measles vaccine


Summary: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Ovsyannikova I, Haralambieva I, Vierkant R, O Byrne M, Jacobson R, Poland G. Effects of vitamin A and D receptor gene polymorphisms/haplotypes on immune responses to measles vaccine. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2012;22:20-31 pubmed publisher
    ..X receptor ? (RXRA) genes and interindividual variations in immune responses after two doses of measles vaccine in 745 children...
  2. Goodson J, Wiesen E, Perry R, Mach O, Kitambi M, Kibona M, et al. Impact of measles outbreak response vaccination campaign in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Vaccine. 2009;27:5870-4 pubmed publisher
    ..8 prior to ORV to 1.8 (p<0.0001) after; 506 measles cases and 18 measles deaths were likely averted. These results support the need for revised recommendations concerning ORV in general settings in Africa. ..
  3. Lange S, Lampe J, Bossow S, Zimmermann M, Neubert W, Bitzer M, et al. A novel armed oncolytic measles vaccine virus for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma. Hum Gene Ther. 2013;24:554-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We engineered a measles vaccine virus (MeV) vector expressing super cytosine deaminase (SCD), a fusion protein of yeast cytosine deaminase ..
  4. Ovsyannikova I, Haralambieva I, Vierkant R, O Byrne M, Poland G. Associations between polymorphisms in the antiviral TRIM genes and measles vaccine immunity. Hum Immunol. 2013;74:768-74 pubmed publisher
    The role of polymorphisms within the antiviral tripartite motif (TRIM) genes in measles vaccine adaptive immune responses was examined...
  5. Ovsyannikova I, Haralambieva I, Vierkant R, Pankratz V, Jacobson R, Poland G. The role of polymorphisms in Toll-like receptors and their associated intracellular signaling genes in measles vaccine immunity. Hum Genet. 2011;130:547-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined associations between polymorphisms in TLR family genes and measles vaccine-specific immune responses...
  6. Finsterbusch T, Wolbert A, Deitemeier I, Meyer K, Mosquera M, Mankertz A, et al. Measles viruses of genotype H1 evade recognition by vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies targeting the linear haemagglutinin noose epitope. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:2739-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The loss of several neutralizing epitopes, as shown for H1 viruses currently circulating endemically in Asia, implies that epitope monitoring should be considered to be included in measles surveillance. ..
  7. Kennedy R, Ovsyannikova I, Haralambieva I, O Byrne M, Jacobson R, Pankratz V, et al. Multigenic control of measles vaccine immunity mediated by polymorphisms in measles receptor, innate pathway, and cytokine genes. Vaccine. 2012;30:2159-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study we report the findings of a multigenic analysis of measles vaccine immunity, indicating a role for the measles virus receptor CD46, innate pattern-recognition receptors (DDX58, ..
  8. Antona D, Baudon C, Freymuth F, Lamy M, Maine C, Parent Du Chatelet I, et al. [Measles in France]. Med Sci (Paris). 2012;28:1003-7 pubmed publisher
  9. Haralambieva I, Ovsyannikova I, Pankratz V, Kennedy R, Jacobson R, Poland G. The genetic basis for interindividual immune response variation to measles vaccine: new understanding and new vaccine approaches. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2013;12:57-70 pubmed publisher
    The live-attenuated measles vaccine is effective, but measles outbreaks still occur in vaccinated populations. This warrants elucidation of the determinants of measles vaccine-induced protective immunity...

More Information


  1. Senn N, Riddell M, Omena M, Siba P, Reeder J, Clements C, et al. Measles in Papua New Guinea: an age-specific serological survey. Vaccine. 2010;28:1819-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Population immunity against measles was sub-optimal (77%) and reported measles vaccine coverage in children <10 years of age was low (41%)...
  2. Simons E, Mort M, Dabbagh A, Strebel P, Wolfson L. Strategic planning for measles control: using data to inform optimal vaccination strategies. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 1:S28-34 pubmed publisher
  3. Lin W, Griffin D, Rota P, Papania M, CAPE S, Bennett D, et al. Successful respiratory immunization with dry powder live-attenuated measles virus vaccine in rhesus macaques. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:2987-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Sustained high vaccination coverage is the key to preventing measles deaths. Because measles vaccine is delivered by injection, hurdles to high coverage include the need for trained medical personnel and a cold ..
