oral poliovirus vaccine


Summary: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Kew O, Morris Glasgow V, Landaverde M, Burns C, Shaw J, Garib Z, et al. Outbreak of poliomyelitis in Hispaniola associated with circulating type 1 vaccine-derived poliovirus. Science. 2002;296:356-9 pubmed
    ..vaccinated children, and cases occurred in communities with very low (7 to 40%) rates of coverage with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV)...
  2. Breiman R, Brooks W, Goswami D, Lagos R, Borja Tabora C, Lanata C, et al. A multinational, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to assess the immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of live attenuated influenza vaccine coadministered with oral poliovirus vaccine in healthy young children. Vaccine. 2009;27:5472-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this noninferiority trial conducted in Asia and South America, where oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) is still used, 2503 children aged 6 to <36 months with three polio immunizations were randomized ..
  3. Knolle H, Egli A, Candrian U. [The perspective of global eradication of poliomyelitis]. Gesundheitswesen. 2004;66:1-6 pubmed
    ..We therefore plead for a vaccination schedule that includes at least one last dose of OPV to induce strong mucosal immunity. ..
  4. John T. Vaccine-associated paralytic polio in India. Bull World Health Organ. 2002;80:917 pubmed
  5. van der Sanden S, Pallansch M, van de Kassteele J, El Sayed N, Sutter R, Koopmans M, et al. Shedding of vaccine viruses with increased antigenic and genetic divergence after vaccination of newborns with monovalent type 1 oral poliovirus vaccine. J Virol. 2009;83:8693-704 pubmed publisher
    ..of poliovirus type 1 (P1), the World Health Organization advocates the selective use of monovalent type 1 oral poliovirus vaccine (mOPV1)...
  6. Pavlov D, van Zyl W, van Heerden J, Grabow W, Ehlers M. Prevalence of vaccine-derived polioviruses in sewage and river water in South Africa. Water Res. 2005;39:3309-19 pubmed
    ..absence of polio cases would have important implications for strategies to terminate immunisation with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) following global polio eradication...
  7. Blomqvist S, Savolainen C, Laine P, Hirttiö P, Lamminsalo E, Penttilä E, et al. Characterization of a highly evolved vaccine-derived poliovirus type 3 isolated from sewage in Estonia. J Virol. 2004;78:4876-83 pubmed
    ..In spite of the apparent transmission potential, no evidence was obtained for circulation of the virus in the Estonian population. ..
  8. Arita M, Zhu S, Yoshida H, Yoneyama T, Miyamura T, Shimizu H. A Sabin 3-derived poliovirus recombinant contained a sequence homologous with indigenous human enterovirus species C in the viral polymerase coding region. J Virol. 2005;79:12650-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggested that a part of the 3D(pol) coding region of PV3(Cambodia-02) was derived from a HEV-C strain genetically related to indigenous CAV13-CAV18 strains in 2002 in Cambodia...
  9. Liu H, Zheng D, Zhang L, Oberste M, Kew O, Pallansch M. Serial recombination during circulation of type 1 wild-vaccine recombinant polioviruses in China. J Virol. 2003;77:10994-1005 pubmed
    ..The appearance within approximately 2.5 years of five recombinant classes derived from a single ancestral infection illustrates the rapid emergence of new recombinants among circulating wild polioviruses. ..

More Information


  1. Buttinelli G, Donati V, Fiore S, Marturano J, Plebani A, Balestri P, et al. Nucleotide variation in Sabin type 2 poliovirus from an immunodeficient patient with poliomyelitis. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:1215-21 pubmed
    ..a 2-year-old agammaglobulinaemic child who developed paralysis 1 year after receiving the third dose of oral poliovirus vaccine, were analysed. The virus revealed 0...
  2. Halsey N, Pinto J, Espinosa Rosales F, Faure Fontenla M, da Silva E, Khan A, et al. Search for poliovirus carriers among people with primary immune deficiency diseases in the United States, Mexico, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Bull World Health Organ. 2004;82:3-8 pubmed
    ..To estimate the rate of long-term poliovirus excretors in people known to have B-cell immune deficiency disorders...
  3. Kew O, Wright P, Agol V, Delpeyroux F, Shimizu H, Nathanson N, et al. Circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses: current state of knowledge. Bull World Health Organ. 2004;82:16-23 pubmed
    ..have also detected the circulation of endemic cVDPV in Egypt (1988-93) and the likely localized spread of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV)-derived virus in Belarus (1965-66)...
