measles mumps rubella vaccine


Summary: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.

Top Publications

  1. Ghebrehewet S, Falconer M, McDonald P, Schlecht B. MMR vaccine uptake rates: a data validation study. Commun Dis Public Health. 2003;6:144-6 pubmed
    ..Electronic transfer of information from practices to the CHCS and between CHCSs, i.e. across boundaries, could improve data accuracy. ..
  2. Kukino J, Naito T, Mitsuhashi K, Oshima H, Sekiya S, Isonuma H, et al. Susceptibility of medical students to vaccine-preventable viral diseases: a serological study. J Infect Chemother. 2004;10:335-7 pubmed
    ..A weak correlation was observed among antibody titers for measles, rubella, and mumps but not for varicella. These results suggest that MMR vaccine might be effective in people with low levels of antibody to measles, rubella, and mumps. ..
  3. Harling R, White J, Ramsay M, Macsween K, van den Bosch C. The effectiveness of the mumps component of the MMR vaccine: a case control study. Vaccine. 2005;23:4070-4 pubmed
    ..Two doses of vaccine were more effective (88% (95% CI: 62-96%)) than a single dose (64% (95% CI: 40-78%)). The current two-dose vaccination programme remains the best method for controlling mumps infection in the community. ..
  4. Deshmukh V. MMR vaccination: new thought. Indian Pediatr. 2006;43:555-6 pubmed
  5. Vyse A, Gay N, Hesketh L, Pebody R, Morgan Capner P, Miller E. Interpreting serological surveys using mixture models: the seroepidemiology of measles, mumps and rubella in England and Wales at the beginning of the 21st century. Epidemiol Infect. 2006;134:1303-12 pubmed
    ..Investigations into the efficacy of two doses of a mumps containing vaccine should be a priority during the current epidemic...
  6. Kim S, Han H, Go U, Chung H. Sero-epidemiology of measles and mumps in Korea: impact of the catch-up campaign on measles immunity. Vaccine. 2004;23:290-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our results suggest continuous mumps outbreaks could occur because of the accumulation of susceptible individuals. ..
  7. Asaria P, MacMahon E. Measles in the United Kingdom: can we eradicate it by 2010?. BMJ. 2006;333:890-5 pubmed
  8. Brownlie J, Howson A. 'Between the demands of truth and government': health practitioners, trust and immunisation work. Soc Sci Med. 2006;62:433-43 pubmed
  9. Burgess D, Burgess M, Leask J. The MMR vaccination and autism controversy in United Kingdom 1998-2005: inevitable community outrage or a failure of risk communication?. Vaccine. 2006;24:3921-8 pubmed
    ..The Sandman model provided a useful framework to analyse this controversy and explained a significant portion of the community reaction and subsequent fall in vaccination coverage rates. ..

More Information


  1. Gidding H, Wood J, MacIntyre C, Kelly H, Lambert S, Gilbert G, et al. Sustained measles elimination in Australia and priorities for long term maintenance. Vaccine. 2007;25:3574-80 pubmed
    ..This experience is likely to apply to developed countries that have achieved or are approaching measles elimination. ..
  2. Zimmerman R, Nowalk M, Mieczkowski T, Mainzer H, Jewell I, Raymund M. The vaccines for children program. Policies, satisfaction, and vaccine delivery. Am J Prev Med. 2001;21:243-9 pubmed
    ..The VFC appears to increase the numbers of poor and uninsured children who receive necessary childhood immunizations within their medical homes. Providers are generally satisfied with the program. ..
  3. Vandermeulen C, Roelants M, Vermoere M, Roseeuw K, Goubau P, Hoppenbrouwers K. Outbreak of mumps in a vaccinated child population: a question of vaccine failure?. Vaccine. 2004;22:2713-6 pubmed
    ..The role of secondary vaccine failure is highlighted. ..
