respiratory syncytial virus vaccines


Summary: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES.

Top Publications

  1. Olson M, Varga S. CD8 T cells inhibit respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine-enhanced disease. J Immunol. 2007;179:5415-24 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the failure of the FI-RSV vaccine to induce a CD8 T cell response may have contributed to the development of pulmonary eosinophilia and augmented disease that occurred in vaccinated individuals. ..
  2. Castilow E, Olson M, Varga S. Understanding respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine-enhanced disease. Immunol Res. 2007;39:225-39 pubmed
    ..Information gained from the animal models will provide important information and novel approaches for the rational design of a safe and efficacious RSV vaccine. ..
  3. Shinoff J, O Brien K, Thumar B, Shaw J, Reid R, Hua W, et al. Young infants can develop protective levels of neutralizing antibody after infection with respiratory syncytial virus. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:1007-15 pubmed publisher
    ..RSV can induce substantial neutralizing antibody responses in young infants when the titer of preexisting antibodies is low. ..
  4. Tang R, Spaete R, Thompson M, MacPhail M, Guzzetta J, Ryan P, et al. Development of a PIV-vectored RSV vaccine: preclinical evaluation of safety, toxicity, and enhanced disease and initial clinical testing in healthy adults. Vaccine. 2008;26:6373-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In adults, MEDI-534 was highly restricted in replication, did not boost RSV and PIV3 antibody titers, and produced no medically significant vaccine-related adverse events thereby warranting further evaluation in pediatric populations. ..
  5. Fu Y, He J, Zheng X, Wu Q, Zhang M, Wang X, et al. Intranasal immunization with a replication-deficient adenoviral vector expressing the fusion glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus elicits protective immunity in BALB/c mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;381:528-32 pubmed publisher
    ..n. immunization with FGAd-F displayed an effective protective role against RSV infection. These results demonstrate FGAd-F is able to induce effective protective immunity and is a promising vaccine regimen against RSV infection. ..
  6. Crowe J. Influence of maternal antibodies on neonatal immunization against respiratory viruses. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33:1720-7 pubmed
    ..This article explores the current knowledge regarding the effect of maternal Abs on respiratory virus and measles virus immunization, and it reviews the current approaches to overcoming Ab-mediated immunosuppression. ..
  7. Tasker L, Lindsay R, Clarke B, Cochrane D, Hou S. Infection of mice with respiratory syncytial virus during neonatal life primes for enhanced antibody and T cell responses on secondary challenge. Clin Exp Immunol. 2008;153:277-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate therefore that immunity to RSV can be established during neonatal life and, importantly, that the quality of the subsequent response is dependent upon the age of first infection. ..
  8. van Bleek G, Osterhaus A, De Swart R. RSV 2010: Recent advances in research on respiratory syncytial virus and other pneumoviruses. Vaccine. 2011;29:7285-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The current report presents highlights of the meeting, covering topics from basic virology, pathogenesis and immunology to clinical studies, therapeutics and vaccine development. ..
  9. Moghaddam A, Olszewska W, Wang B, Tregoning J, Helson R, Sattentau Q, et al. A potential molecular mechanism for hypersensitivity caused by formalin-inactivated vaccines. Nat Med. 2006;12:905-7 pubmed

More Information


  1. Nallet S, Amacker M, Westerfeld N, Baldi L, König I, Hacker D, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus subunit vaccine based on a recombinant fusion protein expressed transiently in mammalian cells. Vaccine. 2009;27:6415-9 pubmed publisher
    ..If successful in preclinical and clinical trials, this will be the first recombinant subunit vaccine produced by large-scale TGE in mammalian cells. ..
  2. Luongo C, Yang L, Winter C, Spann K, Murphy B, Collins P, et al. Codon stabilization analysis of the "248" temperature sensitive mutation for increased phenotypic stability of respiratory syncytial virus vaccine candidates. Vaccine. 2009;27:5667-76 pubmed publisher
  3. Simoes E, Tan D, Ohlsson A, Sales V, Wang E. Respiratory syncytial virus vaccine: a systematic overview with emphasis on respiratory syncytial virus subunit vaccines. Vaccine. 2001;20:954-60 pubmed
    ..However, RSV subunit vaccines must be tested in large field trials because of concerns about the appropriateness of pooling, the risk of publication bias and the fact that the clinically important outcome of RSV LRI was not reduced. ..
