radioactive pollutants


Summary: Radioactive substances which act as pollutants. They include chemicals whose radiation is released via radioactive waste, nuclear accidents, fallout from nuclear explosions, and the like.

Top Publications

  1. Domingo J. Reproductive and developmental toxicity of natural and depleted uranium: a review. Reprod Toxicol. 2001;15:603-9 pubmed
    ..Data on the toxic effects of depleted uranium on reproduction and development are also reviewed. ..
  2. Durakovic A. Undiagnosed illnesses and radioactive warfare. Croat Med J. 2003;44:520-32 pubmed
    ..This growing body of evidence undoubtedly puts the problem of prevention and solution of the DU contamination high on the priority list. ..
  3. Sumanović Glamuzina D, Saraga Karacić V, Roncević Z, Milanov A, Bozic T, Boranic M. Incidence of major congenital malformations in a region of Bosnia and Herzegovina allegedly polluted with depleted uranium. Croat Med J. 2003;44:579-84 pubmed
  4. Labar B, Rudan I, Ivankovic D, Biloglav Z, Mrsic M, Strnad M, et al. Haematological malignancies in childhood in Croatia: investigating the theories of depleted uranium, chemical plant damage and 'population mixing'. Eur J Epidemiol. 2004;19:55-60 pubmed
    ..In those counties, the incidence of Hodgkin's lymphoma decreased during and after the war. In Croatia as a whole, decreases in incidence of myeloid leukaemias during war and non-Hodgkin lymphoma after the war were noted. ..
  5. Geras kin S, Fesenko S, Alexakhin R. Effects of non-human species irradiation after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Environ Int. 2008;34:880-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the Chernobyl NPP accident studies, in the present review attempts were made to assess minimum doses at which ecological and biological effects were observed. ..
  6. Rich A, Crosby E. Analysis of reserve pit sludge from unconventional natural gas hydraulic fracturing and drilling operations for the presence of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM). New Solut. 2013;23:117-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Current oversight, exemption of TENORM in federal and state regulations, and complexity in reporting are discussed...
  7. Møller A, Hagiwara A, Matsui S, Kasahara S, Kawatsu K, Nishiumi I, et al. Abundance of birds in Fukushima as judged from Chernobyl. Environ Pollut. 2012;164:36-9 pubmed publisher
  8. Anspaugh L. Doses to members of the general public and observed effects on biota: Chernobyl Forum update. J Environ Radioact. 2007;96:13-9 pubmed
    ..Effects on non-human biota were observed that ranged from minor to lethal; the current increase in the number and diversity of species in the most contaminated area is due to absence of human pressure. ..
  9. Schwantes J, Orton C, Clark R. Analysis of a nuclear accident: fission and activation product releases from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear facility as remote indicators of source identification, extent of release, and state of damaged spent nuclear fuel. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:8621-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The majority of the reactor inventories of isotopes of less volatile elements like Pu, Nb, and Sr were likely contained within the damaged reactors during venting. ..

More Information


  1. Milacic S, Petrović D, Jovicic D, Kovacević R, Simic J. Examination of the health status of populations from depleted-uranium-contaminated regions. Environ Res. 2004;95:2-10 pubmed
    ..Early identification of serious blood cell changes is important for appropriate medical treatment. ..
  2. Papathanasiou K, Gianoulis C, Tolikas A, Dovas D, Koutsos J, Fragkedakis N, et al. Effect of depleted uranium weapons used in the Balkan war on the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and invasive cancer of the cervix in Greece. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2005;32:58-60 pubmed
    ..To comfirm this bigger epidemiological studies are needed. ..
  3. Vandecasteele C. Environmental monitoring and radioecology: a necessary synergy. J Environ Radioact. 2004;72:17-23 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, monitoring data will confirm important pathways suggested by radioecological modelling and provide site-specific data for the estimation of model parameters or actual data sets for the validation of transfer models. ..
