inactivated poliovirus vaccine


Summary: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.

Top Publications

  1. Mueller J, Bessaud M, Huang Q, Martinez L, Barril P, Morel V, et al. Environmental poliovirus surveillance during oral poliovirus vaccine and inactivated poliovirus vaccine use in Córdoba Province, Argentina. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:1395-401 pubmed publisher
    ..of environmental poliovirus in two Argentinean populations using oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) or inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV)...
  2. Stojanov S, Liese J, Bendjenana H, Harzer E, Barrand M, Jow S, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of a trivalent tetanus, low dose diphtheria, inactivated poliomyelitis booster compared with a standard tetanus, low dose diphtheria booster at six to nine years of age. Munich Vaccine Study Group. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000;19:516-21 pubmed
    ..Reactions were generally mild and all were temporary. A booster dose of Td-IPV induced in all children seroprotection against tetanus, diphtheria and poliomyelitis. The overall safety profile of the two vaccines was acceptable. ..
  3. Giambi C, Bella A, Barale A, Montù D, Marchisio M, Oddone M, et al. A cohort study to evaluate persistence of hepatitis B immunogenicity after administration of hexavalent vaccines. BMC Infect Dis. 2008;8:100 pubmed publisher
    ..However, long-term persistence of HBV protection after hexavalent vaccines administration should be further evaluated over time. ..
  4. Wilder Smith A, Leder K, Tambyah P. Importation of poliomyelitis by travelers. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:351-2; author reply 352 pubmed publisher
  5. Rezapkin G, Martin J, Chumakov K. Analysis of antigenic profiles of inactivated poliovirus vaccine and vaccine-derived polioviruses by block-ELISA method. Biologicals. 2005;33:29-39 pubmed
    ..Quantitative differences in epitope composition were determined for nine samples of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and compared with the International Reference Reagent...
  6. Zinke M, Kappes R, Kindler K, Paulus Koschik A, Goering U, Disselhoff J, et al. Immune memory to hepatitis B virus in 4-9-year old children vaccinated in infancy with four doses of hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine. Hum Vaccin. 2009;5:592-8 pubmed
    ..The HBV vaccine challenge dose was well tolerated. These studies show that primary and booster vaccination with combined DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib (Infanrix hexa) induces sustained immune memory against hepatitis B up to age 9 years. ..
  7. Sormunen H, Stenvik M, Eskola J, Hovi T. Age- and dose-interval-dependent antibody responses to inactivated poliovirus vaccine. J Med Virol. 2001;63:305-10 pubmed
    ..responses were studied in five groups of children immunized with different three-dose schedules of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV)...
  8. Garcia Sicilia J, Schwarz T, Carmona A, Peters K, Malkin J, Tran P, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine coadministered with combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus vaccine to girls and young women. J Adolesc Health. 2010;46:142-51 pubmed publisher
    ..coadministration of HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus vaccine (dTpa-IPV)...
  9. Heininger U, Sanger R, Jacquet J, Schuerman L. Booster immunization with a hexavalent diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, inactivated poliovirus vaccine and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate combination vaccine in the second year of life: safety, immunogenicity and persis. Vaccine. 2007;25:1055-63 pubmed

More Information


  1. Dayan G, Thorley M, Yamamura Y, Rodriguez N, McLaughlin S, Torres L, et al. Serologic response to inactivated poliovirus vaccine: a randomized clinical trial comparing 2 vaccination schedules in Puerto Rico. J Infect Dis. 2007;195:12-20 pubmed
    ..Studies assessing inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) immunogenicity in tropical countries, using the WHO Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) ..
  2. Resik S, Tejeda A, Lago P, Diaz M, Carmenates A, Sarmiento L, et al. Randomized controlled clinical trial of fractional doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine administered intradermally by needle-free device in Cuba. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:1344-52 pubmed publisher
    As part of an evaluation of strategies to make inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) affordable for developing countries, we conducted a clinical trial of fractional doses of IPV in Cuba...
