hepatitis a vaccines


Summary: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).

Top Publications

  1. Nothdurft H. Hepatitis A vaccines. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2008;7:535-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies in countries with transitioning HAV endemicity indicate that the cost-benefit ratio of mass vaccination against HAV would be similar to other routine childhood vaccinations. ..
  2. Zhang L, Wang X, Bai J, Fang G, Liu L, Zhang Y, et al. An outbreak of hepatitis A in recently vaccinated students from ice snacks made from contaminated well water. Epidemiol Infect. 2009;137:428-33 pubmed publisher
    ..HA virus RNA was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from patients' blood and well water. Untreated well water poses important dangers to the public in areas where piped, potable water is available. ..
  3. Craig A, Watson B, Zink T, Davis J, Yu C, Schaffner W. Hepatitis A outbreak activity in the United States: responding to a vaccine-preventable disease. Am J Med Sci. 2007;334:180-3 pubmed
    ..The recent ACIP recommendation for universal hepatitis A vaccination at age 1 year in all states will contribute to a further reduction in hepatitis A outbreaks. ..
  4. Taylor Robinson D, Regan M, Crowcroft N, Parry J, Dardamissis E. Exploration of cost effectiveness of active vaccination in the control of a school outbreak of hepatitis A in a deprived community in the United Kingdom. Euro Surveill. 2007;12:E5-6 pubmed
    ..The cost effectiveness of intervention varies widely (euro60.50 to euro2,099 per case avoided) depending on the expected attack rate, which is difficult to estimate due to heterogeneity in published studies. ..
  5. Dominguez A, Oviedo M, Carmona G, Batalla J, Bruguera M, Salleras L, et al. Impact and effectiveness of a mass hepatitis A vaccination programme of preadolescents seven years after introduction. Vaccine. 2008;26:1737-41 pubmed publisher
    ..13% (95% CI: 84.47-90.89). The universal vaccination programme of preadolescents has had an important impact on hepatitis A in Catalonia, not only in vaccinated cohorts but also in non-vaccinated age groups due to a herd immunity effect. ..
  6. Van Damme P, Van Herck K. A review of the long-term protection after hepatitis A and B vaccination. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2007;5:79-84 pubmed
    ..Hepatitis B vaccines have been licensed since 1982, and hepatitis A vaccines since 1992. In 1996, a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine became available...
  7. Faridi M, Shah N, Ghosh T, Sankaranarayanan V, Arankalle V, Aggarwal A, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine: a multicentric study. Indian Pediatr. 2009;46:29-34 pubmed
    ..Live attenuated injectable hepatitis A vaccine was immunogenic and tolerable with minimal reactogenecity, in this study of single dose schedule. Safety profile was also satisfactory in the study population. ..
  8. Cui F, Hadler S, Zheng H, Wang F, Zhenhua W, Yuansheng H, et al. Hepatitis A surveillance and vaccine use in China from 1990 through 2007. J Epidemiol. 2009;19:189-95 pubmed
    b>Hepatitis A vaccines have been highly effective in preventing hepatitis A...
  9. W├Ârns M, Teufel A, Kanzler S, Shrestha A, Victor A, Otto G, et al. Incidence of HAV and HBV infections and vaccination rates in patients with autoimmune liver diseases. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103:138-46 pubmed
    ..Improving adherence to vaccine recommendations is essential to prevent HAV and HBV infections in patients with autoimmune liver diseases. ..

More Information


  1. Romano L, Paladini S, Tagliacarne C, Zappa A, Zanetti A. The changing face of the epidemiology of type A, B, and D viral hepatitis in Italy, following the implementation of vaccination. Vaccine. 2009;27:3439-42 pubmed publisher
    ..An additional benefit of hepatitis B vaccination is that hepatitis Delta has also substantially declined. ..
  2. Sabnis S, Pomeranz A, Mao J. Physician beliefs and practices regarding the use of hepatitis A vaccine. WMJ. 2007;106:211-4 pubmed
    ..More physician education is needed regarding the public health impact of hepatitis A and the value of the vaccine. ..
  3. Campbell J, Garfein R, Thiede H, Hagan H, Ouellet L, Golub E, et al. Convenience is the key to hepatitis A and B vaccination uptake among young adult injection drug users. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007;91 Suppl 1:S64-72 pubmed
    ..IDUs were willing to be vaccinated but immediate, on-site availability was critical for uptake. Convenience should be a key consideration in designing strategies to increase vaccine coverage among IDUs. ..
