rabies vaccines


Summary: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.

Top Publications

  1. Gautret P, Adehossi E, Soula G, Soavi M, Delmont J, Rotivel Y, et al. Rabies exposure in international travelers: do we miss the target?. Int J Infect Dis. 2010;14:e243-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Travelers should be advised about which species of animal are potentially aggressive in their destination country so that they can more easily avoid risk-contacts. ..
  2. Wang L, Sun M, Zhang X, Suo L, Xu R, Zou Y, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of two freeze-dried Vero cell rabies vaccines for human use in post-exposure prophylaxis. Vaccine. 2011;29:2679-81 pubmed publisher
    ..basis for human rabies vaccination in China, the safety and immunogenicity of two freeze-dried Vero cell rabies vaccines for human use were assessed...
  3. Robardet E, Demerson J, Andrieu S, Cliquet F. First European interlaboratory comparison of tetracycline and age determination with red fox teeth following oral rabies vaccination programs. J Wildl Dis. 2012;48:858-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Several changes can be made to improve analysis quality and increase the comparability of bait uptake frequencies among member states. ..
  4. Tenzin -, Dhand N, Ward M. Human rabies post exposure prophylaxis in Bhutan, 2005-2008: trends and risk factors. Vaccine. 2011;29:4094-101 pubmed publisher
    ..A thorough assessment of each individual case based on the WHO guidelines would reduce unnecessary PEP (and therefore costs) in Bhutan...
  5. Blaney J, Wirblich C, Papaneri A, Johnson R, Myers C, Juelich T, et al. Inactivated or live-attenuated bivalent vaccines that confer protection against rabies and Ebola viruses. J Virol. 2011;85:10605-16 pubmed publisher
  6. Tenzin -, Sharma B, Dhand N, Timsina N, Ward M. Reemergence of rabies in Chhukha district, Bhutan, 2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1925-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The outbreak was controlled by culling free-roaming dogs. To prevent spread into the interior of Bhutan, a well-coordinated national rabies control program should be implemented in disease-endemic areas. ..
  7. Altmann M, Parola P, Delmont J, Brouqui P, Gautret P. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of French travelers from Marseille regarding rabies risk and prevention. J Travel Med. 2009;16:107-11 pubmed publisher
    ..5%), bats (17.9%), and cats (15.4%). The KAP of French travelers with regard to travel-associated rabies risk need to be improved, particularly regarding the prevention of animal bites, postbite measures, and their urgency. ..
  8. Papaneri A, Wirblich C, Cann J, Cooper K, Jahrling P, Schnell M, et al. A replication-deficient rabies virus vaccine expressing Ebola virus glycoprotein is highly attenuated for neurovirulence. Virology. 2012;434:18-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our findings indicate that RV-GP retains the attenuation phenotype of the live-attenuated RABV vaccine, and RVΔG-GP would appear to be an even safer alternative for use in wildlife or consideration for human use. ..
  9. Houimel M, Dellagi K. Isolation and characterization of human neutralizing antibodies to rabies virus derived from a recombinant immune antibody library. J Virol Methods. 2009;161:205-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The Fab fragments showed dose-dependent neutralization properties for the challenge virus standard (CVS-11). ..

More Information


  1. Banyard A, Horton D, Freuling C, Muller T, Fooks A. Control and prevention of canine rabies: the need for building laboratory-based surveillance capacity. Antiviral Res. 2013;98:357-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on the global elimination of canine rabies...
  2. Deshmukh D, Damle A, Bajaj J, Bhakre J, Patil N. Fatal rabies despite post-exposure prophylaxis. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2011;29:178-80 pubmed publisher
  3. Jiao W, Yin X, Li Z, Lan X, Li X, Tian X, et al. Molecular characterization of China rabies virus vaccine strain. Virol J. 2011;8:521 pubmed publisher
  4. Warrell M. Current rabies vaccines and prophylaxis schedules: preventing rabies before and after exposure. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2012;10:1-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Provision of economical rabies prophylaxis can be improved. Decisions to change recommendations should take account of the immunological, financial, practical and logistical aspects of dog bite treatment in remote areas. ..