  4. MacIntyre C, Hull B, Burgess M, Gay N. Measles control in NSW divisions of general practice. N S W Public Health Bull. 2003;14:13-7 pubmed
  5. Lyratzopoulos G, Aston R, Bailey K, Flitcroft J, Clarke H. Accuracy of routine data on MMR vaccination coverage and validity of parental recall of vaccination. Commun Dis Public Health. 2002;5:305-10 pubmed
    ..Routine data may modestly underestimate vaccination coverage and significantly overestimate measles susceptibility. Many parents of MMR unvaccinated children believe that their children have been vaccinated. ..
  6. Ramsay M, White J, Crowcroft N. MMR uptake data are unlikely to be subject to manipulation. BMJ. 2002;324:1394 pubmed
  7. Shinefield H, Black S, Staehle B, Matthews H, Adelman T, Ensor K, et al. Vaccination with measles, mumps and rubella vaccine and varicella vaccine: safety, tolerability, immunogenicity, persistence of antibody and duration of protection against varicella in healthy children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002;21:555-61 pubmed
    ..VARIVAX administered with M-M-R II induced persistent immunity and long-term protection against breakthrough varicella infection. ..
  8. Morice A, Carvajal X, León M, Machado V, Badilla X, Reef S, et al. Accelerated rubella control and congenital rubella syndrome prevention strengthen measles eradication: the Costa Rican experience. J Infect Dis. 2003;187 Suppl 1:S158-63 pubmed
    ..Targeting MR vaccination appropriately and using the opportunity to strengthen surveillance for rash illness has benefits beyond accelerated rubella control and CRS prevention, including strengthening of the measles eradication program...
  9. Kelly H, Riddell M, Gidding H, Nolan T, Gilbert G. A random cluster survey and a convenience sample give comparable estimates of immunity to vaccine preventable diseases in children of school age in Victoria, Australia. Vaccine. 2002;20:3130-6 pubmed
  10. Vyse A, Gay N, White J, Ramsay M, Brown D, Cohen B, et al. Evolution of surveillance of measles, mumps, and rubella in England and Wales: providing the platform for evidence-based vaccination policy. Epidemiol Rev. 2002;24:125-36 pubmed
  11. Bellaby P. Communication and miscommunication of risk: understanding UK parents' attitudes to combined MMR vaccination. BMJ. 2003;327:725-8 pubmed
  12. Petrovic M, Roberts R, Ramsay M. Second dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine: questionnaire survey of health professionals. BMJ. 2001;322:82-85 pubmed
    ..Many professionals are not aware of or do not use the good written resources that exist, though local educational initiatives could remedy this. ..
  13. Taylor B, Miller E, Lingam R, Andrews N, Simmons A, Stowe J. Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and bowel problems or developmental regression in children with autism: population study. BMJ. 2002;324:393-6 pubmed
    ..These findings provide no support for an MMR associated "new variant" form of autism with developmental regression and bowel problems, and further evidence against involvement of MMR vaccine in the initiation of autism. ..
  14. Davidkin I, Valle M. Vaccine-induced measles virus antibodies after two doses of combined measles, mumps and rubella vaccine: a 12-year follow-up in two cohorts. Vaccine. 1998;16:2052-7 pubmed
    ..It is important to follow how long the protection achieved by the present vaccine programme will last after elimination of indigenous measles. ..
  15. Evans M, Stoddart H, Condon L, Freeman E, Grizzell M, Mullen R. Parents' perspectives on the MMR immunisation: a focus group study. Br J Gen Pract. 2001;51:904-10 pubmed
    ..Most parents would, however, welcome more open discussion about immunisation with health professionals. ..
  16. Lewis J, Speers T. Misleading media reporting? The MMR story. Nat Rev Immunol. 2003;3:913-8 pubmed publisher
  17. Clements C, Ratzan S. Misled and confused? Telling the public about MMR vaccine safety. Measles, mumps, and rubella. J Med Ethics. 2003;29:22-6 pubmed
  18. Thjodleifsson B, Davidsdottir K, Agnarsson U, Sigthorsson G, Kjeld M, Bjarnason I. Effect of Pentavac and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination on the intestine. Gut. 2002;51:816-7 pubmed
    ..The failure of the MMR vaccination to cause an intestinal inflammatory response provides evidence against the proposed gut-brain interaction that is central to the autistic "enterocolitis" hypothesis. ..