  3. Fine P, Oblapenko G, Sutter R. Polio control after certification: major issues outstanding. Bull World Health Organ. 2004;82:47-52 pubmed
    ..There are further uncertainties concerning the possible role and efficacy of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) used either routinely or in outbreak control in low-hygiene settings, the potential for rapid ..
  4. Pichichero M, Bernstein H, Blatter M, Schuerman L, Cheuvart B, Holmes S. Immunogenicity and safety of a combination diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, and inactivated poliovirus vaccine coadministered with a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate va. J Pediatr. 2007;151:43-9, 49.e1-2 pubmed
    ..05). No group differences were observed in rates of symptoms for which parents sought medical advice. DTaP-HepB-IPV was highly immunogenic and well tolerated when coadministered with Hib and PCV-7 at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. ..
  5. Lim F, Han H, Jacquet J, Bock H. Primary vaccination of infants against hepatitis B can be completed using a combined hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliomyelitis-Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2007;36:801-6 pubmed
    ..We investigated whether a combined hexavalent vaccine, DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib, could replace the separate administration of DTPa-IPV/Hib and HBV for the final vaccination at 5 months of age (Trial DTPa-HBV-IPV-075)...
  6. Wattigney W, Mootrey G, Braun M, Chen R. Surveillance for poliovirus vaccine adverse events, 1991 to 1998: impact of a sequential vaccination schedule of inactivated poliovirus vaccine followed by oral poliovirus vaccine. Pediatrics. 2001;107:E83 pubmed
    ..These changes, plus the November 1987 development of an enhanced-potency inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), which poses no risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP), resulted in a change ..
  7. Tano Y, Shimizu H, Martin J, Nishimura Y, Simizu B, Miyamura T. Antigenic characterization of a formalin-inactivated poliovirus vaccine derived from live-attenuated Sabin strains. Vaccine. 2007;25:7041-6 pubmed
    A candidate inactivated poliovirus vaccine derived from live-attenuated Sabin strains (sIPV), which are used in the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), was prepared in a large-production scale...
  8. Freed G, Cowan A, Clark S, Santoli J, Bradley J. Use of a new combined vaccine in pediatric practices. Pediatrics. 2006;118:e251-7 pubmed
    ..Also, the role of the availability of a given vaccine through the Vaccines for Children program is important in its adoption into practice. ..
  9. Alexander L, Seward J, Santibanez T, Pallansch M, Kew O, Prevots D, et al. Vaccine policy changes and epidemiology of poliomyelitis in the United States. JAMA. 2004;292:1696-701 pubmed
    ..vaccination policy changed in 1997 from reliance on OPV to options for a sequential schedule of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) followed by OPV. In 2000, an exclusive IPV schedule was adopted...
  10. Klein N, Gans H, Sung P, Yasukawa L, Johnson J, Sarafanov A, et al. Preterm infants' T cell responses to inactivated poliovirus vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:214-22 pubmed publisher
    ..weeks) infants to receive 3 doses of diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B virus-inactivated poliovirus vaccine. Whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with poliovirus vaccine, ..
  11. Herremans T, Reimerink J, Buisman A, Kimman T, Koopmans M. Induction of mucosal immunity by inactivated poliovirus vaccine is dependent on previous mucosal contact with live virus. J Immunol. 1999;162:5011-8 pubmed
    The inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is used for protection against poliomyelitis in The Netherlands. It is not clear, however, whether IPV vaccination can lead to priming of the mucosal immune system and the induction of IgA...
  12. Rezapkin G, Dragunsky E, Chumakov K. Improved ELISA test for determination of potency of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (IPV). Biologicals. 2005;33:17-27 pubmed
    An improved ELISA test for determination of potency of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (IPV) is proposed. The method is based on the use of IgG purified from immune rabbit serum conjugated with biotin...