  4. Suchara I, Rulik P, Hulka J, Pilátová H. Retrospective determination of 137Cs specific activity distribution in spruce bark and bark aggregated transfer factor in forests on the scale of the Czech Republic ten years after the Chernobyl accident. Sci Total Environ. 2011;409:1927-34 pubmed publisher
  5. Jensen M, Gorman Lewis D, Aryal B, Paunesku T, Vogt S, Rickert P, et al. An iron-dependent and transferrin-mediated cellular uptake pathway for plutonium. Nat Chem Biol. 2011;7:560-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the metal-binding site in each lobe contains the same donors in the same configuration and both lobes are similar, the differences between transferrin's two lobes act to restrict, but not eliminate, cellular Pu uptake...
  6. Grigorkina E. The reproductive strategy and immune status of rodents in an environment altered by industrial activity. Dokl Biol Sci. 2007;412:27-9 pubmed
  7. Miller A, McClain D. A review of depleted uranium biological effects: in vitro and in vivo studies. Rev Environ Health. 2007;22:75-89 pubmed
    ..Until issues of concern are resolved with further research, the use of depleted uranium by the military will continue to be controversial. ..
  8. Gaffney S, Donovan E, Shonka J, Le M, Widner T. An independent evaluation of plutonium body burdens in populations near Los Alamos Laboratory using human autopsy data. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2013;216:263-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is the first to present the results of Los Alamos Autopsy Program in relation to residential status and location in Los Alamos. ..
  9. Al Jundi J, Ulanovsky A, Pröhl G. Doses of external exposure in Jordan house due to gamma-emitting natural radionuclides in building materials. J Environ Radioact. 2009;100:841-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The obtained organ and effective dose conversion coefficients can be conveniently used in practical dose assessment tasks for the rooms of similar geometry and varying activity concentrations and local-specific occupancy factors. ..
  10. Glazko T, Grodzinskiĭ D, Glazko V. [Chronic low doze ionizing irradiation and polyfactors of adaptation]. Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2006;46:488-93 pubmed
  11. Tazrart A, Berard P, Leiterer A, Menetrier F. Decontamination of radionuclides from skin: an overview. Health Phys. 2013;105:201-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In some emergency situations in which clean water is in short supply, most of the current products cannot be used. Research on the mechanisms of action of decontaminating products is needed to develop a decontamination strategy. ..
  12. Canepa E, D Alberti F, D Amati F, Triacchini G. The GIS-based SafeAirView software for the concentration assessment of radioactive pollutants after an accidental release. Sci Total Environ. 2007;373:32-42 pubmed
    ..The data sets related to these experiments are all included in the so called Model Validation Kit. ..
  13. Pentreath R. Clarifying and simplifying the management of environmental exposures under different exposure situations. Ann ICRP. 2012;41:246-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Should an emergency occur, it is important to have meaningful environmental criteria in order to communicate clearly with the public at large as events unfold. ..
  14. Sevan kaev A, Zamulaeva I, Mikhailova G, Potetnia O, Tsepenko V, Khvostunov I, et al. [The comparative analysis of gene and structural somatic mutations in inhabitants of Orel district areas contaminated with radionuclides as a result of Chernobyl accident]. Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2006;46:315-21 pubmed
    ..Both cytogenetic and TCR loci mutation assays shown enhancement of average mutation frequency in somatic cells in the subjects of this subgroup with thyroid gland sickness comparing with healthy persons. ..
  15. Aronowitz J, Lubenau J. From the lost radium files: misadventures in the absence of training, regulation, and accountability. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;84:932-6 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, large quantities of radium had gone astray, possibly subjecting the general public to continued radiation exposure. Lessons from the radium era remain relevant, as medical radionuclides are still mishandled. ..
  16. Cournane S, Vintró L, Mitchell P, McMahon C, Smith K, Long S. Modelling temporal trends of 137Cs and 99Tc concentrations in Fucus vesiculosus from the eastern Irish coastline. Mar Pollut Bull. 2011;62:2337-44 pubmed publisher
    ..vesiculosus were calculated. CF values of 170-179 and 1.1×105 l kg(-1) (dry weight) were obtained for 137Cs and 99Tc, respectively, while the corresponding tb1/2 values were 39-47 and 32 days, respectively. ..