  4. Agol V. Vaccine-derived polioviruses. Biologicals. 2006;34:103-8 pubmed
    ..To achieve this goal, stimulation of poliovirus research and elimination of organizational and financial obstacles preventing it are needed. ..
  5. Breiman R, Streatfield P, Phelan M, Shifa N, Rashid M, Yunus M. Effect of infant immunisation on childhood mortality in rural Bangladesh: analysis of health and demographic surveillance data. Lancet. 2004;364:2204-11 pubmed
    ..Our findings show the value of population-based health surveillance systems. ..
  6. Mueller J, Bessaud M, Huang Q, Martinez L, Barril P, Morel V, et al. Environmental poliovirus surveillance during oral poliovirus vaccine and inactivated poliovirus vaccine use in Córdoba Province, Argentina. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:1395-401 pubmed publisher
    This study compares the presence of environmental poliovirus in two Argentinean populations using oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) or inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV)...
  7. Yakovenko M, Cherkasova E, Rezapkin G, Ivanova O, Ivanov A, Eremeeva T, et al. Antigenic evolution of vaccine-derived polioviruses: changes in individual epitopes and relative stability of the overall immunological properties. J Virol. 2006;80:2641-53 pubmed
    The Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) readily undergoes changes in antigenic sites upon replication in humans...
  8. Romanenkova N, Guillot S, Rozaeva N, Crainic R, Bichurina M, Delpeyroux F. Use of a multiple restriction fragment length polymorphism method for detecting vaccine-derived polioviruses in clinical samples. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:4077-84 pubmed
    ..RFLP) method to investigate the frequency of these VDPV in a population with a high level of oral poliovirus vaccine coverage in northwestern Russia...
  9. Kimman T, Boot H. The polio eradication effort has been a great success--let's finish it and replace it with something even better. Lancet Infect Dis. 2006;6:675-8 pubmed
    ..Such a policy will present multiple challenges. ..
  10. Laassri M, Lottenbach K, Belshe R, Wolff M, Rennels M, Plotkin S, et al. Effect of different vaccination schedules on excretion of oral poliovirus vaccine strains. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:2092-8 pubmed
    Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is believed to induce significantly lower mucosal immunity than oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Most of the data supporting this were generated before enhanced IPV (eIPV) was introduced...
  11. Khetsuriani N, Prevots D, Quick L, Elder M, Pallansch M, Kew O, et al. Persistence of vaccine-derived polioviruses among immunodeficient persons with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis. J Infect Dis. 2003;188:1845-52 pubmed
    ..These results are important for developing "endgame" strategies for the Global Poliomyelitis Eradication Program...
  12. Sutter R, John T, Jain H, Agarkhedkar S, Ramanan P, Verma H, et al. Immunogenicity of bivalent types 1 and 3 oral poliovirus vaccine: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial. Lancet. 2010;376:1682-8 pubmed publisher
    Poliovirus types 1 and 3 co-circulate in poliomyelitis-endemic countries. We aimed to assess the immunogenicity of a novel bivalent types 1 and 3 oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV).
  13. Grassly N, Jafari H, Bahl S, Durrani S, Wenger J, Sutter R, et al. Mucosal immunity after vaccination with monovalent and trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine in India. J Infect Dis. 2009;200:794-801 pubmed publisher
    Persistent wild-poliovirus transmission, particularly in India, has raised questions about the degree of mucosal immunity induced by oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in tropical countries.
  14. El Sayed N, El Gamal Y, Abbassy A, Seoud I, Salama M, Kandeel A, et al. Monovalent type 1 oral poliovirus vaccine in newborns. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:1655-65 pubmed publisher
    ..World Health Organization called for the development of a potentially more immunogenic monovalent type 1 oral poliovirus vaccine. We conducted a trial in Egypt to compare the immunogenicity of a newly licensed monovalent type 1 oral ..
  15. Mamishi S, Shahmahmoudi S, Tabatabaie H, Teimourian S, Pourakbari B, Gheisari Y, et al. Novel BTK mutation presenting with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis. Eur J Pediatr. 2008;167:1335-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that a negative history for recurrent infections does not exclude the presence of a primary defect in the immune system. ..
  16. Combiescu M, Guillot S, Persu A, Baicus A, Pitigoi D, Balanant J, et al. Circulation of a type 1 recombinant vaccine-derived poliovirus strain in a limited area in Romania. Arch Virol. 2007;152:727-38 pubmed
    ..These results reaffirm the importance of active surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis and poliovirus in both polio-free and polio-endemic countries. ..