  13. John T. Will India need inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) to complete polio eradication?. Indian J Med Res. 2005;122:365-7 pubmed
  14. Mohammed A, AlAwaidy S, Bawikar S, Kurup P, Elamir E, Shaban M, et al. Fractional doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine in Oman. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:2351-9 pubmed publisher
    We conducted a clinical trial of fractional doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine administered to infants in Oman, in order to evaluate strategies for making the vaccine affordable for use in developing countries.
  15. Ivanov A, Dragunsky E, Chumakov K. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d3 enhances systemic and mucosal immune responses to inactivated poliovirus vaccine in mice. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:598-600 pubmed
    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (DHVD3) coadministered with monovalent inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) of all 3 serotypes significantly enhances antipoliovirus systemic and mucosal immunity in mice...
  16. Mansoor O, Reid S. The future of the immunisation schedule: recommendations of a workshop. N Z Med J. 1999;112:52-5 pubmed
    ..Change to inactivated polio vaccine, once suitable vaccines are available. Consider omitting the fourth dose of polio vaccine. Consider introducing an adult immunisation schedule with fewer adult tetanus-diphtheria boosters. ..
  17. Jarrahian C, Rein Weston A, Saxon G, Creelman B, Kachmarik G, Anand A, et al. Vial usage, device dead space, vaccine wastage, and dose accuracy of intradermal delivery devices for inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). Vaccine. 2017;35:1789-1796 pubmed publisher
    Intradermal delivery of a fractional dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) offers potential benefits compared to intramuscular (IM) delivery, including possible cost reductions and easing of IPV supply shortages...
  18. Baicus A, Persu A, Combiescu M, Aubert Combiescu A. The maintaining of the active laboratory-based surveillance of the acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases in Romania in the framework of the strategic plan of the global polio eradication initiative. Roum Arch Microbiol Immunol. 2007;66:44-50 pubmed
    ..using Oral Poliovirus Vaccine Sabin (OPV); the alternative vaccination schedule (IPV formalin Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine/OPV) will be implemented starting September 2008...
  19. Marshall H, Nolan T, Roberton D, Richmond P, Lambert S, Jacquet J, et al. A comparison of booster immunisation with a combination DTPa-IPV vaccine or DTPa plus IPV in separate injections when co-administered with MMR, at age 4-6 years. Vaccine. 2006;24:6120-8 pubmed
    ..This combined DTPa-IPV vaccine has a similar reactogenicity profile to DTPa, is immunogenic when given as a booster dose at 4-6 years of age, and has no impact on the immunogenicity of a co-administered second dose of MMR vaccine. ..
  20. Dini E, Linkins R, Sigafoos J. The impact of computer-generated messages on childhood immunization coverage. Am J Prev Med. 2000;18:132-9 pubmed
    ..Computer-generated contacts, either by phone or by mail (or both combined), used each time vaccines become due, are efficacious in increasing immunization coverage of children under 2 years of age. ..
  21. Dagan R, Goldblatt D, Maleckar J, Yaich M, Eskola J. Reduction of antibody response to an 11-valent pneumococcal vaccine coadministered with a vaccine containing acellular pertussis components. Infect Immun. 2004;72:5383-91 pubmed
    ..In addition, these combinations contained inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and either whole-cell pertussis (wP) or acellular pertussis (aP) components...
  22. Beytout J, Launay O, Guiso N, Fiquet A, Baudin M, Richard P, et al. Safety of Tdap-IPV given one month after Td-IPV booster in healthy young adults: a placebo-controlled trial. Hum Vaccin. 2009;5:315-21 pubmed
    ..No serious vaccine-related AEs were reported. Both safety profiles corresponded to documented product characteristics. Tdap-IPV may be administered to adults one month after Td-IPV without exacerbating post-vaccination side-effects. ..
  23. Vesikari T, Joensuu J, Baer M, Kayhty H, Olander R, Sormunen H, et al. Concurrent administration of rhesus rotavirus tetravalent (RRV-TV) vaccine with pentavalent diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus-Haemophilus influenzae beta-inactivated polio and hepatitis B vaccines. Acta Paediatr. 1999;88:513-20 pubmed
    ..However, febrile reactions to RRV-TV rotavirus vaccine are common when the first dose is given at the age of 3 mo. ..