  4. Kramer J, Hachem C, Kanwal F, Mei M, El Serag H. Meeting vaccination quality measures for hepatitis A and B virus in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Hepatology. 2011;53:42-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Quality measure rates for HAV and HBV are suboptimal for patients with chronic HCV. In addition, several patient-related factors and receiving HCV-related care are associated with a higher likelihood of meeting QMs. ..
  5. D Acremont V, Herzog C, Genton B. Immunogenicity and safety of a virosomal hepatitis A vaccine (Epaxal) in the elderly. J Travel Med. 2006;13:78-83 pubmed
    ..This study assessed the immunogenicity and safety of hepatitis A vaccine in elderly compared to young adults...
  6. Jiang W, Chen J, Wang X, Wang Y, Liu Y, Chen W, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of three consecutive lots of a new preservative-free inactivated hepatitis A vaccine (Healive): a double-blind, randomized and controlled trial. Vaccine. 2008;26:2297-301 pubmed publisher
  7. Zhuang F, Qian W, Mao Z, Gong Y, Jiang Q, Jiang L, et al. Persistent efficacy of live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine (H2-strain) after a mass vaccination program. Chin Med J (Engl). 2005;118:1851-6 pubmed
    ..Live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine has an obvious long-term effectiveness in prevention and control of HA epidemics through mass vaccination. ..
  8. Lopez E, Debbag R, Coudeville L, Baron Papillon F, Armoni J. The cost-effectiveness of universal vaccination of children against hepatitis A in Argentina: results of a dynamic health-economic analysis. J Gastroenterol. 2007;42:152-60 pubmed
    ..Routine childhood vaccination against hepatitis A showed both health benefits and robust economic benefits in this analysis, supporting the recent decision of the Argentine government to implement such a program. ..
  9. Chodick G, Green M, Heymann A, Rosenmann L, Shalev V. The shifting epidemiology of hepatitis A following routine childhood immunization program in Israel. Prev Med. 2007;45:386-91 pubmed
    ..4 to 17.3 per 100,000. The most significant reduction in morbidity was observed among children. In endemic areas, vaccination of infants and children against hepatitis A may be efficient to greatly reduce the total burden of the disease. ..
  10. Srinivasa Rao A, Chen M, Pham B, Tricco A, Gilca V, Duval B, et al. Cohort effects in dynamic models and their impact on vaccination programmes: an example from hepatitis A. BMC Infect Dis. 2006;6:174 pubmed
    ..Cohort effects should be included in dynamic modelling studies whenever applicable. ..
  11. Amon J, Darling N, Fiore A, Bell B, Barker L. Factors associated with hepatitis a vaccination among children 24 to 35 months of age: United States, 2003. Pediatrics. 2006;117:30-3 pubmed
    ..Hepatitis A vaccination is being targeted successfully to children at higher risk of infection; however, overall vaccination coverage remains lower for hepatitis A vaccination, compared with other routine childhood vaccinations. ..
  12. Hershey J, Schowalter L, Bailey S. Public health perspective on vaccine-preventable hepatitis: integrating hepatitis A and B vaccines into public health settings. Am J Med. 2005;118 Suppl 10A:100S-108S pubmed
    ..Additional funds must be provided for the infrastructure and purchase of vaccines for adults in these settings. ..
  13. Jiang W, Wang Y, Chen W, Xu W, Chen J, Wang X, et al. [Immunogenicity and safety of three consecutive lots on an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine: a double-blind, immunogenicity and safety of three consecutive lots on a inactivated hepatitis A vaccine:a double-blind, randomized and controlled trial in ch. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2008;29:556-9 pubmed
    ..No severe adverse reaction was reported. The three consecutive lots of Healive were well consistent as indicated by immunogenicity and safety while immunogenicity was better than the vaccine used as control. ..
  14. Hammitt L, Bulkow L, Hennessy T, Zanis C, Snowball M, Williams J, et al. Persistence of antibody to hepatitis A virus 10 years after vaccination among children and adults. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:1776-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional studies are needed to evaluate the duration of antibody persistence beyond 10 years and to assess the long-term immunogenicity of the currently recommended 2-dose schedule. ..