  19. Pebody R, Gay N, Hesketh L, Vyse A, Morgan Capner P, Brown D, et al. Immunogenicity of second dose measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and implications for serosurveillance. Vaccine. 2002;20:1134-40 pubmed
    ..Further studies including qualitative measures, such as avidity, in different populations are merited and may contribute to the understanding of MMR population protection. ..
  20. de Melker H, Pebody R, Edmunds W, Levy Bruhl D, Valle M, Rota M, et al. The seroepidemiology of measles in Western Europe. Epidemiol Infect. 2001;126:249-59 pubmed
    ..In the high susceptibility country the priority will be to increase infant vaccine coverage and reduce regional variation in coverage levels. ..
  21. Patja A, Davidkin I, Kurki T, Kallio M, Valle M, Peltola H. Serious adverse events after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination during a fourteen-year prospective follow-up. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000;19:1127-34 pubmed
    ..Comprehensive analysis of the reported adverse reactions established that serious events causally related to MMR vaccine are rare and greatly outweighed by the risks of natural MMR diseases. ..
  22. Miller C. Mumps resurgence prompts revised recommendations. Minn Med. 2007;90:41-3 pubmed
    ..This article summarizes the epidemiology of the recent outbreaks, the issues that arose during the public health response to them, and resulting changes in recommendations for mumps prevention and control. ..
  23. Wilson C. Intersecting discourses: MMR vaccine and BSE. Sci Cult (Lond). 2004;13:75-88 pubmed
  24. Ahlgren C, Toren K, Oden A, Andersen O. A population-based case-control study on viral infections and vaccinations and subsequent multiple sclerosis risk. Eur J Epidemiol. 2009;24:541-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The association with 'early' MMR vaccination only was an isolated finding, limited by a small number of subjects and multiple testing. Most likely this was a chance finding. Future studies could investigate it on an a priori basis...
  25. Sonnenberg P, Crowcroft N, White J, Ramsay M. The contribution of single antigen measles, mumps and rubella vaccines to immunity to these infections in England and Wales. Arch Dis Child. 2007;92:786-9 pubmed
    ..For recent birth cohorts this contribution could increase routine coverage for measles-containing vaccines by around 2%, still below the level of immunity required to sustain elimination. ..
  26. Kuppili P, Manohar H, Menon V. Current status of vaccines in psychiatry-A narrative review. Asian J Psychiatr. 2018;31:112-120 pubmed publisher
    ..Safety profile of the immunogens and the adjuvants in humans is possibly the most important limitation. No causal association between Measles Mumps Rubella vaccine and Autism was found.
  27. Nevot Falcó S, Bone Calvo J, Echevería Zudaire L, Martorell Aragonés A, Piquer Gibert M, Plaza Martín A, et al. [Safety of MMR immunization in egg-allergic children]. An Pediatr (Barc). 2006;65:508-9; author reply 509 pubmed
  28. Gerstel L, Lenglet A, García Cenoz M. Mumps outbreak in young adults following a village festival in the Navarra region, Spain, August 2006. Euro Surveill. 2006;11:E061109.4 pubmed
  29. Toussirot Ã, Béreau M. Vaccination and Induction of Autoimmune Diseases. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2015;14:94-8 pubmed
    ..These observations should therefore not undermine the benefits of vaccination. ..
  30. Gold M, Dugdale S, Woodman R, McCaul K. Use of the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register for vaccine safety data linkage. Vaccine. 2010;28:4308-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This study confirms the known association between MMR vaccination and febrile convulsions and in doing so demonstrates the feasibility of using the ACIR for data linkage and vaccine safety surveillance. ..