  4. Johnstone C, de Leon P, Medina F, Melero J, García Barreno B, Del Val M. Shifting immunodominance pattern of two cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes in the F glycoprotein of the Long strain of respiratory syncytial virus. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:3229-38 pubmed
    ..However, no hierarchy in CD8(+) T-lymphocyte responses to F85-93 and F249-258 epitopes was observed in vivo during a primary response. ..
  5. Kalina W, Woolums A, Berghaus R, Gershwin L. Formalin-inactivated bovine RSV vaccine enhances a Th2 mediated immune response in infected cattle. Vaccine. 2004;22:1465-74 pubmed
    ..Results revealed that study 2 calves produced more IgE, particularly to the nucleoprotein (N); IgE among study 2 calves correlated with high clinical scores. In contrast, study 1 calves showed stronger IgG responses to viral proteins. ..
  6. Blanco J, Boukhvalova M, Shirey K, Prince G, Vogel S. New insights for development of a safe and protective RSV vaccine. Hum Vaccin. 2010;6:482-92 pubmed
    ..A safe and efficacious vaccine for RSV will require "re-education" of the host immune response against RSV to prevent vaccine-enhanced or severe RSV disease. ..
  7. van Drunen Littel van den Hurk S, Mapletoft J, Arsic N, Kovacs Nolan J. Immunopathology of RSV infection: prospects for developing vaccines without this complication. Rev Med Virol. 2007;17:5-34 pubmed
    ..Maternal vaccination may be the optimal strategy to protect the very young infants. ..
  8. de Waal L, Power U, Yüksel S, van Amerongen G, Nguyen T, Niesters H, et al. Evaluation of BBG2Na in infant macaques: specific immune responses after vaccination and RSV challenge. Vaccine. 2004;22:915-22 pubmed
  9. Nokes J, Cane P. New strategies for control of respiratory syncytial virus infection. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2008;21:639-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Advances in the treatment of RSV are more evident than in prevention. Obstacles to prevention of paediatric RSV disease may require new approaches to vaccine delivery. ..
  10. Cheng X, Zhou H, Tang R, Munoz M, Jin H. Chimeric subgroup A respiratory syncytial virus with the glycoproteins substituted by those of subgroup B and RSV without the M2-2 gene are attenuated in African green monkeys. Virology. 2001;283:59-68 pubmed
    ..rA2DeltaM2-2 and rA-G(B)F(B)DeltaM2-2 could represent a bivalent RSV vaccine composition for protection against multiple strains from the two RSV subgroups. ..
  11. Delgado M, Coviello S, Monsalvo A, Melendi G, Hernandez J, Batalle J, et al. Lack of antibody affinity maturation due to poor Toll-like receptor stimulation leads to enhanced respiratory syncytial virus disease. Nat Med. 2009;15:34-41 pubmed publisher
    ..It also suggests that inactivated RSV vaccines may be rendered safe and effective by inclusion of TLR agonists in their formulation, and it identifies affinity maturation as a key factor for the safe immunization of infants. ..
  12. Belshe R, Newman F, Anderson E, Wright P, Karron R, Tollefson S, et al. Evaluation of combined live, attenuated respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza 3 virus vaccines in infants and young children. J Infect Dis. 2004;190:2096-103 pubmed
    ..Both vaccines were immunogenic, and antibody responses were similar between the monovalent groups and the combination group. Combined RSV/PV3 vaccine is feasible for simultaneous administration, and further studies are warranted. ..
  13. Olson M, Varga S. Pulmonary immunity and immunopathology: lessons from respiratory syncytial virus. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2008;7:1239-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Efficacious immunization against RSV remains a high priority within the field and we will highlight recent advances made in vaccine design. ..
  14. Cormier S, You D, Honnegowda S. The use of a neonatal mouse model to study respiratory syncytial virus infections. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2010;8:1371-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews available information on current murine and emerging neonatal mouse RSV models. ..
  15. Sawada A, Komase K, Nakayama T. AIK-C measles vaccine expressing fusion protein of respiratory syncytial virus induces protective antibodies in cotton rats. Vaccine. 2011;29:1481-90 pubmed publisher
    ..MVAIK/RSV/F is promising candidate and protective effects should be confirmed in monkey model. ..