  15. Bauch C, Rao A, Pham B, Krahn M, Gilca V, Duval B, et al. A dynamic model for assessing universal Hepatitis A vaccination in Canada. Vaccine. 2007;25:1719-26 pubmed
  16. Fiore A, Baxter L, Bell B, Hershow R, Passaro D, Twiddy S, et al. Hepatitis A 2004 vaccination in children: methods and findings of a survey in two states. Am J Prev Med. 2007;33:346-52 pubmed
  17. Lopez E, Contrini M, Mistchenko A, Debbag R. Long-term immunity after two doses of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine, in Argentinean children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:568-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Of 48, 47 (97.9%) participants had serum anti-hepatitis A virus antibody titers > or =20 mIU/mL, with the geometric mean concentration of 390.91 (+/-370.14) mIU/mL; (95% confidence interval, 282.2-499.5 mIU/mL), range, 36 to 1860. ..
  18. Liu H, Zhang X, Zhang J. [Comparison of antibody persistence between live attenuated and inactivated hepatitis A vaccines]. Zhongguo Yi Miao He Mian Yi. 2009;15:300-3 pubmed
    ..The immune response induced by 2 to 3 doses HepA-L could compete with inactivated hepatitis A vaccine. However, long-term effects of both vaccines need further study. ..
  19. Belmaker I, Dukhan L, Yosef Y, Leventhal A, Dagan R. Elimination of hepatitis a infection outbreaks in day care and school settings in southern Israel after introduction of the national universal toddler hepatitis a immunization program. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26:36-40 pubmed
    ..Universal hepatitis A immunization of toddlers was associated with disappearance of outbreaks in educational settings. This included cohorts of nonimmunized children representing marked herd immunity. ..
  20. Andre F. Universal mass vaccination against hepatitis A. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2006;304:95-114 pubmed
    ..However, the global disease burden of HAV is generally thought not to be high enough to justify such an undertaking in the foreseeable future. ..
  21. Wang X, Xu Z, Ma J, von Seidlein L, Zhang Y, Hao Z, et al. Long-term immunogenicity after single and booster dose of a live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine: results from 8-year follow-up. Vaccine. 2007;25:446-9 pubmed
    Live, attenuated hepatitis A vaccines are used widely in China but there is uncertainty regarding the persistence of vaccine-induced anti-HAV antibodies after single dose and booster dose administrated at month 12...
  22. Van Effelterre T, Zink T, Hoet B, Hausdorff W, Rosenthal P. A mathematical model of hepatitis a transmission in the United States indicates value of universal childhood immunization. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:158-64 pubmed
    ..They also support the very recent Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices recommendations for universal HA immunization of 1-year-olds. ..
  23. Nyamathi A, Liu Y, Marfisee M, Shoptaw S, Gregerson P, Saab S, et al. Effects of a nurse-managed program on hepatitis A and B vaccine completion among homeless adults. Nurs Res. 2009;58:13-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding that White homeless persons were the least likely to complete the vaccine series suggests that programs tailored to address their unique cultural issues are needed. ..
  24. Hernandez B, Hasson N, Cheung R. Hepatitis C performance measure on hepatitis A and B vaccination: missed opportunities?. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009;104:1961-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study found a high and improved adherence to the recommendations, but missed opportunity was still the main reason of non-adherence. This study also supported the strategy of selective vaccination in the veteran population. ..
  25. Lee D, Cho Y, Park Y, Hwang J, Kim J, Kim N, et al. Hepatitis a in Korea: epidemiological shift and call for vaccine strategy. Intervirology. 2008;51:70-4 pubmed publisher
  26. Van Herck K, Jacquet J, Van Damme P. Antibody persistence and immune memory in healthy adults following vaccination with a two-dose inactivated hepatitis A vaccine: long-term follow-up at 15 years. J Med Virol. 2011;83:1885-91 pubmed publisher
    ..No difference in long-term antibody persistence was observed between the two primary vaccination schedules, reinforcing the potential for flexibility in the timing of the second primary vaccine dose. ..
  27. Wasley A, Fiore A, Bell B. Hepatitis A in the era of vaccination. Epidemiol Rev. 2006;28:101-11 pubmed
    ..Since licensure of effective hepatitis A vaccines in the mid-1990s, US hepatitis A rates have fallen precipitously-particularly since 1999, when routine ..
