mumps vaccine


Summary: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.

Top Publications

  1. Dayan G, Quinlisk M, Parker A, Barskey A, Harris M, Schwartz J, et al. Recent resurgence of mumps in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:1580-9 pubmed publisher
    The widespread use of a second dose of mumps vaccine among U.S. schoolchildren beginning in 1990 was followed by historically low reports of mumps cases...
  2. Vandermeulen C, Clement F, Roelants M, Van Damme P, Hoppenbrouwers K, Leroux Roels G. Evaluation of cellular immunity to mumps in vaccinated individuals with or without circulating antibodies up to 16 years after their last vaccination. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:1457-60 pubmed publisher
    ..47, whereas that for subjects with high antibody titers was 8.31 (P = .032). Mumps vaccine-induced cell-mediated immunity appears to be more persistent than the antibody response.
  3. Dittrich S, Hahne S, van Lier A, Kohl R, Boot H, Koopmans M, et al. Assessment of serological evidence for mumps virus infection in vaccinated children. Vaccine. 2011;29:9271-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding has important implications when studying transmission patterns, strain virulence, as well as mumps vaccine effectiveness to protect from infection rather than disease.
  4. Rubin S, Snoy P, Wright K, Brown E, Reeve P, Beeler J, et al. The mumps virus neurovirulence safety test in Rhesus monkeys: a comparison of mumps virus strains. J Infect Dis. 1999;180:521-5 pubmed
    ..Results indicated the need for further examination and refinement of the MNVT or for development of alternative MNVTs. ..
  5. Sauder C, Vandenburgh K, Iskow R, Malik T, Carbone K, Rubin S. Changes in mumps virus neurovirulence phenotype associated with quasispecies heterogeneity. Virology. 2006;350:48-57 pubmed
  6. Santos López G, Cruz C, Pazos N, Vallejo V, Reyes Leyva J, Tapia Ramírez J. Two clones obtained from Urabe AM9 mumps virus vaccine differ in their replicative efficiency in neuroblastoma cells. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:332-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that there is a selective replication of HN-A(1081) mumps virus variants in cells of nervous origin. ..
  7. Afzal M, Pickford A, Forsey T, Heath A, Minor P. The Jeryl Lynn vaccine strain of mumps virus is a mixture of two distinct isolates. J Gen Virol. 1993;74 ( Pt 5):917-20 pubmed
    ..Jeryl Lynn, the mumps vaccine strain used in the U.K...
  8. Nagai T, Okafuji T, Miyazaki C, Ito Y, Kamada M, Kumagai T, et al. A comparative study of the incidence of aseptic meningitis in symptomatic natural mumps patients and monovalent mumps vaccine recipients in Japan. Vaccine. 2007;25:2742-7 pubmed
    To compare the incidence of aseptic meningitis associated with symptomatic natural mumps infection and in mumps vaccine recipients, we conducted a prospective comparative study...
  9. Ivancic J, Gulija T, Forcic D, Baricevic M, Jug R, Mesko Prejac M, et al. Genetic characterization of L-Zagreb mumps vaccine strain. Virus Res. 2005;109:95-105 pubmed
    Eleven mumps vaccine strains, all containing live attenuated virus, have been used throughout the world...

More Information


  1. Snijders B, van Lier A, van de Kassteele J, Fanoy E, Ruijs W, Hulshof F, et al. Mumps vaccine effectiveness in primary schools and households, the Netherlands, 2008. Vaccine. 2012;30:2999-3002 pubmed publisher
    To estimate the mumps vaccine effectiveness (VE) during a large genotype D mumps outbreak, we conducted a cross-sectional study in eight primary schools and associated households in the Netherlands...
  2. Amexis G, Fineschi N, Chumakov K. Correlation of genetic variability with safety of mumps vaccine Urabe AM9 strain. Virology. 2001;287:234-41 pubmed
    The Urabe AM9 strain of mumps vaccine live is known for its genetic instability and some vaccines derived from this strain were withdrawn from the market due to an excessive number of vaccine-associated parotitis and meningitis cases...