  17. Aaby P, Hedegaard K, Sodemann M, Nhante E, Veirum J, Jakobsen M, et al. Childhood mortality after oral polio immunisation campaign in Guinea-Bissau. Vaccine. 2005;23:1746-51 pubmed
    ..Studies of the possible non-specific effects of oral polio vaccine are warranted before OPV is withdrawn. ..
  18. Shimizu H, Thorley B, Paladin F, Brussen K, Stambos V, Yuen L, et al. Circulation of type 1 vaccine-derived poliovirus in the Philippines in 2001. J Virol. 2004;78:13512-21 pubmed
    ..strain but most of the noncapsid region was derived from an unidentified enterovirus unrelated to the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) strains...
  19. Alexander L, Seward J, Santibanez T, Pallansch M, Kew O, Prevots D, et al. Vaccine policy changes and epidemiology of poliomyelitis in the United States. JAMA. 2004;292:1696-701 pubmed
    ..United States due to indigenously acquired wild poliovirus occurred in 1979; however, as a consequence of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) use that began in 1961, an average of 9 cases of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) ..
  20. Martinez C, Old M, Kwock D, Khan S, Garcia J, Chan C, et al. Shedding of sabin poliovirus Type 3 containing the nucleotide 472 uracil-to-cytosine point mutation after administration of oral poliovirus vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2004;190:409-16 pubmed
    A uracil-to-cytosine point mutation at nucleotide (nt) 472 of Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) type 3 is found in conjunction with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP)...
  21. John T. A developing country perspective on vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis. Bull World Health Organ. 2004;82:53-7; discussion 57-8 pubmed
    When the Expanded Programme on Immunization was established and oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) was introduced for developing countries to use exclusively, national leaders of public health had no opportunity to make an informed choice ..
  22. Fine P, Oblapenko G, Sutter R. Polio control after certification: major issues outstanding. Bull World Health Organ. 2004;82:47-52 pubmed
    ..Although it has been suggested that the stockpile should consist of monovalent oral poliovirus vaccine (mOPV), many questions remain concerning its nature, financing, management, and use--in particular, ..
  23. Chowdhary R, Dhole T. Interrupting wild poliovirus transmission using oral poliovirus vaccine: environmental surveillance in high-risks area of India. J Med Virol. 2008;80:1477-88 pubmed publisher
    Global eradication of poliomyelitis has reached critical stage. Sabin Oral Poliovirus Vaccine (OPV) has been successful in three major regions of the world...
  24. Parvaneh N, Shahmahmoudi S, Tabatabai H, Zahraei M, Mousavi T, Esteghamati A, et al. Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in a patient with MHC class II deficiency. J Clin Virol. 2007;39:145-8 pubmed
    ..We describe a fatal case of VAPP in an 8-month-old boy with Major Histocompatibility Class II deficiency. The isolated poliovirus was a Sabin type 2-type 1 recombinant that showed 1.4% VP1 divergence from Sabin type 2. ..
  25. Korotkova E, Park R, Cherkasova E, Lipskaya G, Chumakov K, Feldman E, et al. Retrospective analysis of a local cessation of vaccination against poliomyelitis: a possible scenario for the future. J Virol. 2003;77:12460-5 pubmed
    ..One of the proposed scenarios includes cessation of vaccination with live oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) and the creation of an OPV stockpile for emergency response in case of the reintroduction of ..
  26. Shahmahmoodi S, Parvaneh N, Burns C, Asghar H, Mamishi S, Tabatabaie H, et al. Isolation of a type 3 vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) from an Iranian child with X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Virus Res. 2008;137:168-72 pubmed publisher
    ..No secondary AFP cases were found, and none of the seven tested contacts of the patient were found to be infected with poliovirus. ..
  27. Ciarlet M, Sani Grosso R, Yuan G, Liu G, Heaton P, Gottesdiener K, et al. Concomitant use of the oral pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine and oral poliovirus vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27:874-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This open-label, multicenter study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of coadministering oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) with PRV...
  28. Wilder Smith A, Leder K, Tambyah P. Importation of poliomyelitis by travelers. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:351-2; author reply 352 pubmed publisher
  29. Adu F, Iber J, Bukbuk D, Gumede N, Yang S, Jorba J, et al. Isolation of recombinant type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) from a Nigerian child. Virus Res. 2007;127:17-25 pubmed
    ..of nt position 5840 (in the 3C(pro) region) were derived from species C enteroviruses unrelated to the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) strains...