  31. Zepp F, Behre U, Kindler K, Laakmann K, Pankow Culot H, Mannhardt Laakmann W, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of a tetravalent measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine co-administered with a booster dose of a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vac. Eur J Pediatr. 2007;166:857-64 pubmed
  32. Andersen E. Mumps--new face on an old disease. AAOHN J. 2006;54:425-6 pubmed
  33. Wilson T, Fishbein D, Ellis P, Edlavitch S. The impact of a school entry law on adolescent immunization rates. J Adolesc Health. 2005;37:511-6 pubmed
    ..Results suggested that laws did not appear to completely overcome disparities. For school mandates to be more effective, additional efforts, presumably on enforcement, especially in areas with lower socioeconomic indicators, are needed. ..
  34. Barskey A, Glasser J, LeBaron C. Mumps resurgences in the United States: A historical perspective on unexpected elements. Vaccine. 2009;27:6186-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Data from the past 80 years suggest that preventing future mumps epidemics will depend on innovative measures to detect and eliminate build-up of susceptibles among highly vaccinated populations. ..
  35. Black S, Friedland L, Schuind A, Howe B. Immunogenicity and safety of a combined DTaP-IPV vaccine compared with separate DTaP and IPV vaccines when administered as pre-school booster doses with a second dose of MMR vaccine to healthy children aged 4-6 years. Vaccine. 2006;24:6163-71 pubmed
    ..The DTaP-IPV vaccine had no negative effect on the response to co-administered MMR vaccine, making it well-suited for use as a pre-school booster. ..
  36. Dhiman N, Ovsyannikova I, Ryan J, Jacobson R, Vierkant R, Pankratz V, et al. Correlations among measles virus-specific antibody, lymphoproliferation and Th1/Th2 cytokine responses following measles-mumps-rubella-II (MMR-II) vaccination. Clin Exp Immunol. 2005;142:498-504 pubmed
    ..Further examination of the determinants of Th1 versus Th2 skewing of the immune response and long-term follow-up is needed. ..
  37. Ota M, Ndhlovu Z, Oh S, Piyasirisilp S, Berzofsky J, Moss W, et al. Hemagglutinin protein is a primary target of the measles virus-specific HLA-A2-restricted CD8+ T cell response during measles and after vaccination. J Infect Dis. 2007;195:1799-807 pubmed
    ..No single peptide dominated the response. We conclude that H is an important stimulus for CD8+ T cell as well as for antibody responses in HLA-A2-positive individuals. ..
  38. Khalil M, Nadrah H, Al Yahia O, Al Saigul A. Sero-response to measles vaccination at 12 months of age in Saudi infants in Qassim Province. Saudi Med J. 2008;29:1009-13 pubmed
    ..Also, GMT increased significantly from 0.014-2.172 IU/ML, after vaccination p=0.0001. Sero conversion and GMT are significantly high after the first MMR given at 12 months and this is supported by the surveillance data in Qassim. ..
  39. Sanz J, Ramos B, Fernandez A, Garcia Comas L, Echevarria J, de Ory F. Serological diagnosis of mumps: Value of the titration of specific IgG. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2018;36:172-174 pubmed publisher
    ..0%). An IgG result of ?4.900 was almost 5 times more probable in a patient with mumps than in a non-infected patient. The detection of high titres of IgG against mumps could improve the IgM results in vaccinated people. ..
  40. Ferrera G, Gajdos V, Thomas S, Tran C, Fiquet A. Safety of a refrigerator-stable varicella vaccine (VARIVAX) in healthy 12- to 15-month-old children: A randomized, double-blind, cross-over study. Hum Vaccin. 2009;5:455-60 pubmed
    ..In summary, the refrigerator-stable formulation of VARIVAX had a good safety profile and was well tolerated in healthy children aged 12 to 15 months, consistent with experience with the frozen formulation of VARIVAX. ..