  16. Groothuis J, Hoopes J, Jessie V. Prevention of serious respiratory syncytial virus-related illness. I: Disease pathogenesis and early attempts at prevention. Adv Ther. 2011;28:91-109 pubmed publisher
    ..As of early 2010, only two companies or institutions had RSV vaccine candidates in early clinical trials, and no vaccine is likely to be licensed for marketing in the immediate future. ..
  17. Collins P, Melero J. Progress in understanding and controlling respiratory syncytial virus: still crazy after all these years. Virus Res. 2011;162:80-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Vaccines and new antiviral drugs are in pre-clinical and clinical development, but controlling RSV remains a formidable challenge. ..
  18. Power U, Nguyen T, Rietveld E, de Swart R, Groen J, Osterhaus A, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of a novel recombinant subunit respiratory syncytial virus vaccine (BBG2Na) in healthy young adults. J Infect Dis. 2001;184:1456-60 pubmed
    ..Antibody responses to 2 murine lung protective epitopes were also highly boosted after vaccination. Therefore, BBG2Na is safe, well tolerated, and highly immunogenic in RSV-seropositive adults. ..
  19. Schickli J, Dubovsky F, Tang R. Challenges in developing a pediatric RSV vaccine. Hum Vaccin. 2009;5:582-91 pubmed
  20. Anderson L, Dormitzer P, Nokes D, Rappuoli R, Roca A, Graham B. Strategic priorities for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine development. Vaccine. 2013;31 Suppl 2:B209-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Addressing these challenges and needs should improve the efficiency and speed of achieving a safe and effective, licensed RSV vaccine. ..
  21. Kamphuis T, Meijerhof T, Stegmann T, Lederhofer J, Wilschut J, de Haan A. Immunogenicity and protective capacity of a virosomal respiratory syncytial virus vaccine adjuvanted with monophosphoryl lipid A in mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36812 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data demonstrate that RSV-MPLA virosomes represent a safe and efficacious vaccine candidate which warrants further evaluation...
  22. Luongo C, Winter C, Collins P, Buchholz U. Respiratory syncytial virus modified by deletions of the NS2 gene and amino acid S1313 of the L polymerase protein is a temperature-sensitive, live-attenuated vaccine candidate that is phenotypically stable at physiological temperature. J Virol. 2013;87:1985-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The level of attenuation and genetic stability identify ?NS2/?1313/1314L as a promising candidate for evaluation in pediatric phase I studies. ..
  23. Power U. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccines--two steps back for one leap forward. J Clin Virol. 2008;41:38-44 pubmed
    ..Taking the necessary steps back to generate such knowledge will provide the means to leap forward in our quest for a successful RSV vaccine. Recent developments relating to some of these questions are discussed...
  24. Karron R, Wright P, Belshe R, Thumar B, Casey R, Newman F, et al. Identification of a recombinant live attenuated respiratory syncytial virus vaccine candidate that is highly attenuated in infants. J Infect Dis. 2005;191:1093-104 pubmed
    ..Additional studies are needed to determine whether rA2cp248/404/1030 Delta SH can induce protective immunity against wild-type RSV. ..
  25. Takimoto T, Hurwitz J, Zhan X, Krishnamurthy S, Prouser C, Brown B, et al. Recombinant Sendai virus as a novel vaccine candidate for respiratory syncytial virus. Viral Immunol. 2005;18:255-66 pubmed
    ..Sendai virus may prove an enormously valuable vaccine platform, permitting the delivery of recombinants targeting important pediatric respiratory pathogens, RSV chief among them. ..
  26. Chen M, Hu K, Rozell B, Orvell C, Morein B, Liljestrom P. Vaccination with recombinant alphavirus or immune-stimulating complex antigen against respiratory syncytial virus. J Immunol. 2002;169:3208-16 pubmed
  27. Plotnicky H, Siegrist C, Aubry J, Bonnefoy J, Corvaia N, Nguyen T, et al. Enhanced pulmonary immunopathology following neonatal priming with formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus but not with the BBG2NA vaccine candidate. Vaccine. 2003;21:2651-60 pubmed
    ..Importantly, our data emphasize that the induction of Th2-like responses by RSV subunit vaccines do not necessarily imply lung immunopathology. ..
  28. Boukhvalova M, Prince G, Soroush L, Harrigan D, Vogel S, Blanco J. The TLR4 agonist, monophosphoryl lipid A, attenuates the cytokine storm associated with respiratory syncytial virus vaccine-enhanced disease. Vaccine. 2006;24:5027-35 pubmed
    ..Our data illustrate the complexity of proinflammatory response elicited by FI-RSV vaccination and RSV infection and the potential importance of MPL in modifying this response. ..