  4. Levin A, Burgess C, Garrison L, Bauch C, Babigumira J, Simons E, et al. Global eradication of measles: an epidemiologic and economic evaluation. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 1:S98-106 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the study found that, compared to the baseline, reaching measles eradication by 2020 would be the most cost-effective measles mortality reduction scenario, both for the six countries and on a global basis. ..
  5. Moss W, Griffin D. Measles. Lancet. 2012;379:153-64 pubmed publisher
    ..However, this progress is threatened by failure to maintain high levels of measles vaccine coverage...
  6. Weldegebriel G, Gasasira A, Harvey P, Masresha B, Goodson J, Pate M, et al. Measles resurgence following a nationwide measles vaccination campaign in Nigeria, 2005-2008. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 1:S226-31 pubmed publisher
    From 1990 through 2008, routine immunization coverage of measles vaccine in Nigeria ranged from 35% to 70%...
  7. Keegan R, Dabbagh A, Strebel P, Cochi S. Comparing measles with previous eradication programs: enabling and constraining factors. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 1:S54-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Measles eradication should be undertaken only if the commitments and resources will be adequate to meet the political, social, economic, and technical challenges. ..
  8. Bishai D, Johns B, Nair D, Nabyonga Orem J, Fiona Makmot B, Simons E, et al. The cost-effectiveness of supplementary immunization activities for measles: a stochastic model for Uganda. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 1:S107-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The benefit was reduced if routine coverage rates were higher. This cost-effectiveness ratio compares favorably to that of other commonly accepted public health interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. ..
  9. Brandler S, Ruffie C, Najburg V, Frenkiel M, Bedouelle H, Despres P, et al. Pediatric measles vaccine expressing a dengue tetravalent antigen elicits neutralizing antibodies against all four dengue viruses. Vaccine. 2010;28:6730-9 pubmed publisher
    ..minimal tetravalent DV antigen by a single replicating viral vector derived from pediatric live-attenuated measles vaccine (MV)...
  10. Njie Jobe J, Nyamweya S, Miles D, Van Der Sande M, Zaman S, Touray E, et al. Immunological impact of an additional early measles vaccine in Gambian children: responses to a boost at 3 years. Vaccine. 2012;30:2543-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Measles vaccine in early infancy followed by a dose at 9 months of age protects against measles and enhances child survival through non-specific effects. Little is known of immune responses in the short or long term after booster doses.
  11. Leuridan E, Hens N, Hutse V, Ieven M, Aerts M, Van Damme P. Early waning of maternal measles antibodies in era of measles elimination: longitudinal study. BMJ. 2010;340:c1626 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding is important in view of recent outbreaks and is an argument for timeliness of the first dose of a measles vaccine and vaccination of travelling or migrating children under the age of 1 year.
  12. Curtale F, Perrelli F, Mantovani J, Ciofi Degli Atti M, Filia A, Nicoletti L, et al. Description of two measles outbreaks in the Lazio Region, Italy (2006-2007). Importance of pockets of low vaccine coverage in sustaining the infection. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:62 pubmed publisher
    ..An enhanced surveillance systems, which includes viral genotyping to document chains of transmission, is an essential tool for evaluating strategy to control and eliminate measles. ..
  13. Minetti A, Kagoli M, Katsulukuta A, Huerga H, Featherstone A, Chiotcha H, et al. Lessons and challenges for measles control from unexpected large outbreak, Malawi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:202-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Countries en route to measles elimination, such as Malawi, should improve outbreak preparedness. Timeliness and the population chosen are crucial elements for reactive campaigns...
  14. Kiraly N, Benn C, Biering Sørensen S, Rodrigues A, Jensen K, Ravn H, et al. Vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth may affect atopy in childhood: long-term follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Allergy. 2013;68:1168-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Having a BCG scar was associated with reduced atopy, whereas neonatal vitamin A supplementation was associated with increased atopy. NCT 01420705. ..
  15. Martins C, Bale C, Garly M, Rodrigues A, Lisse I, Andersen A, et al. Girls may have lower levels of maternal measles antibodies and higher risk of subclinical measles infection before the age of measles vaccination. Vaccine. 2009;27:5220-5 pubmed publisher
    ..36 (0.97-1.90). Girls lost maternal measles antibodies more rapidly than boys and well before 9 months of age. They may be more likely to contract subclinical measles infection before the current age of measles vaccination. ..
  16. Simani O, Adrian P, Violari A, Kuwanda L, Otwombe K, Nunes M, et al. Effect of in-utero HIV exposure and antiretroviral treatment strategies on measles susceptibility and immunogenicity of measles vaccine. AIDS. 2013;27:1583-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the effect of in-utero HIV-exposure and antiretroviral treatment (ART) strategies on measles antibody kinetics prior and following measles vaccination...