  3. Galazka A, Robertson S, Kraigher A. Mumps and mumps vaccine: a global review. Bull World Health Organ. 1999;77:3-14 pubmed
    ..Based on data reported to WHO up to April 1998, mumps vaccine is routinely used by national immunization programmes in 82 countries/areas: 23 (92%) of 25 developed ..
  4. Mitchell L. Sex differences in antibody- and cell-mediated immune response to rubella re-immunisation. J Med Microbiol. 1999;48:1075-80 pubmed
  5. Lemon K, Rima B, McQuaid S, Allen I, Duprex W. The F gene of rodent brain-adapted mumps virus is a major determinant of neurovirulence. J Virol. 2007;81:8293-302 pubmed
    ..Expression of the F gene of the neurovirulent strain alone was sufficient to induce significant levels of hydrocephalus. Coexpression of the homologous HN gene led to a marginal increase in the level of hydrocephalus...
  6. Pashley N. Can mumps vaccine induce remission in recurrent respiratory papilloma?. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;128:783-6 pubmed
    To describe our experience using laser excision and locally injected mumps vaccine to induce remission in patients with recurrent respiratory papilloma (RRP). Tertiary care regional medical center...
  7. Ong G, Goh K, Ma S, Chew S. Comparative efficacy of Rubini, Jeryl-Lynn and Urabe mumps vaccine in an Asian population. J Infect. 2005;51:294-8 pubmed
    The comparative efficacy of the three mumps vaccine strains (Jeryl-Lynn, Urabe and Rubini) was conducted in an Asian population from data arising from an epidemiological investigation of seven institutional outbreaks of mumps in ..
  8. Rubin S, Amexis G, Pletnikov M, Li Z, Vanderzanden J, Mauldin J, et al. Changes in mumps virus gene sequence associated with variability in neurovirulent phenotype. J Virol. 2003;77:11616-24 pubmed
    ..The potential role of these amino acid changes in neurotropism, neurovirulence, and neuroattenuation is discussed. ..
  9. Saika S, Kidokoro M, Kubonoya H, Ito K, Ohkawa T, Aoki A, et al. Development and biological properties of a new live attenuated mumps vaccine. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006;29:89-99 pubmed
    To develop a new live attenuated mumps vaccine, a wild mumps Y7 strain isolated from a patient who developed mild parotitis was treated with nitrosoguanidine and ultraviolet, followed by selection of a temperature-sensitive clone...
  10. Fanoy E, Cremer J, Ferreira J, Dittrich S, van Lier A, Hahné S, et al. Transmission of mumps virus from mumps-vaccinated individuals to close contacts. Vaccine. 2011;29:9551-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that, in this particular outbreak, the risk of a close contact becoming infected by vaccinated patients was small, but present. ..
  11. Atrasheuskaya A, Kulak M, Rubin S, Ignatyev G. Mumps vaccine failure investigation in Novosibirsk, Russia, 2002-2004. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2007;13:670-6 pubmed
    ..IgM and IgG, IgG avidity, and the ability to neutralise a panel of mumps viruses, including the Leningrad-3 mumps vaccine virus...
  12. Wright K, Dimock K, Brown E. Biological characteristics of genetic variants of Urabe AM9 mumps vaccine virus. Virus Res. 2000;67:49-57 pubmed
    The Urabe AM9 mumps vaccine is composed of a mixture of variants distinguishable by a difference at nucleotide (nt) 1081 of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene (Brown, E.G., Dimock, K., Wright, K.E., 1996...
  13. Cortese M, Jordan H, Curns A, Quinlan P, Ens K, Denning P, et al. Mumps vaccine performance among university students during a mumps outbreak. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:1172-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Vaccine-induced protection may wane. Similar US settings where large numbers of young adults from wild-type naive cohorts live closely together may be at particular risk for mumps outbreaks. ..
  14. da Silveira C, Kmetzsch C, Mohrdieck R, Sperb A, Prevots D. The risk of aseptic meningitis associated with the Leningrad-Zagreb mumps vaccine strain following mass vaccination with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1997. Int J Epidemiol. 2002;31:978-82 pubmed
    ..available on the risk of aseptic meningitis following vaccination with the Leningrad-Zagreb (L-Z) strain of mumps vaccine. In 1997 the mumps vaccine was introduced into the state of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil through mass ..