  17. Guérin N, Riopel R, Rao R, Kramer Tremblay S, Dai X. An improved method for the rapid determination of 90Sr in cow's milk. J Environ Radioact. 2017;175-176:115-119 pubmed publisher
    ..The figures of merit of the method were determined and the method was validated using spiked samples. ..
  18. Krunić A, Haveric S, Ibrulj S. Micronuclei frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals exposed to depleted uranium. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2005;56:227-32 pubmed
    ..The results of the micronucleus cytochalasin-B test in peripheral blood lymphocytes showed increased micronuclei frequencies in the exposed group. ..
  19. Svendsen E, Kolpakov I, Stepanova Y, Vdovenko V, Naboka M, Mousseau T, et al. 137Cesium exposure and spirometry measures in Ukrainian children affected by the Chernobyl nuclear incident. Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118:720-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are unique and suggest significant airway obstruction and restriction consequences for children chronically exposed to low-dose radioactive contaminants such as those found downwind of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. ..
  20. Amin Y, Mahat R, Nor R, Khandaker M, Takleef G, Bradley D. The presence of natural radioactivity and 137Cs in the South China Sea bordering peninsular Malaysia. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2013;156:475-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The activity concentrations presented herein should be considered useful in assessing the impact of any future radiological contamination to the marine environment. ..
  21. Viruthagiri G, Rajamannan B, Suresh Jawahar K. Radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials and end products. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2013;157:383-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that the use of ceramic end product samples examined in the construction of dwellings, workplace and industrial buildings is unlikely to give rise to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants. ..
  22. Safarov A, Safarov A, Azimov A, Darby I. Rapid assessment methodology in NORM measurements from building materials of Uzbekistan. J Environ Radioact. 2017;169-170:186-191 pubmed publisher
    ..The reduction in time, cost and the use of inexpensive equipment can democratize the practice of screening NORM in building materials in the international community. ..
  23. Law G, Geissler A, Lloyd J, Livens F, Boothman C, Begg J, et al. Geomicrobiological redox cycling of the transuranic element neptunium. Environ Sci Technol. 2010;44:8924-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the influence of microbial processes on Np solubility and highlight the critical importance of radionuclide biogeochemistry in nuclear legacy management...
  24. Wadas W, Krolak E, Karwowska J. Activity of cesium 137Cs and potassium content in new potatoes imported to Poland. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2017;68:297-302 pubmed
    ..The potassium content in imported new potatoes was determined by the variety. ..
  25. Arfsten D, Still K, Wilfong E, Johnson E, McInturf S, Eggers J, et al. Two-generation reproductive toxicity study of implanted depleted uranium (DU) in CD rats. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2009;72:410-27 pubmed publisher
  26. Merwin S, Stewart D, Smith M, Potter K, Hinnefeld S. Implications of claimant-favorable approaches used in dose and probability of causation calculations under EEOICPA. Health Phys. 2008;95:148-59 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper provides details on how the technical aspects of the EEOICPA program that favor the claimants are being implemented. ..
  27. Awadallah M, Imran M. Experimental investigation of gamma-ray attenuation in Jordanian building materials using HPGe-spectrometer. J Environ Radioact. 2007;94:129-36 pubmed
    ..Meanwhile a brick of effective thickness 7cm was found to stop 60% of the same beam. The total attenuation coefficient of concrete calculated at 1333keV was 11.2m(-1), which is less than that of limestone and bricks. ..
  28. Hindin R, Brugge D, Panikkar B. Teratogenicity of depleted uranium aerosols: a review from an epidemiological perspective. Environ Health. 2005;4:17 pubmed
    ..This paper is just such an endeavor. In aggregate the human epidemiological evidence is consistent with increased risk of birth defects in offspring of persons exposed to DU. ..