  17. Muscat M. Who gets measles in Europe?. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 1:S353-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Failure to identify who gets measles and implement the elimination strategies raises concerns for the successful and sustainable elimination of measles in Europe. ..
  18. Ohtake S, Martin R, Yee L, Chen D, Kristensen D, Lechuga Ballesteros D, et al. Heat-stable measles vaccine produced by spray drying. Vaccine. 2010;28:1275-84 pubmed publisher
    ..of unique stabilizers and mild spray drying process conditions was employed to produce heat-stable measles vaccine powder...
  19. Benn C, Aaby P, Nielsen J, Binka F, Ross D. Does vitamin A supplementation interact with routine vaccinations? An analysis of the Ghana Vitamin A Supplementation Trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90:629-39 pubmed publisher
    ..the data to explore the hypothesis that VAS reduces mortality in children who had bacille Calmette-Guérin or measles vaccine as their most recent vaccine but increased mortality when diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) was the ..
  20. Sawada A, Komase K, Nakayama T. AIK-C measles vaccine expressing fusion protein of respiratory syncytial virus induces protective antibodies in cotton rats. Vaccine. 2011;29:1481-90 pubmed publisher
    ..MVAIK/RSV/F is promising candidate and protective effects should be confirmed in monkey model. ..
  21. Nmor J, Thanh H, Goto K. Recurring measles epidemic in Vietnam 2005-2009: implication for strengthened control strategies. Int J Biol Sci. 2011;7:138-46 pubmed
    ..This study therefore reinforces the need for continued improvement of surveillance system and to probe into the possible role of changes in age-distribution of cases if the effective control of measles is to be achieved. ..
  22. Mandomando I, Naniche D, Pasetti M, Cuberos L, Sanz S, Valles X, et al. Assessment of the epidemiology and burden of measles in Southern Mozambique. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;85:146-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that improved diagnostics, new tools to protect infants < 9 months of age, and a supplemental dose of measles vaccine could assist measles control.
  23. Sudfeld C, Navar A, Halsey N. Effectiveness of measles vaccination and vitamin A treatment. Int J Epidemiol. 2010;39 Suppl 1:i48-55 pubmed publisher
    ..reach the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy 2010 measles reduction goal includes increasing coverage of measles vaccine, vitamin A treatment and supplementation in addition to offering two doses of vaccine to all children...
  24. He H, Chen E, Li Q, Wang Z, Yan R, Fu J, et al. Waning immunity to measles in young adults and booster effects of revaccination in secondary school students. Vaccine. 2013;31:533-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings strongly suggested that a revaccination opportunity with MCV for adolescents helps to improve the population immunity, and it can be conducted effectively and practically in secondary school students. ..
  25. Brandler S, Marianneau P, Loth P, Lacote S, Combredet C, Frenkiel M, et al. Measles vaccine expressing the secreted form of West Nile virus envelope glycoprotein induces protective immunity in squirrel monkeys, a new model of West Nile virus infection. J Infect Dis. 2012;206:212-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously demonstrated the efficacy of a recombinant measles vaccine (MV) expressing the secreted form of the envelope glycoprotein from WNV to prevent WNV encephalitis in mice...
  26. Goodson J, Kulkarni M, Vanden Eng J, Wannemuehler K, Cotte A, Desrochers R, et al. Improved equity in measles vaccination from integrating insecticide-treated bednets in a vaccination campaign, Madagascar. Trop Med Int Health. 2012;17:430-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the effect of integrating ITN distribution on measles vaccination campaign coverage in Madagascar...
  27. . Measles vaccines: WHO position paper. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2009;84:349-60 pubmed
  28. Babigumira J, Levin A, Burgess C, Garrison L, Bauch C, Braka F, et al. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of measles elimination in Uganda: local impact of a global eradication program. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 1:S116-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Measles elimination in Uganda, as part of a global eradication program, is projected to be highly cost-effective and should be considered among the available policy options for dealing with the disease. ..
  29. Assi T, Brown S, Djibo A, Norman B, Rajgopal J, Welling J, et al. Impact of changing the measles vaccine vial size on Niger's vaccine supply chain: a computational model. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:425 pubmed publisher
    ..The measles vaccine is particularly important in Niger, a country prone to measles outbreaks...