  41. Tallis R. Anecdotes, data and the curse of the media case study. Med Leg J. 2007;75:139-42 pubmed
  42. Dhiman N, Ovsyannikova I, Vierkant R, Pankratz V, Jacobson R, Poland G. Associations between cytokine/cytokine receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms and humoral immunity to measles, mumps and rubella in a Somali population. Tissue Antigens. 2008;72:211-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study identifies specific SNPs in innate immune response genes that may play a role in modulating antibody responses to measles vaccination and/or infection in Somali subjects...
  43. Stowe J, Kafatos G, Andrews N, Miller E. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and the second dose of MMR. Arch Dis Child. 2008;93:182-3 pubmed
  44. Smith M, Ellenberg S, Bell L, Rubin D. Media coverage of the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and autism controversy and its relationship to MMR immunization rates in the United States. Pediatrics. 2008;121:e836-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding suggests a limited influence of mainstream media on MMR immunization in the United States. ..
  45. Fishbein D, Willis B, Cassidy W, Marioneaux D, Winston C. A comprehensive patient assessment and physician reminder tool for adult immunization: effect on vaccine administration. Vaccine. 2006;24:3971-83 pubmed
    ..There were no additional significant differences during one year of follow-up. A number of barriers to comprehensive vaccination were encountered. ..
  46. Elliman D, Sengupta N. Measles. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2005;18:229-34 pubmed
    ..More research is required into how to do this effectively and also to elucidate the causes of vaccine failure. ..
  47. AktaÅŸ H, Ergin C, Demir B, Ekiz Ã. Intralesional Vitamin D Injection May Be an Effective Treatment Option for Warts. J Cutan Med Surg. 2016;20:118-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Three patients failed to show any response. No recurrence or serious adverse effects were observed. Intralesional vitamin D(3) may be an effective treatment option for warts. ..
  48. Leach M. Accommodating dissent. Nature. 2007;450:483 pubmed
  49. Nardone A, Tischer A, Andrews N, Backhouse J, Theeten H, Gatcheva N, et al. Comparison of rubella seroepidemiology in 17 countries: progress towards international disease control targets. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86:118-25 pubmed
    ..Catch-up campaigns in older age groups and selective targeting of older females are needed in many countries to ensure necessary levels of protective immunity among women of childbearing age. ..
  50. Honda H, Shimizu Y, Rutter M. No effect of MMR withdrawal on the incidence of autism: a total population study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2005;46:572-9 pubmed
  51. Kuwaik G, Roberts W, Brian J, Bryson S, Smith I, Szatmari P, et al. Immunization uptake in siblings of children with autism. Pediatrics. 2008;122:684-5; author reply 685-6 pubmed publisher
  52. Dannetun E, Tegnell A, Hermansson G, Torner A, Giesecke J. Timeliness of MMR vaccination--influence on vaccination coverage. Vaccine. 2004;22:4228-32 pubmed
    ..To avoid future outbreaks that can appear around imported cases of measles it is crucial to attain high coverage levels by timely vaccination. ..
  53. Gabutti G, Azzari C. [Priorix Tetra: a new combined vaccine against measles, rubella, mumps and varicella]. Minerva Pediatr. 2008;60:429-41 pubmed
  54. Epstein R. It did happen here: fear and loathing on the vaccine trail. Health Aff (Millwood). 2005;24:740-3 pubmed
    ..That recommendation, based on unsubstantiated safety concerns, reveals a deep-seated institutional overreaction that is more likely to cost lives than to save them. ..
  55. Guerra F, Gress J, Werzberger A, Reisinger K, Walter E, Lakkis H, et al. Safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of VAQTA given concomitantly versus nonconcomitantly with other pediatric vaccines in healthy 12-month-old children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;25:912-9 pubmed
  56. Bibby A, Farrell A, Cummins M, Erlewyn Lajeunesse M. Is MMR immunisation safe in chronic Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura?. Arch Dis Child. 2008;93:354-5 pubmed publisher
  57. Harappanahally G, Trask C, Mandelbaum D. Vaccines and autism: an update. Med Health R I. 2007;90:308-10 pubmed
  58. Sanchez Solis M, Garcia Marcos L. Do vaccines modify the prevalence of asthma and allergies?. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2006;5:631-40 pubmed
    ..Conversely, although some surveys have described a protective effect of vaccination, the majority refuted this result. If there is any effect, it is probably a weak one. ..