  5. Rupprecht C, Briggs D, Brown C, Franka R, Katz S, Kerr H, et al. Use of a reduced (4-dose) vaccine schedule for postexposure prophylaxis to prevent human rabies: recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010;59:1-9 pubmed
    ..Prompt rabies PEP combining wound care, infiltration of RIG into and around the wound, and multiple doses of rabies cell-culture vaccine continue to be highly effective in preventing human rabies. ..
  6. Dorfmeier C, Lytle A, Dunkel A, Gatt A, McGettigan J. Protective vaccine-induced CD4(+) T cell-independent B cell responses against rabies infection. J Virol. 2012;86:11533-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that vaccines that can exploit early pathways of B cell activation and development may hold the key for the development of a single-dose RV vaccine wherein the rapid induction of VNA is critical. ..
  7. Wu X, Hu R, Zhang Y, Dong G, Rupprecht C. Reemerging rabies and lack of systemic surveillance in People's Republic of China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1159-64 pubmed publisher
    ..A laboratory diagnosis-based epidemiologic surveillance system can provide substantial information about disease transmission and effective prevention strategies. ..
  8. Papaneri A, Wirblich C, Cooper K, Jahrling P, Schnell M, Blaney J. Further characterization of the immune response in mice to inactivated and live rabies vaccines expressing Ebola virus glycoprotein. Vaccine. 2012;30:6136-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of these novel vaccines to induce strong humoral and cellular immunity indicates that they should be further evaluated in additional animal models of infection. ..
  9. Wright E, McNabb S, Goddard T, Horton D, Lembo T, Nel L, et al. A robust lentiviral pseudotype neutralisation assay for in-field serosurveillance of rabies and lyssaviruses in Africa. Vaccine. 2009;27:7178-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest the proposed pseudotype assay is a suitable option for undertaking lyssavirus serosurveillance in areas most affected by these infections. ..
  10. Tao L, Ge J, Wang X, Zhai H, Hua T, Zhao B, et al. Molecular basis of neurovirulence of flury rabies virus vaccine strains: importance of the polymerase and the glycoprotein R333Q mutation. J Virol. 2010;84:8926-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that attenuation of the RV Flury strain results from the coevolution of G and L elements and provide important information for the generation of safer and more effective modified live rabies vaccine...
  11. Malerczyk C, Selhorst T, Tordo N, Moore S, Muller T. Antibodies induced by vaccination with purified chick embryo cell culture vaccine (PCECV) cross-neutralize non-classical bat lyssavirus strains. Vaccine. 2009;27:5320-5 pubmed publisher
    ..50). In conclusion, vaccination with PCECV produces adequate VNA concentrations against classical RABV as well as non-classical lyssavirus strains ABLV, EBLV-1, and EBLV-2. ..
  12. Mulatti P, Ferrè N, Patregnani T, Bonfanti L, Marangon S. Geographical information systems in the management of the 2009-2010 emergency oral anti-rabies vaccination of foxes in north-eastern Italy. Geospat Health. 2011;5:217-26 pubmed
    ..In addition, it facilitated the identification of areas with suboptimal bait density that would require additional flights or supplementary, manual distribution...
  13. Sirikwin S, Likanonsakul S, Waradejwinyoo S, Pattamadilok S, Kumperasart S, Chaovavanich A, et al. Antibody response to an eight-site intradermal rabies vaccination in patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Vaccine. 2009;27:4350-4 pubmed publisher
    ..PCECV is immunogenic in HIV-1-infected patients with CD4+ cell counts below 200 cells/microL when administered in a modified eight-site intradermal PEP regimen. ..
  14. Nigg A, Walker P. Overview, prevention, and treatment of rabies. Pharmacotherapy. 2009;29:1182-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The recently developed Milwaukee Protocol added induction of therapeutic coma to supportive care measures and antivirals; however, its use has shown inconsistent outcomes. ..
  15. Rupprecht C, Briggs D, Brown C, Franka R, Katz S, Kerr H, et al. Evidence for a 4-dose vaccine schedule for human rabies post-exposure prophylaxis in previously non-vaccinated individuals. Vaccine. 2009;27:7141-8 pubmed publisher
  16. Johnson N, Un H, Fooks A, Freuling C, Muller T, Aylan O, et al. Rabies epidemiology and control in Turkey: past and present. Epidemiol Infect. 2010;138:305-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This review considers the current state of rabies in Turkey including current control measures, the varying epidemiology of the disease throughout this country and the prospects for rabies elimination. ..