  24. Dhillon S, Keam S. DTaP-IPV/Hib vaccine (Pentacel). Paediatr Drugs. 2008;10:405-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The tolerability profile of DTaP-IPV/Hib vaccine was generally similar to that of separately administered DTaP, IPV, and Hib vaccines. ..
  25. Thacker N, Shendurnikar N. Controversies in polio immunization. Indian J Pediatr. 2003;70:567-71 pubmed
    ..Further availability of inactivated polio vaccine in India and its various schedules such as sequential and combination schedules show some promise for polio eradication. ..
  26. Baicus A, Persu A, Popescu M, Penciu A, Stavri S, Soare A, et al. Correlation between vaccine coverage against polio and circulation and genetic evolution of the poliovirus strains isolated in Romania in the framework of the global polio eradication strategy. Roum Arch Microbiol Immunol. 2009;68:145-50 pubmed
    ..The alternative vaccination schedule (formalin inactivated poliovirus vaccine IPV/OPV) has been implemented starting September 2008 and at the begining of 2009 was decided only ..
  27. Pfister R, Aeschbach V, Niksic Stuber V, Martin B, Siegrist C. Safety of DTaP-based combined immunization in very-low-birth-weight premature infants: frequent but mostly benign cardiorespiratory events. J Pediatr. 2004;145:58-66 pubmed
    ..However, these episodes did not have detrimental impact on the infants' clinical course. Timely immunization is warranted even in the most vulnerable preterm infants. ..
  28. Dasgupta R, Chaturvedi S, Adhish S, Ganguly K, Rai S, Sushant L, et al. Social determinants and polio 'endgame': a qualitative study in high risk districts of India. Indian Pediatr. 2008;45:357-65 pubmed
    ..Ongoing dialogue with local communities and strong political commitment would be essential to translate the technological innovations into a sustainable program. ..
  29. Kolasa M, Petersen T, Brink E, Bulim I, Stevenson J, Rodewald L. Impact of multiple injections on immunization rates among vulnerable children. Am J Prev Med. 2001;21:261-6 pubmed
    ..The recent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine recommendations potentially add a fifth injection at 2 and 4 months of age. Acceptance or rejection of five injections by providers and parents needs early assessment. ..
  30. Rennels M, Englund J, Bernstein D, Losonsky G, Anderson E, Pichichero M, et al. Diminution of the anti-polyribosylribitol phosphate response to a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis/Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine by concurrent inactivated poliovirus vaccination. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000;19:417-23 pubmed
    ..However, inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is now recommended...
  31. Lashkevich V. [100 years of studying poliomyelitis virus and nonpoliomyelitis enteroviruses]. Vopr Virusol. 2008;53:41-4 pubmed
    ..Anders in 1949, the development of new diagnostic techniques, the design of inactivated poliovirus vaccine by D. Salk in 1953 and its live vaccine by A. Sabin in 1957...
  32. Sharma D. Polio resurgence in Indian state causes concern. Lancet. 2003;361:148 pubmed
  33. Rekand T, Strand I, Langeland N, Haarr L. [Can poliomyelitis be eradicated in near future?]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2005;125:2516-7 pubmed
  34. Varghese M, Qadeer I, Mohan D. Paralytic poliomyelitis in a rural area of north India. Natl Med J India. 1997;10:8-10 pubmed
    ..Traditional healers and private practitioners should be trained to provide physiotherapy to children with polio and educated about the importance of not giving injections to children with minor fevers. ..
  35. Paul Y. Oral polio vaccines and their role in polio eradication in India. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2009;8:35-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Poor response to oral polio vaccine by some children from these two states could be due to genetic factors. Thus, for polio eradication in India, inactivated polio vaccine is needed. ..