  29. Quan F, Kim Y, Lee S, Yi H, Kang S, Bozja J, et al. Viruslike particle vaccine induces protection against respiratory syncytial virus infection in mice. J Infect Dis. 2011;204:987-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite decades of research with traditional or subunit vaccine approaches, there are no approved RSV vaccines. New approaches are therefore urgently needed to develop effective RSV vaccines...
  30. McGinnes L, Gravel K, Finberg R, Kurt Jones E, Massare M, Smith G, et al. Assembly and immunological properties of Newcastle disease virus-like particles containing the respiratory syncytial virus F and G proteins. J Virol. 2011;85:366-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that these VLPs are effective RSV vaccines in mice, in contrast to other nonreplicating RSV vaccine candidates. ..
  31. Stegmann T, Kamphuis T, Meijerhof T, Goud E, de Haan A, Wilschut J. Lipopeptide-adjuvanted respiratory syncytial virus virosomes: A safe and immunogenic non-replicating vaccine formulation. Vaccine. 2010;28:5543-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, these virosomes represent a promising candidate inactivated RSV vaccine formulation. ..
  32. Graham B. Biological challenges and technological opportunities for respiratory syncytial virus vaccine development. Immunol Rev. 2011;239:149-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These new technologies may allow development of vaccines that can protect against RSV-mediated disease in infants and establish a new immunological paradigm in the host to achieve more durable protection against reinfection. ..
  33. Takimoto T, Hurwitz J, Coleclough C, Prouser C, Krishnamurthy S, Zhan X, et al. Recombinant Sendai virus expressing the G glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) elicits immune protection against RSV. J Virol. 2004;78:6043-7 pubmed
    ..RSV G-recombinant SV is thus a promising live virus vaccine candidate for RSV. ..
  34. Stevens W, Sun J, Castillo J, Braciale T. Pulmonary eosinophilia is attenuated by early responding CD8(+) memory T cells in a murine model of RSV vaccine-enhanced disease. Viral Immunol. 2009;22:243-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Rather, we demonstrate that IL-10 produced by early responding CD8(+) Tm cells may regulate the pulmonary eosinophilia development observed in RSV vaccine-enhanced disease. ..
  35. Mottram P, Leong D, Crimeen Irwin B, Gloster S, Xiang S, Meanger J, et al. Type 1 and 2 immunity following vaccination is influenced by nanoparticle size: formulation of a model vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus. Mol Pharm. 2007;4:73-84 pubmed
  36. O Neill R, Fitzpatrick J, Glass E, Williams J, Woolliams J. Optimisation of the response to respiratory virus vaccines in cattle. Vet Rec. 2007;161:269-70 pubmed
  37. Wright P, Karron R, Belshe R, Shi J, Randolph V, Collins P, et al. The absence of enhanced disease with wild type respiratory syncytial virus infection occurring after receipt of live, attenuated, respiratory syncytial virus vaccines. Vaccine. 2007;25:7372-8 pubmed
    ..The impact of RSV during this surveillance will inform the design of future efficacy studies with RSV vaccines. ..
  38. Johnson T, Rothenberg M, Graham B. Pulmonary eosinophilia requires interleukin-5, eotaxin-1, and CD4+ T cells in mice immunized with respiratory syncytial virus G glycoprotein. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;84:748-59 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have important implications for the evaluation of candidate RSV vaccines. ..
  39. Zhan X, Slobod K, Krishnamurthy S, Luque L, Takimoto T, Jones B, et al. Sendai virus recombinant vaccine expressing hPIV-3 HN or F elicits protective immunity and combines with a second recombinant to prevent hPIV-1, hPIV-3 and RSV infections. Vaccine. 2008;26:3480-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Results encourage the continued development of the candidate recombinant SeV vaccines to combat serious respiratory infections of children...
  40. Murawski M, McGinnes L, Finberg R, Kurt Jones E, Massare M, Smith G, et al. Newcastle disease virus-like particles containing respiratory syncytial virus G protein induced protection in BALB/c mice, with no evidence of immunopathology. J Virol. 2010;84:1110-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support further development of virus-like particle vaccine candidates for protection against RSV. ..