  17. Ramya R, Verma P, Chaturvedi V, Gupta P, Pandey K, Madhanmohan M, et al. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres: a potent oral delivery system to elicit systemic immune response against inactivated rabies virus. Vaccine. 2009;27:2138-43 pubmed publisher
    ..001) higher than those of mice immunized orally with CRV alone. These data suggest that the PLG encapsulated inactivated rabies virus can be used for oral immunization against rabies. ..
  18. Rosatte R, Donovan D, Allan M, Bruce L, Buchanan T, Sobey K, et al. The control of raccoon rabies in Ontario Canada: proactive and reactive tactics, 1994-2007. J Wildl Dis. 2009;45:772-84 pubmed
    ..The last case occurred on 23 September 2005 with Ontario being free of reported raccoon rabies to 10 November 2008, proving that TVR and PIC are effective tactics for the control of this disease...
  19. Mills D, Lau C, Weinstein P. Animal bites and rabies exposure in Australian travellers. Med J Aust. 2011;195:673-5 pubmed
    ..To examine the circumstances of animal exposure in a case series of Australian travellers who required rabies postexposure prophylaxis, and to assess the appropriateness of current guidelines for rabies pre-exposure vaccination...
  20. Dodet B. Report of the Fifth AREB Meeting Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 17-20 November 2008. Vaccine. 2009;27:2403-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A review of national and international guidelines concerning rabies prophylaxis and their application in the Asian situation showed that some issues require further evaluation or clarification. ..
  21. Kaur M, Saxena A, Rai A, Bhatnagar R. Rabies DNA vaccine encoding lysosome-targeted glycoprotein supplemented with Emulsigen-D confers complete protection in preexposure and postexposure studies in BALB/c mice. FASEB J. 2010;24:173-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The World Health Organization recommended rabies protective titer threshold is 0.5 IU/ml. Thus, this optimized DNA vaccine formulation provides an avenue for preventing and controlling rabies. ..
  22. . Rabies vaccines: WHO position paper--recommendations. Vaccine. 2010;28:7140-2 pubmed publisher
    This article presents the WHO recommendations on the use of rabies vaccines excerpted from the recently published Rabies vaccines: WHO position paper...
  23. Franka R, Wu X, Jackson F, Velasco Villa A, Palmer D, Henderson H, et al. Rabies virus pathogenesis in relationship to intervention with inactivated and attenuated rabies vaccines. Vaccine. 2009;27:7149-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Reduced vaccine schedules provided efficacious intervention, regardless of the total number of vaccine doses administered. ..
  24. Shim E, Hampson K, Cleaveland S, Galvani A. Evaluating the cost-effectiveness of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis: a case study in Tanzania. Vaccine. 2009;27:7167-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, PEP remains "very cost-effective" provided that at least 1% of doses are administered to people who were actually exposed to rabies. ..
  25. Evans J, Horton D, Easton A, Fooks A, Banyard A. Rabies virus vaccines: is there a need for a pan-lyssavirus vaccine?. Vaccine. 2012;30:7447-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Critically, from both a human and animal health perspective, current rabies vaccines appear able to protect against lyssaviruses classified within phylogroup I...
  26. Duan Y, Gu T, Jiang C, Yuan R, Zhang H, Hou H, et al. A novel disulfide-stabilized single-chain variable antibody fragment against rabies virus G protein with enhanced in vivo neutralizing potency. Mol Immunol. 2012;51:188-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings from these stabilization modifications support the feasibility of developing scFvs for PEP treatment of rabies...
  27. Lembo T, Hampson K, Kaare M, Ernest E, Knobel D, Kazwala R, et al. The feasibility of canine rabies elimination in Africa: dispelling doubts with data. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e626 pubmed publisher
  28. Totton S, Wandeler A, Zinsstag J, Bauch C, Ribble C, Rosatte R, et al. Stray dog population demographics in Jodhpur, India following a population control/rabies vaccination program. Prev Vet Med. 2010;97:51-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A surgical sterilization coverage under 40% would maintain the dog population at current levels. ..
