of radioactive materials as assessed by the duplicate diet method in Fukushima. J Radiol Prot. 2013;33:823-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Even with the largest radiocaesium value in our survey, daily consumption of such meals throughout a year gave an annual committed effective dose that did not exceed 0.1 mSv. ..
  44. Bengtsson S, Eriksson J, Gärdenäs A, Vinichuk M, Rosén K. Accumulation of wet-deposited radiocaesium and radiostrontium by spring oilseed rape (Brássica napus L.) and spring wheat (Tríticum aestívum L.). Environ Pollut. 2013;182:335-42 pubmed publisher
  45. Toyama C, Muramatsu Y, Uchida Y, Igarashi Y, Aoyama M, Matsuzaki H. Variations of 129I in the atmospheric fallout of Tokyo, Japan: 1963-2003. J Environ Radioact. 2012;113:116-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the atmospheric fallout collected from Tokyo after the late 1970s is influenced primary by the (129)I discharge from the Tokai Reprocessing plant. ..
  46. Nagano J, Mabuchi K, Yoshimoto Y, Hayashi Y, Tsuda N, Land C, et al. A case-control study in Hiroshima and Nagasaki examining non-radiation risk factors for thyroid cancer. J Epidemiol. 2007;17:76-85 pubmed
    ..Smoking and alcohol drinking were independently associated with reduced risk. Self-reported retrospective information presents some limitations in interpretation of the data. ..
  47. Nadyrov E, Rozhko A, Kravtsov V, Mabuchi K, Hatch M, Nakamura N, et al. Karyopathological traits of thyrocytes and exposure to radioiodines in Belarusian children and adolescents following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2012;51:187-93 pubmed publisher
    ..008) and bridges (p = 0.09). Further study is needed to confirm that these phenomena represent consequences of radiation exposure in the human organism. ..
  48. Harper F, Musolino S, Wente W. Realistic radiological dispersal device hazard boundaries and ramifications for early consequence management decisions. Health Phys. 2007;93:1-16 pubmed
  49. Brown J, Andersson K, Jones J, Meckbach R, Muller H, Roed J. Requirements of future models for inhabited areas. J Environ Radioact. 2006;85:344-60 pubmed
    ..It also identifies where the authors believe future modelling is needed and the key areas where the current inhabited area models could be improved. ..
  50. Goffman T. Nuclear terrorism and the problem of burns. Am J Emerg Med. 2011;29:224-8 pubmed publisher
  51. Hamilton T, Martinelli R, Kehl S, McAninch J. The plutonium isotopic composition of marine biota on Enewetak Atoll: a preliminary assessment. J Environ Monit. 2008;10:1134-8 pubmed publisher
  52. Scheib C, Beamish D. High spatial resolution observations of 137Cs in northern Britain and Ireland from airborne geophysical survey. J Environ Radioact. 2010;101:670-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations, obtained at 200 m flight line intervals, appear to provide significant detail in relation to existing knowledge of large scale along-wind deposition of (137)Cs. ..
  53. Robbins J, Schneider A. Chernobyl and the KI controversy in the United States. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2008;4:117 pubmed publisher