  41. Jin H, Cheng X, Traina Dorge V, Park H, Zhou H, Soike K, et al. Evaluation of recombinant respiratory syncytial virus gene deletion mutants in African green monkeys for their potential as live attenuated vaccine candidates. Vaccine. 2003;21:3647-52 pubmed
    ..rA2DeltaM2-2, and possibly rA2DeltaM2-2NS2, exhibited the attenuated but protective phenotypes in the monkeys that could be further evaluated as potential live attenuated RSV vaccine candidates in the clinical studies. ..
  42. Schickli J, Kaur J, Tang R. Nonclinical phenotypic and genotypic analyses of a Phase 1 pediatric respiratory syncytial virus vaccine candidate MEDI-559 (rA2cp248/404/1030ΔSH) at permissive and non-permissive temperatures. Virus Res. 2012;169:38-47 pubmed publisher
    ..All the tsi viruses have small plaque phenotypes and are highly attenuated in the lungs of cotton rats. ..
  43. Power U, Huss T, Michaud V, Plotnicky Gilquin H, Bonnefoy J, Nguyen T. Differential histopathology and chemokine gene expression in lung tissues following respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) challenge of formalin-inactivated RSV- or BBG2Na-immunized mice. J Virol. 2001;75:12421-30 pubmed
    ..Consequently, our data suggest that BBG2Na may constitute a safe RSV subunit vaccine for use in seronegative infants. ..
  44. Tang R, MacPhail M, Schickli J, Kaur J, Robinson C, Lawlor H, et al. Parainfluenza virus type 3 expressing the native or soluble fusion (F) Protein of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) confers protection from RSV infection in African green monkeys. J Virol. 2004;78:11198-207 pubmed
    ..The PIV3-vectored RSV vaccines evaluated here further underscore the utility of this vector system for developing safe and immunogenic pediatric respiratory virus vaccines. ..
  45. Chen M, Chang J, Nason M, Rangel D, Gall J, Graham B, et al. A flow cytometry-based assay to assess RSV-specific neutralizing antibody is reproducible, efficient and accurate. J Immunol Methods. 2010;362:180-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe a flow cytometry-based RSV-specific neutralization assay which is more rapid than traditional methods, highly sensitive and highly reproducible. ..
  46. Empey K, Peebles R, Kolls J. Pharmacologic advances in the treatment and prevention of respiratory syncytial virus. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50:1258-67 pubmed publisher
  47. Nokes D, Okiro E, Ngama M, Ochola R, White L, Scott P, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus infection and disease in infants and young children observed from birth in Kilifi District, Kenya. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:50-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Disease resulting from reinfection is common. Our results inform the debate on the target age group and effectiveness of a vaccine. ..
  48. Martinez Sobrido L, Gitiban N, Fernandez Sesma A, Cros J, Mertz S, Jewell N, et al. Protection against respiratory syncytial virus by a recombinant Newcastle disease virus vector. J Virol. 2006;80:1130-9 pubmed
    ..The effectiveness of this vaccine construct reflects the differential abilities of NDV and RSV to promote dendritic cell maturation and is retained even in the absence of a functional IFN-alpha/beta receptor. ..
  49. Castilow E, Legge K, Varga S. Cutting edge: Eosinophils do not contribute to respiratory syncytial virus vaccine-enhanced disease. J Immunol. 2008;181:6692-6 pubmed
    ..Our results have important implications for future RSV vaccine design, suggesting that enhancing a Th1 response may exacerbate disease. ..
  50. Falsey A. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in adults. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2007;28:171-81 pubmed
    ..Infection control measures are critical to limit spread of RSV. Currently, RSV vaccines are not available, but candidate vaccines are being developed. ..
  51. Stevens W, Falsey A, Braciale T. RSV 2007: recent advances in respiratory syncytial virus research. Viral Immunol. 2008;21:133-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, there were two posters sessions displaying more than one hundred abstracts. The following summary provides a review of the proceedings from each session. ..
  52. Openshaw P, Tregoning J. Immune responses and disease enhancement during respiratory syncytial virus infection. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2005;18:541-55 pubmed
  53. Schmidt A, McAuliffe J, Murphy B, Collins P. Recombinant bovine/human parainfluenza virus type 3 (B/HPIV3) expressing the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) G and F proteins can be used to achieve simultaneous mucosal immunization against RSV and HPIV3. J Virol. 2001;75:4594-603 pubmed