  28. Martinelli D, Bitetto I, Tafuri S, Lopalco P, Mininni R, Prato R. Control of hepatitis A by universal vaccination of children and adolescents: an achieved goal or a deferred appointment?. Vaccine. 2010;28:6783-8 pubmed publisher
    ..82 years. Universal routine vaccination aimed at the control of direct transmission remains the milestone in the strategy for the containment of the disease in settings at an intermediate level of endemicity. ..
  29. Lopalco P, Prato R, Chironna M, Germinario C, Quarto M. Control of hepatitis A by universal vaccination of adolescents, Puglia, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:526-8 pubmed publisher
  30. Pham H, Geraci S, Burton M. Adult immunizations: update on recommendations. Am J Med. 2011;124:698-701 pubmed publisher
    ..Hepatitis B vaccination should be encouraged in non-immune adults. Recommendations also address vaccinations for tetanus/diphtheria, hepatitis A, pneumococcus, measles/mumps/rubella, and meningococcus. ..
  31. Whelan J, Sonder G, van den Hoek A. Declining incidence of hepatitis A in Amsterdam (The Netherlands), 1996-2011: second generation migrants still an important risk group for virus importation. Vaccine. 2013;31:1806-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In line with WHO recommendations of June 2012, introduction of single-dose HAV vaccination, targeted at SGM children from HAV endemic countries, could be considered within the routine childhood vaccination schedule. ..
  32. Shen Y, Gu X, Zhou J. Protective effect of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine against the outbreak of hepatitis A in an open rural community. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:2771-5 pubmed
    ..035). The protective efficacy of the vaccine was 100%. Inactivated hepatitis A vaccine demonstrates a good protective effect against an outbreak of hepatitis A. ..
  33. Hauri A, Fischer E, Fitzenberger J, Uphoff H, Koenig C. Active immunisation during an outbreak of hepatitis A in a German day-care centre. Vaccine. 2006;24:5684-9 pubmed
    ..In households of non-immunised children none of the 59 household members fell ill. We conclude that, although most vaccinations were administered promptly, they may not have been timely enough to impact the course of the outbreak...
  34. Weissman S, Feucht C, Moore B. Response to hepatitis A vaccine in HIV-positive patients. J Viral Hepat. 2006;13:81-6 pubmed
    ..This is much lower than reported rates of 100% in HIV-negative patients. Female gender and CD4 count at vaccine, but not CD4 nadir, predicted response to vaccine. ..
  35. Victor J, Monto A, Surdina T, Suleimenova S, Vaughan G, Nainan O, et al. Hepatitis A vaccine versus immune globulin for postexposure prophylaxis. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:1685-94 pubmed
    ..Vaccine has other advantages, including long-term protection, and it may be a reasonable alternative to immune globulin for postexposure prophylaxis in many situations. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00139139 [ClinicalTrials.gov].). ..
  36. Van Herck K, Van Damme P. Inactivated hepatitis A vaccine-induced antibodies: follow-up and estimates of long-term persistence. J Med Virol. 2001;63:1-7 pubmed
    ..With the current methodology, however, detectable antibodies are estimated to persist for 20-25 years. ..
  37. Van Damme P, Leroux Roels G, Law B, Diaz Mitoma F, Desombere I, Collard F, et al. Long-term persistence of antibodies induced by vaccination and safety follow-up, with the first combined vaccine against hepatitis A and B in children and adults. J Med Virol. 2001;65:6-13 pubmed
    ..The combined hepatitis A and B vaccine is safe and is well tolerated. Immunity provided by the vaccine remains high in adults and children with comparable results to those obtained with monovalent vaccines. ..
  38. Almasio P, Amoroso P. HAV infection in chronic liver disease: a rationale for vaccination. Vaccine. 2003;21:2238-41 pubmed
    ..HAV vaccine seems as safe in chronic liver diseases than in general population. On the basis of the evidence we recommend that subjects with chronic liver disease should be vaccinated against HAV, especially if younger than 40 years. ..
  39. Leach C. Hepatitis A in the United States. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23:551-2 pubmed
  40. Ambrosch F, Finkel B, Herzog C, Koren A, Kollaritsch H. Rapid antibody response after vaccination with a virosomal hepatitis a vaccine. Infection. 2004;32:149-52 pubmed
    ..In addition, the booster vaccination results in prolonged seroprotective antibody levels. ..