  59. Fitzpatrick M. The end of the road for the campaign against MMR. Br J Gen Pract. 2007;57:679 pubmed
  60. Colgrove J, Bayer R. Could it happen here? Vaccine risk controversies and the specter of derailment. Health Aff (Millwood). 2005;24:729-39 pubmed
  61. Abbasi K. MMR and the value of word of mouth in social networks. J R Soc Med. 2008;101:215 pubmed publisher
  62. State M. A surprising METamorphosis: autism genetics finds a common functional variant. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:16621-2 pubmed
  63. Knutsson N, Jansson U, Alm B. Immediate injection pain in infants aged 18 months during vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella with either Priorix or MMR-II. Vaccine. 2006;24:5800-5 pubmed
    ..Mean VAS value was 2.3/5.2 for Priorix and MMR-II, respectively (p<0.001). Mean CHEOPS value was 1.9/6.1 for Priorix and MMR-II, respectively (p<0.001). The study shows that Priorix gives less immediate injection pain than MMR-II. ..
  64. Musonda P, Hocine M, Andrews N, Tubert Bitter P, Farrington C. Monitoring vaccine safety using case series cumulative sum charts. Vaccine. 2008;26:5358-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The performance of the case series CUSUM is investigated through simulations. We illustrate the method using retrospective analyses of influenza vaccine and Bell's palsy, and MMR vaccine and febrile convulsions. ..
  65. Jacobsen S, Ackerson B, Sy L, Tran T, Jones T, Yao J, et al. Observational safety study of febrile convulsion following first dose MMRV vaccination in a managed care setting. Vaccine. 2009;27:4656-61 pubmed publisher
    ..While there was no evidence of an increase in the overall month following vaccination, the elevated risk during this time period should be communicated and needs to be balanced with the potential benefit of a combined vaccine. ..
  66. Oster N, McPhillips Tangum C, Averhoff F, Howell K. Barriers to adolescent immunization: a survey of family physicians and pediatricians. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2005;18:13-9 pubmed
    ..Most respondents reported recommending the appropriate vaccinations during preventive health visits; however, older adolescents were least likely to be targeted for immunization assessment and administration of all recommended vaccines. ..
  67. Burn R. Response to the article by Baird et al. Arch Dis Child. 2008;93:905; author reply 906-7 pubmed
  68. Stock I. [Measles]. Med Monatsschr Pharm. 2009;32:118-26; quiz 127-8 pubmed
  69. Yekta Z, Pourali R, Taravati M, Shahabi S, Salary S, Khalily F, et al. Immune response to measles vaccine after mass vaccination in Urmia, Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 2009;15:516-25 pubmed
    ..It may be cost-effective to check antibody titres before mass vaccinations, especially in high vaccine coverage regions with circulating wild virus. ..
  70. Goldblatt D, Southern J, Ashton L, Andrews N, Woodgate S, Burbidge P, et al. Immunogenicity of a reduced schedule of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in healthy infants and correlates of protection for serotype 6B in the United Kingdom. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:401-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Correlates of protection derived from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay values may not be equally appropriate for all serotypes as illustrated by results for 6B in this study. ..
  71. Goodman N. Horizon: Does the MMR Jab cause autism?: We cannot win. BMJ. 2005;331:111 pubmed
  72. Stefanoff P, Rogalska J. [Rubella in Poland in 2006]. Przegl Epidemiol. 2008;62:229-34 pubmed
    ..An improvement in diagnostic certainty of reported is necessary to assess the impact of 2-dose immunization implemented in 2003 on rubella epidemiology in Poland. ..