  36. Saleem A, Yousafzai M, Mach O, Khan A, Quadri F, Weldon W, et al. Evaluation of vaccine derived poliovirus type 2 outbreak response options: A randomized controlled trial, Karachi, Pakistan. Vaccine. 2018;36:1766-1771 pubmed publisher
    ..oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV); (2) monovalent OPV 2 (mOPV2); (3) tOPV together with a dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV); or (4) mOPV2 with monovalent high-potency IPV type 2...
  37. Dhillon S. DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib Vaccine (Infanrix hexa): A Review of its Use as Primary and Booster Vaccination. Drugs. 2010;70:1021-58 pubmed publisher
  38. Herremans M, van Loon A, Reimerink J, Rumke H, van der Avoort H, Kimman T, et al. Poliovirus-specific immunoglobulin A in persons vaccinated with inactivated poliovirus vaccine in The Netherlands. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1997;4:499-503 pubmed
    In The Netherlands the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is used for protection against poliomyelitis. It is not clear if parenteral vaccination with IPV can lead to priming of the mucosal immune system...
  39. Omeñaca F, Garcia Sicilia J, Garcia Corbeira P, Boceta R, Torres V. Antipolyribosyl ribitol phosphate response of premature infants to primary and booster vaccination with a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated polio virus/Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine. Pediatrics. 2007;119:e179-85 pubmed
    ..Immunologic response decreased with decreased gestational age and birth weight. ..
  40. Yoshida H, Horie H, Matsuura K, Kitamura T, Hashizume S, Miyamura T. Prevalence of vaccine-derived polioviruses in the environment. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:1107-11 pubmed
    ..A hygiene programme, inactivated poliovirus vaccine immunization and well-maintained herd immunity may play key roles in reducing the potential risk of ..
  41. Mudur G. No eradication of polio without inactivated vaccine, says expert. BMJ. 2003;327:769 pubmed
  42. Blomqvist S, Bruu A, Stenvik M, Hovi T. Characterization of a recombinant type 3/type 2 poliovirus isolated from a healthy vaccinee and containing a chimeric capsid protein VP1. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:573-80 pubmed
    ..Neutralizing antibody titres in sera from Finnish children immunized with the inactivated poliovirus vaccine were not lower against the recombinant virus than against Sabin 3...
  43. Chevallier B, Vesikari T, Brzostek J, Knuf M, Bermal N, Aristegui J, et al. Safety and reactogenicity of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) when coadministered with routine childhood vaccines. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28:S109-18 pubmed publisher
  44. John T. The golden jubilee of vaccination against poliomyelitis. Indian J Med Res. 2004;119:1-17 pubmed
    b>Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), developed in the USA by Jonas Salk in the early 1950s, was field tested in 1954, and found to be safe and effective. The year 2004 marks the golden jubilee of this breakthrough...
  45. Sharma D. Indian experts favour IPV to eradicate polio. Lancet. 2003;362:1292 pubmed
  46. Mell L, Davis R, Mullooly J, Black S, Shinefield H, Zangwill K, et al. Polio extraimmunization in children younger than 2 years after changes in immunization recommendations. Pediatrics. 2003;111:296-301 pubmed
    ..Poliovirus extraimmunization rates have fallen dramatically in association with the change-over to the all inactivated polio virus schedule. ..
  47. Kersten G, Hazendonk T, Beuvery C. Antigenic and immunogenic properties of inactivated polio vaccine made from Sabin strains. Vaccine. 1999;17:2059-66 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that future Sabin-IPV vaccines may have to contain virus amounts that are very different as compared to current IPV vaccines. ..
  48. Groom A, Cheek J, Bryan R. Effect of a national vaccine shortage on vaccine coverage for American Indian/Alaska Native children. Am J Public Health. 2006;96:697-701 pubmed
    ..We must identify ways to ensure more equitable vaccine distribution and consistent implementation of vaccine recommendations to protect all children from vaccine-preventable diseases. ..
