chickenpox vaccine


Summary: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.

Top Publications

  1. Carville K, Riddell M, Kelly H. A decline in varicella but an uncertain impact on zoster following varicella vaccination in Victoria, Australia. Vaccine. 2010;28:2532-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Among those aged 80 and over the hospitalisation rate increased 5% per year (95% CI 3-7%) from 1998 to 2007. Zoster increased in community data from 2001. ..
  2. Marin M, Zhang J, Seward J. Near elimination of varicella deaths in the US after implementation of the vaccination program. Pediatrics. 2011;128:214-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Since then, vaccination coverage has increased substantially. We updated the analysis of US varicella mortality for 2002-2007 and assessed the impact of the first 12 years of the US varicella vaccination program on varicella deaths...
  3. Marin M, Watson T, Chaves S, Civen R, Watson B, Zhang J, et al. Varicella among adults: data from an active surveillance project, 1995-2005. J Infect Dis. 2008;197 Suppl 2:S94-S100 pubmed publisher
  4. Siedler A, Arndt U. Impact of the routine varicella vaccination programme on varicella epidemiology in Germany. Euro Surveill. 2010;15: pubmed
    ..The results confirm that following the introduction of routine varicella vaccination, varicella morbidity started to decline in Germany...
  5. Chang L, Huang L, Chang I, Tsai F. Epidemiological characteristics of varicella from 2000 to 2008 and the impact of nationwide immunization in Taiwan. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:352 pubmed publisher
    ..Varicella has an important impact on public health. Starting in 2004 in Taiwan, nationwide free varicella vaccinations were given to 1-year-old children...
  6. Schuster V, Otto W, Maurer L, Tcherepnine P, Pfletschinger U, Kindler K, et al. Immunogenicity and safety assessments after one and two doses of a refrigerator-stable tetravalent measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine in healthy children during the second year of life. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27:724-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This study (104389/NCT00127023) was undertaken to assess the immunogenicity and safety of a new refrigerator-stable tetravalent MMRV vaccine after 1 dose and after 2 doses administered during the second year of life...
  7. Reynolds M, Chaves S, Harpaz R, Lopez A, Seward J. The impact of the varicella vaccination program on herpes zoster epidemiology in the United States: a review. J Infect Dis. 2008;197 Suppl 2:S224-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are needed to identify these factors, to isolate possible additional effects from a varicella vaccination program. Untangling the contribution of these different factors on HZ epidemiology will be challenging. ..
  8. Bernstein P, Furuya Y, Steinberg S, Scully B, Larussa P, Gershon A. Vaccine-related varicella-zoster rash in a hospitalized immunocompetent patient. Am J Infect Control. 2011;39:247-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, there have been no previous reports of an immunocompetent seropositive person developing vaccine-type VZV after receiving the vaccine...
  9. Chaves S, Zhang J, Civen R, Watson B, Carbajal T, Perella D, et al. Varicella disease among vaccinated persons: clinical and epidemiological characteristics, 1997-2005. J Infect Dis. 2008;197 Suppl 2:S127-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Continued surveillance of the risk and characteristics of breakthrough disease will be needed, to monitor the effect of the new 2-dose vaccine recommendation for children. ..