  15. Amexis G, Rubin S, Chizhikov V, Pelloquin F, Carbone K, Chumakov K. Sequence diversity of Jeryl Lynn strain of mumps virus: quantitative mutant analysis for vaccine quality control. Virology. 2002;300:171-9 pubmed
    The Jeryl Lynn strain of mumps vaccine live (MVL) was developed in 1966 by Merck Co. and has been widely used in the U.S. and other countries since the early 1970s...
  16. Brockhoff H, Mollema L, Sonder G, Postema C, van Binnendijk R, Kohl R, et al. Mumps outbreak in a highly vaccinated student population, The Netherlands, 2004. Vaccine. 2010;28:2932-6 pubmed publisher
  17. Greenland K, Whelan J, Fanoy E, Borgert M, Hulshof K, Yap K, et al. Mumps outbreak among vaccinated university students associated with a large party, the Netherlands, 2010. Vaccine. 2012;30:4676-80 pubmed publisher
    ..High coverage of MMR vaccination in childhood did not prevent an outbreak of mumps in this student population...
  18. Tesovic G, Lesnikar V. Aseptic meningitis after vaccination with L-Zagreb mumps strain--virologically confirmed cases. Vaccine. 2006;24:6371-3 pubmed
  19. Bonnet M, Dutta A, Weinberger C, Plotkin S. Mumps vaccine virus strains and aseptic meningitis. Vaccine. 2006;24:7037-45 pubmed
    ..or measles and rubella vaccines, but debate continues concerning the relative safety of various licensed mumps vaccine strains...
  20. Rubin S, Qi L, Audet S, Sullivan B, Carbone K, Bellini W, et al. Antibody induced by immunization with the Jeryl Lynn mumps vaccine strain effectively neutralizes a heterologous wild-type mumps virus associated with a large outbreak. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:508-15 pubmed publisher
    ..strain, and although titers to both viruses decreased with time after vaccination, antibody induced by immunization with the Jeryl Lynn mumps vaccine strain effectively neutralized the outbreak-associated virus at all time points tested.
  21. Atrasheuskaya A, Blatun E, Kulak M, Atrasheuskaya A, Karpov I, Rubin S, et al. Investigation of mumps vaccine failures in Minsk, Belarus, 2001-2003. Vaccine. 2007;25:4651-8 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to investigate mumps vaccine failures (VF) in a highly vaccinated population of Minsk, Belarus, and to investigate a possible role for virus strain-specific immunity...
  22. van den Hof S, Beaumont M, Berbers G, de Melker H. Antibodies against mumps in The Netherlands as assessed by indirect ELISA and virus neutralization assay. Epidemiol Infect. 2003;131:703-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the indirect ELISA is a reliable method for measuring mumps virus-specific antibodies in population-based studies. However, to allow for inter-laboratory comparison, international unitage should be developed. ..
  23. Hanna Wakim R, Yasukawa L, Sung P, Arvin A, Gans H. Immune responses to mumps vaccine in adults who were vaccinated in childhood. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:1669-75 pubmed publisher
    In a mumps outbreak in the United States, many infected individuals were adults who had received 2 doses of mumps vaccine. The persistence of cellular immunity to mumps vaccine has not been defined...
  24. Tesovic G, Poljak M, Lunar M, Kocjan B, Seme K, Vukić B, et al. Horizontal transmission of the Leningrad-Zagreb mumps vaccine strain: a report of three cases. Vaccine. 2008;26:1922-5 pubmed publisher
  25. Deeks S, Lim G, Simpson M, Gagné L, Gubbay J, Kristjanson E, et al. An assessment of mumps vaccine effectiveness by dose during an outbreak in Canada. CMAJ. 2011;183:1014-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Outbreaks occurring in Ontario and elsewhere serve as a warning against complacency over vaccination programs. ..