  49. Ochiai H, Campbell S, Archer G, Chewning T, Dragunsky E, Ivanov A, et al. Targeted therapy for glioblastoma multiforme neoplastic meningitis with intrathecal delivery of an oncolytic recombinant poliovirus. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:1349-54 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that intrathecal treatment with PVS-RIPO may be useful for treatment of neoplastic meningitis in patients with glioblastoma multiforme and provides a rationale for clinical trials in this area. ..
  50. Dagan R, Poolman J, Zepp F. Combination vaccines containing DTPa-Hib: impact of IPV and coadministration of CRM197 conjugates. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2008;7:97-115 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations underline the need to carefully evaluate upcoming pediatric conjugate vaccines for possible interference effects on the coadministered antigens, with particular attention to hepatitis B and Hib-tetanus toxoid. ..
  51. Ho L, Sugarbaker D, Skarin A. Malignant pleural mesothelioma. Cancer Treat Res. 2001;105:327-73 pubmed
    ..Predictably, many of these techniques provide greater benefit when used in the setting of adjuvant protocols or minimal residual disease, emphasizing the importance of multimodality therapy. ..
  52. Shahzad A, Köhler G. Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV): a strong candidate vaccine for achieving global polio eradication program. Vaccine. 2009;27:5293-4 pubmed publisher
    In this article, we will present an update about current status of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and we will also discuss general concerns about inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) which are under discussion in scientific community ..
  53. Wyatt H. Ending polio immunisation: stars and gutters. Vaccine. 1999;18:781-4 pubmed
    ..These injections alter the severity and pattern of paralysis: 50% of Indian cases have symmetrical paralysis by limb and 25% by muscle. Eradication of polio promises a New Deal for Health, it must succeed. ..
  54. Robertson S, Mayans M, Horsfall S, Wright P, Clemens J, Ivanoff B, et al. The WHO Global Programme for Vaccines and Immunization Vaccine Trial Registry. Bull World Health Organ. 1997;75:295-305 pubmed
    ..WHO's contributions to this research have included direct funding, assistance with study design, site visits, data analysis, vaccine procurement, and vaccine potency testing. ..
  55. Vergara R, Tregnaghi M, Ussher J, Navarro S, Ruttimann R, Potin M, et al. Reduced-antigen-content-diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis and inactivated polio vaccine as a booster for adolescents 10 to 14 years of age. Eur J Pediatr. 2005;164:377-82 pubmed
  56. Oransky I. Paul Offit. Lancet. 2005;366:1999 pubmed
  57. Rishpon S. Recent improvements in polio and pertussis vaccination policy in Israel, 2005. Isr Med Assoc J. 2006;8:319-21 pubmed
    ..This article describes the reasons for these changes, which have rendered Israel's routine vaccination program one of the most effective in the world. ..
  58. Ravel G, Christ M, Liberge P, Burnett R, Descotes J. Effects of two pediatric vaccines on autoimmune diabetes in NOD female mice. Toxicol Lett. 2003;146:93-100 pubmed
    ..Therefore this study does not support previous claims that children's vaccination might be associated with acceleration or exacerbation of IDDM. ..
  59. Loggen H, Kreeftenberg J. In vitro induction of a diphtheria toxoid specific antibody response in human peripheral blood lymphocytes cultivated in the presence of diphtheria toxoid. J Biol Stand. 1989;17:311-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these results are promising for in vitro examination of the immunogenicity of diphtheria vaccines. The model will be validated for the routine control of diphtheria vaccine. ..
  60. Day A. 'An American tragedy'. the Cutter incident and its implications for the Salk polio vaccine in New Zealand 1955-1960. Health History. 2009;11:42-61 pubmed
    ..The New Zealand experiences with the polio vaccine are set in an international context in order to give an appreciable understanding of the events that occurred. ..