  73. Kitchin N, Southern J, Morris R, Borrow R, Fiquet A, Boisnard F, et al. Antibody persistence in UK pre-school children following primary series with an acellular pertussis-containing pentavalent vaccine given concomitantly with meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine, and response to a booster dose of an acellular pertus. Vaccine. 2009;27:5096-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Reactogenicity of Repevax was acceptable and consistent with previous experience. ..
  74. Kennedy R, Byers V, Marchalonis J. Measles virus infection and vaccination: potential role in chronic illness and associated adverse events. Crit Rev Immunol. 2004;24:129-56 pubmed
    ..We describe the published literature as it relates to MV infection and immunization and report adverse events in an attempt to provide a balanced discussion and an historical perspective of the MMR vaccine and autism. ..
  75. Papa A, Gioula G, Antoniadis A, Kyriazopoulou Dalaina V. Rubella epidemic strain, Greece, 1999. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:1696-7 pubmed
  76. Mrozek Budzyn D, Kiełtyka A, Majewska R. [Lack of association between MMR vaccination and the incidence of autism in children: a case-control study]. Przegl Epidemiol. 2009;63:107-12 pubmed
    ..41 95%PU: 0.20-0.85). Our findings confirm that MMR vaccination is not associated with an increased risk of autism in children. ..
  77. Belaunzarán Zamudio P, García León M, Wong Chew R, Villasis Keever A, Cuellar Rodríguez J, Mosqueda Gómez J, et al. Early loss of measles antibodies after MMR vaccine among HIV-infected adults receiving HAART. Vaccine. 2009;27:7059-64 pubmed publisher
    ..However, HIV-infected adults have a rapid decline of measles antibodies despite their high CD4+ cell count and sustained cellular proliferative response. ..
  78. Kouadio I, Koffi A, Attoh Toure H, Kamigaki T, Oshitani H. Outbreak of measles and rubella in refugee transit camps. Epidemiol Infect. 2009;137:1593-601 pubmed publisher
    ..Supplemental immunization with a measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine was conducted during week 20. This study illustrates the importance of testing for both measles and rubella in outbreaks of rash and fever in refugee settings. ..
  79. Casiday R. Children's health and the social theory of risk: insights from the British measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) controversy. Soc Sci Med. 2007;65:1059-70 pubmed
  80. Singh R, Mostafid H, Hindley R. Measles, mumps and rubella -- the urologist's perspective. Int J Clin Pract. 2006;60:335-9 pubmed
    ..The article reviews the pathophysiology, clinical symptoms, diagnosis, and long-term sequelae of this increasingly prevalent condition and provides a reference for all practising urologists treating this disease...
  81. Zimmerman R, Tabbarah M, Janosky J, Bardenheier B, Troy J, Jewell I, et al. Impact of vaccine economic programs on physician referral of children to public vaccine clinics: a pre-post comparison. BMC Public Health. 2006;6:7 pubmed
    ..2 (P = 0.001). Reported out-referral to public clinics decreased over time. In light of increasing immunizations rates, this suggests that more vaccines were being administered in private provider offices. ..
  82. LeBaron C, Forghani B, Matter L, Reef S, Beck C, Bi D, et al. Persistence of rubella antibodies after 2 doses of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2009;200:888-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Rubella antibody response to MMR2 was vigorous, but titers decreased to pre-MMR2 levels after 12 years. Because rubella is a highly epidemic disease, vigilance will be required to assure continued elimination. ..
  83. Bedford H. Approaches for the unimmunised--one size does not fit all. J Fam Health Care. 2008;18:201-3 pubmed
    ..The reasons for this are diverse; various strategies are needed to maximise uptake. Recent research provides insights into how best to target our efforts. ..
  84. Cilleruelo M, de Ory F, Ruiz Contreras J, González González R, Mellado M, García Hortelano M, et al. Internationally adopted children: what vaccines should they receive?. Vaccine. 2008;26:5784-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Actions for vaccination have to be mainly implemented on the basis of the existence of the immunization card and of the country of origin. ..