  29. Faber M, Li J, Kean R, Hooper D, Alugupalli K, Dietzschold B. Effective preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis of rabies with a highly attenuated recombinant rabies virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:11300-5 pubmed publisher
  30. Zinsstag J, Durr S, Penny M, Mindekem R, Roth F, Menendez Gonzalez S, et al. Transmission dynamics and economics of rabies control in dogs and humans in an African city. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14996-5001 pubmed publisher
    ..Beyond a time-frame of 7 years, it appears to be more cost-effective to combine parenteral dog-vaccination campaigns with human PEP compared to human PEP alone. ..
  31. Slate D, Algeo T, Nelson K, Chipman R, Donovan D, Blanton J, et al. Oral rabies vaccination in north america: opportunities, complexities, and challenges. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3:e549 pubmed publisher
    ..Progress continues toward the development and testing of new bait-vaccine combinations that increase the chance for improved delivery and performance in the diverse meso-carnivore rabies reservoir complex in the US. ..
  32. Shantavasinkul P, Tantawichien T, Wacharapluesadee S, Jeamanukoolkit A, Udomchaisakul P, Chattranukulchai P, et al. Failure of rabies postexposure prophylaxis in patients presenting with unusual manifestations. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50:77-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Atypical presentations and history of rabies postexposure prophylaxis led to delayed diagnosis. Nucleocapsid and glycoprotein genes of rabies viruses from the patient's and biting dog's brains were of identical sequences. ..
  33. Root J, Puskas R, Fischer J, Swope C, Neubaum M, Reeder S, et al. Landscape genetics of raccoons (Procyon lotor) associated with ridges and valleys of Pennsylvania: implications for oral rabies vaccination programs. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009;9:583-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results may be of value for future ORV efforts in Pennsylvania and other eastern states with similar landscapes. ..
  34. Ichhpujani R, Mala C, Veena M, Singh J, Bhardwaj M, Bhattacharya D, et al. Epidemiology of animal bites and rabies cases in India. A multicentric study. J Commun Dis. 2008;40:27-36 pubmed
    ..There is a need to create awareness regarding epidemiology and at-home and hospital management of animal bites among the service providers and general community. ..
  35. Bojang K, Milligan P, Pinder M, Doherty T, Leach A, Ofori Anyinam O, et al. Five-year safety and immunogenicity of GlaxoSmithKline's candidate malaria vaccine RTS,S/AS02 following administration to semi-immune adult men living in a malaria-endemic region of The Gambia. Hum Vaccin. 2009;5:242-7 pubmed
    ..This study provides the first indication of the long-term safety and persistence of anti-CS and anti-HBs antibodies of the RTS,S vaccine candidate in combination with the novel AS02 Adjuvant System. ..
  36. Welch R, Anderson B, Litwin C. An evaluation of two commercially available ELISAs and one in-house reference laboratory ELISA for the determination of human anti-rabies virus antibodies. J Med Microbiol. 2009;58:806-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study offer insight into the availability of alternative, less-complex methods to monitor rabies antibody titres in at-risk individuals following vaccination. ..
  37. Un H, Eskiizmirliler S, Unal N, Freuling C, Johnson N, Fooks A, et al. Oral vaccination of foxes against rabies in Turkey between 2008 and 2010. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2012;125:203-8 pubmed
    ..However, for the progress towards the elimination of fox-mediated rabies in Turkey to be maintained, it is necessary that political and financial support is secured to extend oral vaccination where infected foxes remain...
  38. Wu X, Franka R, Svoboda P, Pohl J, Rupprecht C. Development of combined vaccines for rabies and immunocontraception. Vaccine. 2009;27:7202-9 pubmed publisher
    ..An effective sterilant based on rabies vaccines has the potential to create a supportive measure of public acceptability and to reduce associated clinic ..
  39. Lardon Z, Watier L, Brunet A, Bernede C, Goudal M, Dacheux L, et al. Imported episodic rabies increases patient demand for and physician delivery of antirabies prophylaxis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e723 pubmed publisher
  40. Song M, Tang Q, Wang D, Mo Z, Guo S, Li H, et al. Epidemiological investigations of human rabies in China. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:210 pubmed publisher
    ..4) The cost of PEP should be decreased or free, especially in rural areas. (5)Education of the public and health care staff should be enhanced. ..
  41. McGettigan J. Experimental rabies vaccines for humans. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2010;9:1177-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The usefulness of human rabies vaccines is hampered by high cost, complicated vaccination regimens and lack of compliance, especially in areas of ..