  30. Choi W, Sniadack D, Jee Y, Go U, So J, Cho H, et al. Outbreak of measles in the Republic of Korea, 2007: importance of nosocomial transmission. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 1:S483-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Timely and opportunistic vaccination may help prevent such outbreaks; high-quality surveillance is critical for their detection. ..
  31. Aaby P, Martins C, Garly M, Bale C, Andersen A, Rodrigues A, et al. Non-specific effects of standard measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age on childhood mortality: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2010;341:c6495 pubmed publisher
    ..5 and 9 months of age compared with those given one dose of measles vaccine at 9 months of age (current policy). Randomised controlled trial...
  32. Manning L, Laman M, Edoni H, Mueller I, Karunajeewa H, Smith D, et al. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in papua new guinean children: the cost of continuing inadequate measles vaccine coverage. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e932 pubmed publisher
    ..Although a very high incidence of SSPE in Papua New Guinea (PNG) was first recognized 20 years ago, estimated measles vaccine coverage has remained at ? 70% since and a large measles epidemic occurred in 2002...
  33. Cheng W, Lee L, Rota P, Yang D. Molecular evolution of measles viruses circulated in Taiwan 1992-2008. Virol J. 2009;6:219 pubmed publisher
    ..The more recent genotype H1 viruses had sequences that were identical to those currently circulating in China or associated with international importation of virus. ..
  34. Hanvoravongchai P, Mounier Jack S, Oliveira Cruz V, Balabanova D, Biellik R, Kitaw Y, et al. Impact of measles elimination activities on immunization services and health systems: findings from six countries. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 1:S82-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Opportunities to strengthen the routine immunization service and health system should be actively sought to address system bottlenecks in order to incur benefits to eradication program itself as well as other health priorities. ..
  35. Agergaard J, Nante E, Poulstrup G, Nielsen J, Flanagan K, Østergaard L, et al. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine administered simultaneously with measles vaccine is associated with increased morbidity and poor growth in girls. A randomised trial from Guinea-Bissau. Vaccine. 2011;29:487-500 pubmed publisher
    Combined vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and measles vaccine (MV) has been associated with increased mortality in observational studies...
  36. Bankamp B, Takeda M, Zhang Y, Xu W, Rota P. Genetic characterization of measles vaccine strains. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 1:S533-48 pubmed publisher
    The complete genomic sequences of 9 measles vaccine strains were compared with the sequence of the Edmonston wild-type virus...
  37. Aaby P, Martins C, Bale C, Garly M, Rodrigues A, Biai S, et al. Sex differences in the effect of vaccines on the risk of hospitalization due to measles in Guinea-bissau. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:324-8 pubmed publisher
    ..and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative ..
  38. van den Ent M, Brown D, Hoekstra E, Christie A, Cochi S. Measles mortality reduction contributes substantially to reduction of all cause mortality among children less than five years of age, 1990-2008. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 1:S18-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The current funding gap and insufficient political commitment for measles control jeopardizes these achievements and presents a substantial risk to achieving MDG4. ..
  39. van Boven M, Kretzschmar M, Wallinga J, O Neill P, Wichmann O, Hahne S. Estimation of measles vaccine efficacy and critical vaccination coverage in a highly vaccinated population. J R Soc Interface. 2010;7:1537-44 pubmed publisher
    ..971, 95% credible interval: 0.961-0.978). We discuss the implications for measles elimination from highly vaccinated populations. ..
  40. Christie A, GAY A. The Measles Initiative: moving toward measles eradication. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 1:S14-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A target date for eradication will focus efforts and capitalize on the achievements of the last decade. ..
  41. Hayford K, Al Emran H, Moss W, Shomik M, Bishai D, Levine O. Validation of an anti-measles virus-specific IgG assay with oral fluid samples for immunization surveillance in Bangladesh. J Virol Methods. 2013;193:512-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to poor performance, caution should be exercised when using oral fluid samples to assess population immunity to measles virus, especially in highly vaccinated populations. ..
  42. Hartkopf A, Bossow S, Lampe J, Zimmermann M, Taran F, Wallwiener D, et al. Enhanced killing of ovarian carcinoma using oncolytic measles vaccine virus armed with a yeast cytosine deaminase and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase. Gynecol Oncol. 2013;130:362-8 pubmed publisher
    To preclinical assess the feasibility of combining oncolytic measles vaccine virus (MeV) with suicide gene therapy for ovarian cancer treatment...