More Information


  1. Guris D, Jumaan A, Mascola L, Watson B, Zhang J, Chaves S, et al. Changing varicella epidemiology in active surveillance sites--United States, 1995-2005. J Infect Dis. 2008;197 Suppl 2:S71-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Continued surveillance will be important to monitor the impact that the 2-dose vaccine policy in children has on varicella epidemiology. ..
  2. Liese J, Grote V, Rosenfeld E, Fischer R, Belohradsky B, v Kries R. The burden of varicella complications before the introduction of routine varicella vaccination in Germany. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27:119-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show that the severity of varicella complications in healthy children has been previously underestimated. ..
  3. Shah S, Wood S, Luan X, Ratner A. Decline in varicella-related ambulatory visits and hospitalizations in the United States since routine immunization against varicella. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:199-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Varicella-related ambulatory visits and hospitalizations have decreased significantly in the period after licensure of the varicella vaccine. ..
  4. Civen R, Lopez A, Zhang J, Garcia Herrera J, Schmid D, Chaves S, et al. Varicella outbreak epidemiology in an active surveillance site, 1995-2005. J Infect Dis. 2008;197 Suppl 2:S114-9 pubmed publisher
  5. Baldo V, Ferro A, Napoletano G, Milani S, Bertoncello L, Baldovin T, et al. Universal varicella vaccination in the Veneto Region, Italy: launch of a programme targeting all children aged 14 months and susceptible adolescents. Euro Surveill. 2007;12:E071101.3 pubmed
  6. Ota K, Kim V, Lavi S, Ford Jones E, Tipples G, Scolnik D, et al. Vaccine-strain varicella zoster virus causing recurrent herpes zoster in an immunocompetent 2-year-old. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27:847-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Vaccine-strain VZV was identified through polymerase chain reaction. This report aims to alert physicians that recurrent vaccine-strain herpes zoster can be a rare complication of VZV vaccination in apparently immunocompetent hosts. ..
  7. Khandaker G, Marshall H, Peadon E, Zurynski Y, Burgner D, Buttery J, et al. Congenital and neonatal varicella: impact of the national varicella vaccination programme in Australia. Arch Dis Child. 2011;96:453-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to compare the current incidence and outcomes of congenital and neonatal varicella in Australia with similarly collected data from 1995 to 1997...
  8. Tillieux S, Halsey W, Thomas E, Voycik J, Sathe G, Vassilev V. Complete DNA sequences of two oka strain varicella-zoster virus genomes. J Virol. 2008;82:11023-44 pubmed publisher
  9. Lopez A, Burnett Hartman A, Nambiar R, Ritz L, Owens P, Loparev V, et al. Transmission of a newly characterized strain of varicella-zoster virus from a patient with herpes zoster in a long-term-care facility, West Virginia, 2004. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:646-53 pubmed publisher
  10. van Hoek A, Melegaro A, Gay N, Bilcke J, Edmunds W. The cost-effectiveness of varicella and combined varicella and herpes zoster vaccination programmes in the United Kingdom. Vaccine. 2012;30:1225-34 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is the first to assess the cost-effectiveness of combined varicella and zoster vaccination options and compare this to alternative programmes...
  11. Socan M, Berginc N, Lajovic J. Varicella susceptibility and transmission dynamics in Slovenia. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:360 pubmed publisher
    ..A cross-sectional, age-stratified study was conducted to determine varicella-zoster seroprevalence and force of infection in Slovenia...
  12. Schade R, Bakkers J, Cornelissen M, Koster Kamphuis L, Melchers W, Galama J. Breakthrough VZV infection after immunization, presenting as herpes zoster. Scand J Infect Dis. 2008;40:428-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, the infection manifested as herpes zoster of 1 dermatome. Typing showed wild-type virus, which suggests that exogenous reinfection with a new strain may present as herpes zoster. ..
  13. Jacobsen S, Ackerson B, Sy L, Tran T, Jones T, Yao J, et al. Observational safety study of febrile convulsion following first dose MMRV vaccination in a managed care setting. Vaccine. 2009;27:4656-61 pubmed publisher
    ..While there was no evidence of an increase in the overall month following vaccination, the elevated risk during this time period should be communicated and needs to be balanced with the potential benefit of a combined vaccine. ..
  14. Parker A, Reynolds M, Leung J, Anderson M, Rey A, Ortega Sanchez I, et al. Challenges to implementing second-dose varicella vaccination during an outbreak in the absence of a routine 2-dose vaccination requirement--Maine, 2006. J Infect Dis. 2008;197 Suppl 2:S101-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support ACIP's June 2007 recommendation for a routine 2-dose varicella vaccination program. ..
  15. Tanuseputro P, Zagorski B, Chan K, Kwong J. Population-based incidence of herpes zoster after introduction of a publicly funded varicella vaccination program. Vaccine. 2011;29:8580-4 pubmed publisher
  16. Chaves S, Haber P, Walton K, Wise R, Izurieta H, Schmid D, et al. Safety of varicella vaccine after licensure in the United States: experience from reports to the vaccine adverse event reporting system, 1995-2005. J Infect Dis. 2008;197 Suppl 2:S170-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Ongoing safety surveillance and further studies may shed light on some of the hypothesized associations. ..
  17. Sadzot Delvaux C, Rentier B, Wutzler P, Asano Y, Suga S, Yoshikawa T, et al. Varicella vaccination in Japan, South Korea, and Europe. J Infect Dis. 2008;197 Suppl 2:S185-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The recent development of a tetravalent vaccine against measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella could modify this variability in the future. It is evident that efforts to control varicella will spread gradually to all continents. ..
  18. Marchetto S, de Benedictis F, De Martino M, Versace A, Chiappini E, Bertaine C, et al. Epidemiology of hospital admissions for chickenpox in children: an Italian multicentre study in the pre-vaccine era. Acta Paediatr. 2007;96:1490-3 pubmed