  42. Gautret P, Lim P, Shaw M, Leder K. Rabies post-exposure prophylaxis in travellers returning from Bali, Indonesia, November 2008 to March 2010. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17:445-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The data demonstrate that the majority of animal-related injuries in travellers returning from Bali are associated with exposure to monkeys, and not dog bites/scratches. The clinical implications of this are discussed...
  43. Shantavasinkul P, Tantawichien T, Wilde H, Sawangvaree A, Kumchat A, Ruksaket N, et al. Postexposure rabies prophylaxis completed in 1 week: preliminary study. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50:56-60 pubmed publisher
    ..It increased immunogenicity over the 2-site intradermal schedule, and it is convenient and can be used in small clinics, because it consumes almost the entire supplied vaccine ampoule volume. ..
  44. VERMA R, Khanna P, Prinja S, Rajput M. Intra-dermal administration of rabies vaccines in developing countries: at an affordable cost. Hum Vaccin. 2011;7:792-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The ID route is ideal in terms of economic benefits, safety and efficacy. This reduces the cost of vaccination by about 68%, which is clearly an attractive option for resource-starved countries like India. ..
  45. Sterner R, Meltzer M, Shwiff S, Slate D. Tactics and economics of wildlife oral rabies vaccination, Canada and the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1176-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Modeling studies, involving diverse assumptions, have shown that ORV programs can be cost-efficient and yield benefit:cost ratios >1.0...
  46. Gomme E, Faul E, Flomenberg P, McGettigan J, Schnell M. Characterization of a single-cycle rabies virus-based vaccine vector. J Virol. 2010;84:2820-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that single-cycle RV is an effective alternative to replication-competent RV vectors for future development of vaccines for HIV-1 and other infectious diseases. ..
  47. Hicks D, Fooks A, Johnson N. Developments in rabies vaccines. Clin Exp Immunol. 2012;169:199-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Preliminary reports suggest that direct inoculation of such viruses could trigger an effective anti-viral response and prevent a fatal outcome from RABV infection...
  48. Johnson N, Vos A, Freuling C, Tordo N, Fooks A, Muller T. Human rabies due to lyssavirus infection of bat origin. Vet Microbiol. 2010;142:151-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Many diagnostic techniques are unable to differentiate rabies virus from other genotypes so it is possible that some human and animal cases go unreported. Furthermore, current vaccines have limited efficacy against some genotypes. ..
  49. Pengsaa K, Limkittikul K, Sabchareon A, Ariyasriwatana C, Chanthavanich P, Attanath P, et al. A three-year clinical study on immunogenicity, safety, and booster response of purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine administered intramuscularly or intradermally to 12- to 18-month-old Thai children, concomitantly with Japanese encephalitis vacc. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28:335-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The inclusion of rabies vaccine in the expanded program on immunization should be considered in rabies endemic countries. ..
  50. Johnson N, Cunningham A, Fooks A. The immune response to rabies virus infection and vaccination. Vaccine. 2010;28:3896-901 pubmed publisher
    ..This could help identify ways in which the response to prophylactic vaccination can be enhanced and how the natural immune response to infection can be boosted to combat neuroinvasion. ..
  51. Sobey K, Rosatte R, Bachmann P, Buchanan T, Bruce L, Donovan D, et al. Field evaluation of an inactivated vaccine to control raccoon rabies in Ontario, Canada. J Wildl Dis. 2010;46:818-31 pubmed
    ..A strong anamnestic response was detected after booster vaccinations. IMRAB3 by IM injection was found to be an efficacious vaccine for rabies control in raccoons...
  52. Cliquet F, Robardet E, Must K, Laine M, Peik K, Picard Meyer E, et al. Eliminating rabies in Estonia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1535 pubmed publisher
    ..An analysis of the number of baits distributed and the funding allocated by the European Commission showed that the strategy for rabies control is more cost-effective in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania...
  53. Shwiff S, Kirkpatrick K, Sterner R. Economic evaluation of an oral rabies vaccination program for control of a domestic dog-coyote rabies epizootic: 1995-2006. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008;233:1736-41 pubmed publisher
    ..To conduct a benefit-cost analysis of the results of the domestic dog and coyote (DDC) oral rabies vaccine (ORV) program in Texas from 1995 through 2006 by use of fiscal records and relevant public health data...