  43. Martins C, Benn C, Andersen A, Bale C, Schaltz Buchholzer F, Do V, et al. A randomized trial of a standard dose of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine given at 4.5 months of age: effect on total hospital admissions. J Infect Dis. 2014;209:1731-8 pubmed publisher
    Observational studies and trials from low-income countries indicate that measles vaccine has beneficial nonspecific effects, protecting against non-measles-related mortality...
  44. Shi J, Zheng J, Huang H, Hu Y, Bian J, Xu D, et al. Measles incidence rate and a phylogenetic study of contemporary genotype H1 measles strains in China: is an improved measles vaccine needed?. Virus Genes. 2011;43:319-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings strengthen the recommendation of supplemental immunization with existing vaccines and also strongly suggest a need for developing new vaccines to better control measles virus outbreaks. ..
  45. Lorin C, Segal L, Mols J, Morelle D, Bourguignon P, Rovira O, et al. Toxicology, biodistribution and shedding profile of a recombinant measles vaccine vector expressing HIV-1 antigens, in cynomolgus macaques. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2012;385:1211-25 pubmed publisher or three times with the highest dose of MV1-F4 intended for clinical use, the reference (Schwarz) measles vaccine or saline, and monitored clinically for 11 or 85 days...
  46. De Serres G, Boulianne N, Defay F, Brousseau N, Benoît M, Lacoursière S, et al. Higher risk of measles when the first dose of a 2-dose schedule of measles vaccine is given at 12-14 months versus 15 months of age. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:394-402 pubmed publisher
    ..of measles were reported in Quebec, Canada, where a routine 2-dose measles immunization schedule, in which measles vaccine is given at 12 and 18 months of age, had been in effect since 1996...
  47. Simons E, Ferrari M, Fricks J, Wannemuehler K, Anand A, Burton A, et al. Assessment of the 2010 global measles mortality reduction goal: results from a model of surveillance data. Lancet. 2012;379:2173-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In 2008 all WHO member states endorsed a target of 90% reduction in measles mortality by 2010 over 2000 levels. We developed a model to estimate progress made towards this goal...
  48. Metcalf C, Klepac P, Ferrari M, Grais R, Djibo A, Grenfell B. Modelling the first dose of measles vaccination: the role of maternal immunity, demographic factors, and delivery systems. Epidemiol Infect. 2011;139:265-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Measles vaccine efficacy is higher at 12 months than 9 months because of maternal immunity, but delaying vaccination exposes the children most vulnerable to measles mortality to infection...
  49. Lampe J, Bossow S, Weiland T, Smirnow I, Lehmann R, Neubert W, et al. An armed oncolytic measles vaccine virus eliminates human hepatoma cells independently of apoptosis. Gene Ther. 2013;20:1033-41 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Measles vaccine viruses (MeV) have been shown to possess anti-tumor properties and their efficacy has been enhanced by arming ..
  50. Brandler S, Ruffie C, Combredet C, Brault J, Najburg V, Prevost M, et al. A recombinant measles vaccine expressing chikungunya virus-like particles is strongly immunogenic and protects mice from lethal challenge with chikungunya virus. Vaccine. 2013;31:3718-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe a recombinant live-attenuated measles vaccine (MV) expressing CHIKV virus-like particles comprising capsid and envelope structural proteins from the recent ..
  51. Ongkudon C, Pickering R, Webster D, Danquah M. Cultivation of E. coli carrying a plasmid-based Measles vaccine construct (4.2 kbp pcDNA3F) employing medium optimisation and pH-temperature induction techniques. Microb Cell Fact. 2011;10:16 pubmed publisher
    ..the process variables necessary to improve the volumetric and specific yields of a model plasmid-based measles vaccine (pcDNA3F) harboured in E. coli DH5?...
  52. Sniadack D, Mendoza Aldana J, Huyen D, Van T, Cuong N, Olive J, et al. Epidemiology of a measles epidemic in Vietnam 2008-2010. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 1:S476-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Transmission began among young adults and was sustained among children. The outcome of Vietnam's 2010 SIA targeting children only and change in routine schedule may influence elimination strategies for other countries. ..
  53. Clifford H, Richmond P, Khoo S, Zhang G, Yerkovich S, LE SOUEF P, et al. SLAM and DC-SIGN measles receptor polymorphisms and their impact on antibody and cytokine responses to measles vaccine. Vaccine. 2011;29:5407-13 pubmed publisher
    Despite the use of measles vaccine, measles virus continues to circulate and cause severe disease...