  26. Gemmill I. Mumps vaccine: is it time to re-evaluate our approach?. CMAJ. 2006;175:491-2 pubmed
  27. Dominguez A, Torner N, Castilla J, Batalla J, Godoy P, Guevara M, et al. Mumps vaccine effectiveness in highly immunized populations. Vaccine. 2010;28:3567-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Estimated VE was 85.4% (95%CI: 67.3-93.4) for 1MMR and 88.5% (95%CI: 78.1-93.9) for 2MMR. High 2MMR coverage, improved confirmation techniques and further VE studies with all confirmed cases are needed to prevent further outbreaks. ..
  28. Cusi M, Zurbriggen R, Valassina M, Bianchi S, Durrer P, Valensin P, et al. Intranasal immunization with mumps virus DNA vaccine delivered by influenza virosomes elicits mucosal and systemic immunity. Virology. 2000;277:111-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that cationic virosomes in combination with Escheriagen may have great potential as an efficient delivery system for intranasal DNA immunization and provide an immune barrier at the mucosal sites. ..
  29. Garnier J. [Mumps]. Rev Prat. 2006;56:103-5 pubmed
  30. Kyaw M, Bellini W, Dayan G. Mumps surveillance and prevention: putting mumps back on our radar screen. Cleve Clin J Med. 2007;74:13-5 pubmed
  31. Steiner R, Hughes J, Richardson T, Looney S, Clover R, Rowe M. Minimum time interval adjustment for 4-3-1 immunization rates among two-year-old children. Am J Prev Med. 1999;16:189-94 pubmed
    ..7%. The premature timing of vaccine doses is a threat to the validity of the 4-3-1 counting method. The crude 4-3-1 method over-estimates the completed immunization rates for 2-year-olds in this community-based study by about 4.8%. ..
  32. Takayama N, Kidokoro M, Suzuki K, Morita M. [Immunization of healthy children with mumps-rubella bivalent live vaccine and simultaneous vaccination with mumps-rubella and varicella vaccines]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 1991;65:1271-5 pubmed
    ..responses after MR vaccine injection were comparable to those after administration of monovalent rubella or mumps vaccine. Clinical reactions observed in some subjects who received MR vaccine were mild fever (3...
  33. Xu P, Chen Z, Phan S, Pickar A, He B. Immunogenicity of novel mumps vaccine candidates generated by genetic modification. J Virol. 2014;88:2600-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of rMuV?SH?V indicated that it was stable in tissue culture cell lines. Importantly, rMuV?SH?V was immunogenic in mice, indicating that it is a promising candidate for mumps vaccine development.
  34. Rubin S, Afzal M, Powell C, Bentley M, Auda G, Taffs R, et al. The rat-based neurovirulence safety test for the assessment of mumps virus neurovirulence in humans: an international collaborative study. J Infect Dis. 2005;191:1123-8 pubmed
    ..Results indicate that the assay correctly assesses the neurovirulence potential of mumps viruses in humans and is robust and reproducible. ..
  35. Mühlemann K. The molecular epidemiology of mumps virus. Infect Genet Evol. 2004;4:215-9 pubmed
    ..Close monitoring of the genotype distribution of MuV and genotype-specific population immunity is needed in the vaccine era. ..
  36. Plassmann E. [Vaccination needed by over 50-year-old persons]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2003;145:26-8 pubmed
    ..Special vaccinations are restricted to certain groups of persons. For the elderly, vaccinations against influenza and pneumococcal infections are of particular importance. ..
  37. Faustini A, Giorgi Rossi P, Sangalli M, Spadea T, Perucci C. [The epidemiological impact of vaccination strategies in the Lazio Region]. Ann Ig. 2002;14:39-49 pubmed
  38. Furesz J. Safety of live mumps virus vaccines. J Med Virol. 2002;67:299-300 pubmed
  39. Matsuura M, Somboonthum P, Murakami K, Ota M, Shoji M, Kawabata K, et al. Novel polyvalent live vaccine against varicella-zoster and mumps virus infections. Microbiol Immunol. 2013;57:704-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that F protein contributes to induction of immune protection against MuV. Therefore this recombinant virus is a promising candidate vaccine for polyvalent protection against both VZV and MuV. ..