  29. VanEngelen M, Szilagyi R, Gerlach R, Lee B, Apel W, Peyton B. Uranium exerts acute toxicity by binding to pyrroloquinoline quinone cofactor. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:937-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to the environmental implications, this work represents the first proposed molecular mechanism of uranium toxicity in bacteria, and has relevance for uranium toxicity in many living systems. ..
  30. Sert E, Uğur A, Ozden B, Saç M, Camgöz B. Biomonitoring of ²¹?Po and ²¹?Pb using lichens and mosses around coal-fired power plants in Western Turkey. J Environ Radioact. 2011;102:535-42 pubmed publisher
    ..intermedia) for Soma (Manisa) and Seyitömer - Tunçbilek (Kütahya) sites. (210)Po concentrations were found higher than (210)Pb concentrations at the all sampling stations. ..
  31. Isobe T, Mori Y, Takada K, Sato E, Takahashi H, Sekiguchi T, et al. Evaluation of vegetables in Tsukuba for contamination with radioactive materials from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Health Phys. 2013;105:311-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In the decontamination assessment, a decontamination efficiency of up to 70% was achieved by boiling vegetables for 20 min. ..
  32. Torudd J, Saetre P. Assessment of long-term radiological effects on plants and animals from a deep geological repository: no discernible impact detected. Ambio. 2013;42:506-16 pubmed publisher
    ..This provides a sound basis for arguing that no individuals or populations of examined species would be harmfully affected by a possible radioactive release from the repository. ..
  33. Jia G, Jia J. Determination of radium isotopes in environmental samples by gamma spectrometry, liquid scintillation counting and alpha spectrometry: a review of analytical methodology. J Environ Radioact. 2012;106:98-119 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, when maximum sensitivity is required, the ?-spectrometry technique remains the first choice. ..
  34. Thorne M. The selection of parameter values in studies of environmental radiological impacts. J Radiol Prot. 2013;33:N1-7 pubmed publisher
  35. Burger J. A model for selecting bioindicators to monitor radionuclide concentrations using Amchitka Island in the Aleutians as a case study. Environ Res. 2007;105:316-23 pubmed
    ..The process is applicable to other sites with ecologically important buffer lands or waters, or where contamination issues are contentious. ..
  36. Ademola A, Hammed O, Adejumobi C. Radioactivity and dose assessment of marble samples from Igbeti mines, Nigeria. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2008;132:94-7 pubmed publisher
    ..028. The measurements show that marble samples from Igbeti mine have low level of natural radioactivity and therefore the use of these types of marble in construction of dwellings is safe for inhabitants. ..
  37. Dutton M, Humphreys P. Assessing the potential of short rotation coppice (SRC) for cleanup of radionuclide-contaminated sites. Int J Phytoremediation. 2005;7:279-93 pubmed
    ..However, for 137Cs phytoremediation investigations into the appropriate use of soil amendments for increasing bioavailability are required. ..
  38. Grammaticos P. Some of the statements of the International Committee on Nuclear Technology (ILK) about the impacts of the Chernobyl accident after twenty years. Hell J Nucl Med. 2006;9:2-4 pubmed
  39. Fujimoto K, Morita T. Aerobic removal of technetium by a marine Halomonas strain. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:7922-4 pubmed
    ..Tc-202 removed 55% of the total 99Tc in solutions at 15 degrees C by reducing Tc(VII) to Tc(V), but other Halomonas strains did not...
  40. Paridaens J. Mapping large areas of radioactively contaminated land with a self adapted, handheld, GPS coupled, scintillation detector. J Environ Radioact. 2008;99:502-8 pubmed
    ..The ground maps are also compared to existing maps from helicopter measurements, evaluating strengths and weaknesses from both methods. ..
  41. Miyashita M, Takahashi Y, Akiyama M, Takase T, Kato K, Nitta M, et al. [Effect of changing into slippers on the pollution situation in the nuclear medicine management district]. Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi. 2012;68:103-10 pubmed
    ..Half the pollution was in the restroom. Pollution was reduced by doing pollution prevention guidance for the restroom. Patients' falls occur even if they change slippers. Falling accidents can be decreased. ..