  30. Benn C, Fisker A, Rodrigues A, Ravn H, Sartono E, Whittle H, et al. Sex-differential effect on infant mortality of oral polio vaccine administered with BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau. A natural experiment. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e4056 pubmed publisher
    ..Poliovirus is almost eradicated and OPV at birth contributes little to herd immunity. A randomised study of the effect of OPV at birth on overall mortality in both sexes is warranted. ..
  31. Kapusinszky B, Molnàr Z, Szomor K, Berencsi G. Molecular characterization of poliovirus isolates from children who contracted vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) following administration of monovalent type 3 oral poliovirus vaccine in the 1960s in Hungary. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2010;58:211-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The VAPP diseases were prevented by a single dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine from 1992 to 2006 in Hungary, as proved by continuous surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis. ..
  32. Aaby P, Rodrigues A, Biai S, Martins C, Veirum J, Benn C, et al. Oral polio vaccination and low case fatality at the paediatric ward in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. Vaccine. 2004;22:3014-7 pubmed
    ..In areas with high mortality, OPV administered alone may have non-specific beneficial effects or DTP may have a negative effect for children who had received both DTP and OPV. ..
  33. Kew O, Sutter R, de Gourville E, Dowdle W, Pallansch M. Vaccine-derived polioviruses and the endgame strategy for global polio eradication. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2005;59:587-635 pubmed
    ..The live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), used for more than four decades to interrupt poliovirus transmission, and the vaccine of choice ..
  34. MacLennan C, Dunn G, Huissoon A, Kumararatne D, Martin J, O Leary P, et al. Failure to clear persistent vaccine-derived neurovirulent poliovirus infection in an immunodeficient man. Lancet. 2004;363:1509-13 pubmed
    ..Chronic vaccine-associated poliovirus infection in hypogammaglobulinaemia is a difficult condition to treat. It represents a risk to the strategy to discontinue polio vaccination once global eradication has been achieved. ..
  35. Dahourou G, Guillot S, Le Gall O, Crainic R. Genetic recombination in wild-type poliovirus. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:3103-10 pubmed
    ..In this way, several wild-type/wild-type and wild-type/vaccine recombinants could be identified, indicating that recombination is encountered commonly in the natural evolution of poliovirus strains. ..
  36. Yang C, Chen H, Jorba J, Sun H, Yang S, Lee H, et al. Intratypic recombination among lineages of type 1 vaccine-derived poliovirus emerging during chronic infection of an immunodeficient patient. J Virol. 2005;79:12623-34 pubmed
    ..The iVDPV isolates differed from the Sabin type 1 oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) strain at 1.84% to 3...
  37. Kohler K, Banerjee K, Gary Hlady W, Andrus J, Sutter R. Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in India during 1999: decreased risk despite massive use of oral polio vaccine. Bull World Health Organ. 2002;80:210-6 pubmed
  38. Yang C, Naguib T, Yang S, Nasr E, Jorba J, Ahmed N, et al. Circulation of endemic type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus in Egypt from 1983 to 1993. J Virol. 2003;77:8366-77 pubmed
    ..revealed that the isolates were related (93 to 97% nucleotide sequence identity) to the Sabin type 2 oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) strain and unrelated (<82% nucleotide sequence identity) to the wild type 2 polioviruses ..
  39. Iwai M, Takizawa T, Nakayama T, Matsuura K, Yoshida H, Hasegawa S, et al. Evaluation of a two-dose administration of live oral poliovirus vaccine for wild and virulent vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1, 2, 3 strains in Japan. Scand J Infect Dis. 2008;40:247-53 pubmed
    We evaluated the efficacy of Japan's vaccination policy, a 2-dose administration of live oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) against wild and virulent vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) type 1, 2, 3 strains, by investigating the neutralizing ..
  40. Ota M, Vekemans J, Schlegel Haueter S, Fielding K, Sanneh M, Kidd M, et al. Influence of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin on antibody and cytokine responses to human neonatal vaccination. J Immunol. 2002;168:919-25 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that BCG influences the immune response to unrelated Ags in early life, likely through its influence on the maturation of dendritic cells. ..
  41. Vekemans J, Ota M, Wang E, Kidd M, Borysiewicz L, Whittle H, et al. T cell responses to vaccines in infants: defective IFNgamma production after oral polio vaccination. Clin Exp Immunol. 2002;127:495-8 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that specific strategies will be required to immunize newborns against pathogens controlled by Th1 type immune responses. ..