  40. Molrine D, Hibberd P. Vaccines for transplant recipients. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2001;15:273-305, xii pubmed
    ..Recommended vaccines for stem cell transplant recipients and solid organ transplant candidates are suggested. New approaches to consider to enhance immune responses of transplant recipients are discussed. ..
  41. Gulija T, Ivancic Jelecki J, Santak M, Forcic D. Comparative analysis of CE-SSCP to standard RFLP-CE-FLA method in quantification of known viral variants within an RNA virus quasispecies. Electrophoresis. 2011;32:1852-9 pubmed publisher
  42. Orlikova H, Maly M, Lexová P, Sebestova H, Limberková R, Jurzykowská L, et al. Protective effect of vaccination against mumps complications, Czech Republic, 2007-2012. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:293 pubmed publisher
    ..The risk of complications increases with time interval from vaccination. Teenagers and young adults were the most affected age groups. ..
  43. Schreiber A, Hershman G. Non-HIV viral infections of the salivary glands. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2009;21:331-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Information gleaned from these studies, coupled with advances in immunology, virology, and DNA/RNA testing will hopefully result in the development of vaccination regimens to ensure eradication of the disease. ..
  44. Ovsyannikova I, Jacobson R, Dhiman N, Vierkant R, Pankratz V, Poland G. Human leukocyte antigen and cytokine receptor gene polymorphisms associated with heterogeneous immune responses to mumps viral vaccine. Pediatrics. 2008;121:e1091-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To identify genetic factors that might contribute to variations in mumps vaccine-induced immune responses, we performed HLA genotyping in a group of 346 healthy schoolchildren (12-18 years of ..
  45. Shanley J. The resurgence of mumps in young adults and adolescents. Cleve Clin J Med. 2007;74:42-4, 47-8 pubmed
  46. Melinte L, Manole A, Teodorescu I, Pojar P. [Clinical and epidemiologic assessment of a group of patients suffering from mumps, hospitalized in a 23 years period]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2005;109:623-7 pubmed
    ..9%), preschool (1.4%), and familial (92.7%). All these aspects highlight the necessity of the epidemiological surveillance of risk groups and the inclusion of anti-mumps vaccine-prevention in the Extended Immunization Program.
  47. Raucci J, Whitehill J, Sandritter T. Childhood immunizations (part one). J Pediatr Health Care. 2004;18:95-101 pubmed
  48. Shohat T, Green M, Nakar O, Ballin A, Duvdevani P, Cohen A, et al. Gender differences in the reactogenicity of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. Isr Med Assoc J. 2000;2:192-5 pubmed
    ..This study emphasizes the need to consider possible gender differences when evaluating new vaccines. ..
  49. Panagiotopoulos T, Antoniadou I, Valassi Adam E. Increase in congenital rubella occurrence after immunisation in Greece: retrospective survey and systematic review. BMJ. 1999;319:1462-7 pubmed
    ..This phenomenon, which has not been previously reported, occurred in Greece. ..
  50. Senanayake S. Mumps in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:654; author reply 654-5 pubmed publisher
  51. Liang Y, Ma S, Yang Z, Liu L, Wang L, Wang J, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of a novel formalin-inactivated and alum-adjuvanted candidate subunit vaccine for mumps. Vaccine. 2008;26:4276-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In the work described here, a novel mumps vaccine with good immunity and safety was developed by selecting an antigen component of the mumps virus...
  52. Vandermeulen C, Roelants M, Vermoere M, Roseeuw K, Goubau P, Hoppenbrouwers K. Outbreak of mumps in a vaccinated child population: a question of vaccine failure?. Vaccine. 2004;22:2713-6 pubmed
    ..The role of secondary vaccine failure is highlighted. ..
  53. Zimmerman R, Mieczkowski T, Michel M. Are vaccination rates higher if providers receive free vaccines and follow contraindication guidelines?. Fam Med. 1999;31:317-23 pubmed
    ..Children are vaccinated later in the practices of providers who are likely to refer uninsured children to a public vaccine clinic for vaccination, who do not receive free vaccine supplies, or who overinterpret contraindications. ..