  61. Lee J, Robinson J, Spady D. Frequency of apnea, bradycardia, and desaturations following first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B immunization in hospitalized preterm infants. BMC Pediatr. 2006;6:20 pubmed
  62. Kataoka M, Yamamoto A, Ochiai M, Harashima A, Nagata N, Hasegawa H, et al. Comparison of acellular pertussis-based combination vaccines by Japanese control tests for toxicities and laboratory models for local reaction. Vaccine. 2009;27:1881-8 pubmed publisher
  63. Feldman S. Interchangeability of vaccines. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001;20:S23-9 pubmed
  64. Schmitt H, Steul K, Borkowski A, Ceddia F, Ypma E, Knuf M. Two versus three doses of a meningococcal C conjugate vaccine concomitantly administered with a hexavalent DTaP-IPV-HBV/Hib vaccine in healthy infants. Vaccine. 2008;26:2242-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Reactogenicity was similar in each group. MenC conjugate vaccine given concomitantly with DTaP-IPV-HBV/Hib to healthy infants in the first year of life using a two-dose schedule is as safe and immunogenic as a three-dose regimen. ..
  65. Marshall G, Happe L, Lunacsek O, Szymanski M, Woods C, Zahn M, et al. Use of combination vaccines is associated with improved coverage rates. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26:496-500 pubmed
    ..Use of combination vaccines in this Medicaid population was associated with improved coverage rates. Additional studies are warranted, including those examining private sector populations and outcomes such as timeliness and cost. ..
  66. Shah N, John T, Thacker N, Vashishtha V, Kalra A, Ugra D. Polio eradication strategies in Indian recommendations under IAP Action Plan 2006. Indian Pediatr. 2006;43:1057-63 pubmed
  67. Tejedor J, Moro M, Ruiz Contreras J, Castro J, Gómez Campderá J, Navarro M, et al. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of primary immunization with a novel combined Haemophilus influenzae Type b and Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine coadministered with a Diphtheria-tetanus-acellular Pertussis-hepatit. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26:1-7 pubmed
    ..Coadministration of a Hib-MenC conjugate vaccine with DTPa-HBV-IPV is well tolerated and immunogenic, and does not impair the immune response to any of the coadministered antigens. ..
  68. John T. A developing country perspective on vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis. Bull World Health Organ. 2004;82:53-7; discussion 57-8 pubmed
    ..national leaders of public health had no opportunity to make an informed choice between OPV and the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV)...
  69. Kolasa M, Desai S, Bisgard K, Dibling K, Prevots D. Impact of the sequential poliovirus immunization schedule: a demonstration project. Am J Prev Med. 2000;18:140-5 pubmed
    ..for this project evaluated compliance with the sequential poliovirus immunization schedule that uses inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) for the first 2 doses of the polio immunization series, and assessed immunization coverage rates ..
  70. Halperin S, King J, Law B, Mills E, Willems P. Safety and immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine given separately or in combination with a three-component acellular pertussis vaccine combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and inactivated poliovirus vaccine. Clin Infect Dis. 1999;28:995-1001 pubmed
    ..of a three-component acellular pertussis vaccine combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and inactivated poliovirus vaccine given either separately or combined as a single injection with a Haemophilus influenzae type b-tetanus ..
  71. Marchant C, Miller J, Marshall G, Blatter M, Aris E, Friedland L, et al. Randomized trial to assess immunogenicity and safety of Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:48-52 pubmed publisher
    ..vaccine (Hib-TT), co-administered with combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus vaccine and 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine...
  72. Jenkins R, Chiew Y, Langford D, Johns P, Huang S, Miller N. A case of conjunctivitis associated with oral poliovirus type 2 vaccine (OPV). Pathology. 2004;36:505-6 pubmed
  73. Halperin B, Halperin S, McGrath P, Smith B, Houston T. Use of lidocaine-prilocaine patch to decrease intramuscular injection pain does not adversely affect the antibody response to diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate and hepatitis B vaccin. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002;21:399-405 pubmed
  74. Berberich F, Landman Z. Reducing immunization discomfort in 4- to 6-year-old children: a randomized clinical trial. Pediatrics. 2009;124:e203-9 pubmed publisher
    ..0013; parent report, P < .0002; observation score, P < .0001). This multifaceted distraction intervention reduced significantly the pain and discomfort of childhood immunizations in children 4 to 6 years of age. ..
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