  42. Wattigney W, Mootrey G, Braun M, Chen R. Surveillance for poliovirus vaccine adverse events, 1991 to 1998: impact of a sequential vaccination schedule of inactivated poliovirus vaccine followed by oral poliovirus vaccine. Pediatrics. 2001;107:E83 pubmed
    ..in global polio eradication efforts changed the risk-benefit ratio associated with the exclusive use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) for routine immunization...
  43. Cuervo N, Guillot S, Romanenkova N, Combiescu M, Aubert Combiescu A, Seghier M, et al. Genomic features of intertypic recombinant sabin poliovirus strains excreted by primary vaccinees. J Virol. 2001;75:5740-51 pubmed
    ..Thus, VdRec are frequently excreted by vaccinees, and the poliovirus replication machinery requirements or selection factors appear to act in vivo to shape the features of the recombinant genomes. ..
  44. Weckx L, Schmidt B, Herrmann A, Miyasaki C, Novo N. Early immunization of neonates with trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine. Bull World Health Organ. 1992;70:85-91 pubmed
    Described is the evaluation in Brazil of the immune response of early immunization with trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (TOPV)...
  45. Shulman L, Manor Y, Handsher R, Delpeyroux F, McDonough M, Halmut T, et al. Molecular and antigenic characterization of a highly evolved derivative of the type 2 oral poliovaccine strain isolated from sewage in Israel. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:3729-34 pubmed
  46. Friedrich F. Molecular evolution of oral poliovirus vaccine strains during multiplication in humans and possible implications for global eradication of poliovirus. Acta Virol. 2000;44:109-17 pubmed
    The oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has been effectively used in the control of poliomyelitis and in the eradication of wild polioviruses...
  47. Linkins R, Mansour E, Wassif O, Hassan M, Patriarca P. Evaluation of house-to-house versus fixed-site oral poliovirus vaccine delivery strategies in a mass immunization campaign in Egypt. Bull World Health Organ. 1995;73:589-95 pubmed
    ..Most campaigns have delivered oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) from fixed sites, reaching 80-90% of target populations...
  48. Andrianarivelo M, Boisier P, Rabarijaona L, Ratsitorahina M, Migliani R, Zeller H. Mass vaccination campaigns to eradicate poliomyelitis in Madagascar: oral poliovirus vaccine increased immunity of children who missed routine programme. Trop Med Int Health. 2001;6:1032-9 pubmed
    To assess the impact of mass vaccination campaigns using oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in Madagascar, serum neutralizing antibodies and geometrical mean titres (GMTs) to poliovirus were measured among 472 children aged up to 59 months, ..
  49. Yoshida H, Horie H, Matsuura K, Miyamura T. Characterisation of vaccine-derived polioviruses isolated from sewage and river water in Japan. Lancet. 2000;356:1461-3 pubmed
    ..Isolated type 3 viruses were analysed to determine whether they were derived from the live oral poliovirus vaccine strain; they were then tested for neurovirulence by MAPREC...
  50. Osei Kwasi M, Afari E, Mimura K, Obeng Ansah I, Ampofo W, Nkrumah F. Randomized, controlled trial of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (Sabin) starting at birth in Ghana. Bull World Health Organ. 1995;73:41-6 pubmed
    To evaluate the efficacy of the schedule currently recommended for immunization with trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (TOPV) (i.e...
  51. Horie H, Yoshida H, Matsuura K, Miyazawa M, Wakabayashi K, Nomoto A, et al. Isolation of vaccine-derived type 1 polioviruses displaying similar properties to virulent wild strain Mahoney from sewage in Japan. J Med Virol. 2002;68:445-51 pubmed
  52. Bahl R, Bhandari N, Wahed M, Kumar G, Bhan M. Vitamin A supplementation of women postpartum and of their infants at immunization alters breast milk retinol and infant vitamin A status. J Nutr. 2002;132:3243-8 pubmed
    ..001) and maternal and infant supplementation modestly increased (P = 0.03) infant vitamin A status at 6 mo of age. Additional strategies to improve vitamin A status of 6- to 9-mo-old infants must be considered. ..
  53. John T. The golden jubilee of vaccination against poliomyelitis. Indian J Med Res. 2004;119:1-17 pubmed
    ..However, in 1962, when oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) became available, the national policy was shifted to its exclusive use, for reasons other than ..