  42. Izrael Y. Chernobyl radionuclide distribution and migration. Health Phys. 2007;93:410-7 pubmed
    ..A proposal is made to develop a more complete atlas of 137Cs deposition from the accident that would include the entire Northern Hemisphere. Water was not an important vector of exposure to human beings following the accident. ..
  43. Gueguen Y, Lestaevel P, Grandcolas L, Baudelin C, Grison S, Jourdain J, et al. Chronic contamination of rats with 137 cesium radionuclide: impact on the cardiovascular system. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2008;8:33-40 pubmed publisher
  44. Darko E, Kpeglo D, Akaho E, Schandorf C, Adu P, Faanu A, et al. Radiation doses and hazards from processing of crude oil at the Tema oil refinery in Ghana. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2012;148:318-28 pubmed publisher
  45. Hadad K, Doulatdar R, Mehdizadeh S. Indoor radon monitoring in Northern Iran using passive and active measurements. J Environ Radioact. 2007;95:39-52 pubmed
    ..The dosimetry calculations showed that these four cities could be categorized as average natural radiation zones. The correlation coefficients relating warm and cold season radon variation data were obtained. ..
  46. Jones D, Kershaw P, McMahon C, Milodowski A, Murray M, Hunt G. Changing patterns of radionuclide distribution in Irish Sea subtidal sediments. J Environ Radioact. 2007;96:63-74 pubmed
    ..The inventory of radionuclides in sandy sediments in the eastern Irish Sea is still under-represented by current sampling, but could be improved by deeper and more extensive vibrocoring. ..
  47. van Beek P, Souhaut M, Lansard B, Bourquin M, Reyss J, von Ballmoos P, et al. LAFARA: a new underground laboratory in the French Pyrénées for ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry. J Environ Radioact. 2013;116:152-8 pubmed publisher
    ..As an illustration, we present two of these applications: i) dating of marine sediments using the decay of (226)Ra in sedimentary barite (BaSO(4)), ii) determination of (227)Ac ((231)Pa) activities in marine sediment cores...
  48. Maslova K, Stepina I, Konoplev A, Popov V, Gusarov A, Pankratov F, et al. Fate and transport of radiocesium, radiostrontium and radiocobalt on urban building materials. J Environ Radioact. 2013;125:74-80 pubmed publisher
    ..While (85)Sr penetrated to 0.5 mm in depth of granite at RH 30%, at RH 87% the depth of (85)Sr penetration to granite reached up to 7 mm. ..
  49. Kramer G, Capello K, Hauck B. Evaluation of two commercially available portal monitors for emergency response. Health Phys. 2007;92:S50-6 pubmed
    ..Despite the differences found, the HML has concluded that both have a distinct place in emergency monitoring. In the future, the HML plans to have both instruments ready for field deployment. ..
  50. Zunic Z, Kobal I, Vaupotic J, Kozak K, Mazur J, Birovljev A, et al. High natural radiation exposure in radon spa areas: a detailed field investigation in Niska Banja (Balkan region). J Environ Radioact. 2006;89:249-60 pubmed
    ..Extremely high concentrations of soil-gas radon (>2000kBqm(-3)) and radon exhalation rates (1.5mBqm(-2)s(-1)) were observed. These results will be utilised to set up the methodology for a more systematic investigation. ..
  51. Gaschak S, Maklyuk Y, Maksimenko A, Bondarkov M, Jannik G, Farfan E. Radiation ecology issues associated with murine rodents and shrews in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. Health Phys. 2011;101:416-30 pubmed publisher
    ..00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy h(-1), respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described. ..
  52. Schmidt C. The next generation of nuclear power?. Environ Sci Technol. 2006;40:1382-3 pubmed
  53. Sirelkhatim D, Sam A, Hassona R. Plutonium isotopes in marine sediments and some biota from the Sudanese coast of the Red Sea. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2008;131:414-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Activity ratios of plutonium isotopes confirm that the existence of plutonium in the Red Sea is mainly due to atmospheric global fallout. ..