  41. Reuman P, Kubilis P, Hurni W, Brown L, Nalin D. The effect of age and weight on the response to formalin inactivated, alum-adjuvanted hepatitis A vaccine in healthy adults. Vaccine. 1997;15:1157-61 pubmed
    ..The slower antibody response to hepatitis A vaccine in overweight individuals was not attributable to skin adipose tissue. ..
  42. Andre F, Van Damme P, Safary A, Banatvala J. Inactivated hepatitis A vaccine: immunogenicity, efficacy, safety and review of official recommendations for use. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2002;1:9-23 pubmed
    ..Existing official recommendations and future directions for vaccine use are reviewed. ..
  43. Teppakdee A, Tangwitoon A, Khemasuwan D, Tangdhanakanond K, Suramaethakul N, Sriratanaban J, et al. Cost-benefit analysis of hepatitis a vaccination in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2002;33:118-27 pubmed
    ..Major changes in hepatitis A incidence, anti-HAV seroprevalence, vaccine cost or the treatment outcome would be required to potentially render either intervention strategy cost beneficial. ..
  44. Navas E, Salleras L, Gisbert R, Dominguez A, Bruguera M, Rodriguez G, et al. Efficiency of the incorporation of the hepatitis A vaccine as a combined A+B vaccine to the hepatitis B vaccination programme of preadolescents in schools. Vaccine. 2005;23:2185-9 pubmed
    ..98) the net present value of the programme was positive (+533,708) and the benefit-cost ratio was 2.58. If the estimated disease incidence were reduced by half, the programme would still be efficient. ..
  45. Zhuang F, Jiang Q, Gong Y. [Epidemiological effects of live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine (H(2)-strain): results of A 10-year observation]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2001;22:188-90 pubmed
    ..2% positive rate of anti HAV-IgG, 10 years after immunization among vaccinees in both sites. Not a single hepatitis A case was identified. Live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine seemed to have obviously long-term epidemiological effects. ..
  46. Wang X, Ma J, Zhang Y. [Immunogenicity and long-term persistence of anti-HAV in groups with different attenuated and inactived hepatitis A vaccine dosage]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2001;22:111-3 pubmed
    ..The vaccine, whose titer was 10(6.83)TCID(50), had good immunogenicity and long-term persistence. Booster dose was not needed within short time after initial vaccination. ..
  47. Zhang Y, Liu X, Ma J. [A field evaluation of the epidemiological efficacy of an attenuated live hepatitis A vaccine (H2 strain)]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2001;35:387-9 pubmed
    ..001) and the protective efficacy of the vaccine was 94.4% (95% CI: 67.1%-100%). The protective efficacy of the vaccine was excellent and the vaccine is suitable to be widely used. ..
  48. Cuthbert J. Hepatitis A: old and new. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2001;14:38-58 pubmed
    ..More recently, active immunoprophylaxis by vaccination has been accomplished. Future eradication of this disease can now be contemplated...
  49. Landry P, Tremblay S, Darioli R, Genton B. Inactivated hepatitis A vaccine booster given >/=24 months after the primary dose. Vaccine. 2000;19:399-402 pubmed
    ..However, the recommended 6-12-month interval remains if detectable antibody titers are to be warranted constantly. ..
  50. Lemon S, Shapiro C. The value of immunization against hepatitis A. Infect Agents Dis. 1994;3:38-49 pubmed
    ..groups, and geographic regions of the United States and comment on several possible strategies for using hepatitis A vaccines in immunization programs...
  51. Xu Z, Wang X, Li R, Meng Z, Zhang Y, Gong J, et al. [Immunogenicity and efficacy of two live attenuated hepatitis A vaccines (H(2) strains and LA-1 strains)]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2002;82:678-81 pubmed
    To assess the efficacy and immunogenicity of two live attenuated hepatitis A vaccines. Randomized and controlled clinical trials were conducted in Guanxi, Hebei and Shanghai, 457 251 children were enrolled...
  52. Reiss G, Keeffe E. Review article: hepatitis vaccination in patients with chronic liver disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2004;19:715-27 pubmed
    ..Hepatitis A and B vaccination should be part of the routine management of patients with chronic liver disease, preferably as early as possible in the natural course of their disease. ..
  53. Scheifele D. Hepatitis A vaccines: the growing case for universal immunisation of children. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2005;6:157-64 pubmed
    ..Universal programmes are cost-effective, especially when a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine can be used to minimise incremental costs, and deserve wider consideration in developed countries. ..