    ..Our findings may be useful as background to evaluate the impact of a tetravalent measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine (MMRV) which is going to be introduced in Italy. ..
  19. Bayer O, Heininger U, Heiligensetzer C, Von Kries R. Metaanalysis of vaccine effectiveness in varicella outbreaks. Vaccine. 2007;25:6655-60 pubmed
    ..Waning might also be an issue with the newly recommended two dose vaccination schedule. Sustained surveillance for varicella outbreaks in populations with varicella immunization programs therefore is mandatory. ..
  20. Goh P, Lim F, Han H, Willems P. Safety and immunogenicity of early vaccination with two doses of tetravalent measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine in healthy children from 9 months of age. Infection. 2007;35:326-33 pubmed
    ..Early vaccination with two doses of this experimental MMRV vaccine at 9 and 12 months of age was well-tolerated and at least as immunogenic as two doses of separate licensed MMR and varicella vaccines. ..
  21. Bonanni P, Breuer J, Gershon A, Gershon M, Hryniewicz W, Papaevangelou V, et al. Varicella vaccination in Europe - taking the practical approach. BMC Med. 2009;7:26 pubmed publisher
  22. Pena Rey I, Martínez de Aragón M, Villaverde Hueso A, Terres Arellano M, Alcalde Cabero E, Suárez Rodríguez B. [Epidemiology of varicella in spain pre-and post-vaccination periods]. Rev Esp Salud Publica. 2009;83:711-24 pubmed
    ..The impact of vaccination is difficult to asses, because of a peak registered in 2004 but also because the lack of vaccination coverage information for this period and the case-data information is available only for the last year. ..
  23. Iyer S, Mittal M, Hodinka R. Herpes zoster and meningitis resulting from reactivation of varicella vaccine virus in an immunocompetent child. Ann Emerg Med. 2009;53:792-5 pubmed publisher
  24. Angelini P, Kavadas F, Sharma N, Richardson S, Tipples G, Roifman C, et al. Aplastic anemia following varicella vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28:746-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A causative association between the vaccine and the hematologic disease is possible, and pediatricians should be aware of this severe although rare adverse event. ..
  25. Rumke H, Loch H, Hoppenbrouwers K, Vandermeulen C, Malfroot A, Helm K, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of a measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine following a 4-week or a 12-month interval between two doses. Vaccine. 2011;29:3842-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Two doses of MMRV vaccine administered in the second year of life elicited adequate immunogenicity and were well-tolerated whether administered with a dose interval of 4 weeks or 12 months. ..
  26. Fusco D, Krawitz P, Larussa P, Steinberg S, Gershon A, Jacobs J. VZV meningitis following varicella vaccine. J Clin Virol. 2010;48:275-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case of disseminated herpes zoster in a previously healthy elderly woman hours after Oka strain vaccination. PCR and restriction enzyme analysis revealed that symptoms were caused by wild type virus...
  27. Yamanishi K. Molecular analysis of the Oka vaccine strain of varicella-zoster virus. J Infect Dis. 2008;197 Suppl 2:S45-8 pubmed publisher
  28. Katsafadou A, Kallergi K, Ferentinos G, Goulioti T, Foustoukou M, Papaevangelou V. Presumptive varicella vaccination is warranted in Greek adolescents lacking a history of disease or household exposure. Eur J Pediatr. 2009;168:23-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, based on our local epidemiologic data, presumptive varicella vaccination should be offered to all adolescents with the exception of the subgroup of adolescents with household exposure. ..
  29. Bonsignori F, Chiappini E, Frenos S, Peraldo M, Galli L, De Martino M. Hospitalization rates for complicated and uncomplicated chickenpox in a poorly vaccined pediatric population. Infection. 2007;35:444-50 pubmed
    ..Our epidemiological data may provide additional information while planning a vaccination strategy for Italy. ..
  30. Tan B, Bettinger J, McConnell A, Scheifele D, Halperin S, Vaudry W, et al. The effect of funded varicella immunization programs on varicella-related hospitalizations in IMPACT centers, Canada, 2000-2008. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012;31:956-63 pubmed
    ..Publicly funded routine immunization programs at 12 or 15 months of age were introduced by 5 provinces and territories (prov/terr) in 2000 to 2002 (earlier programs, EP) and by 8 prov/terr in 2004 to 2007 (later programs, LP)...
  31. Lian I, Chien Y, Hsu P, Chao D. The changing epidemiology of varicella incidence after implementation of the one-dose varicella vaccination policy. Vaccine. 2011;29:1448-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study provides important implications for the current vaccination policy...
  32. Vesikari T, Sadzot Delvaux C, Rentier B, Gershon A. Increasing coverage and efficiency of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine and introducing universal varicella vaccination in Europe: a role for the combined vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26:632-8 pubmed
  33. Marin M, Broder K, Temte J, Snider D, Seward J. Use of combination measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010;59:1-12 pubmed, which state that use of a combination vaccine generally is preferred over its equivalent component vaccines...
  34. Jardine A, Conaty S, Vally H. Herpes zoster in Australia: evidence of increase in incidence in adults attributable to varicella immunization?. Epidemiol Infect. 2011;139:658-65 pubmed publisher
  35. Hohle M, Siedler A, Bader H, Ludwig M, Heininger U, von Kries R. Assessment of varicella vaccine effectiveness in Germany: a time-series approach. Epidemiol Infect. 2011;139:1710-9 pubmed publisher
  36. Chao D, Chien Y, Yeh Y, Hsu P, Lian I. The incidence of varicella and herpes zoster in Taiwan during a period of increasing varicella vaccine coverage, 2000-2008. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:1131-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Continuous monitoring is needed to understand the secular trends in HZ before and after varicella vaccination in Taiwan and in other countries...
  37. Huang W, Huang L, Chang I, Tsai F, Chang L. Varicella breakthrough infection and vaccine effectiveness in Taiwan. Vaccine. 2011;29:2756-60 pubmed publisher
    ..001). The vaccine effectiveness against varicella was 82.6% and against varicella-related hospitalization was 85.4% from 2000 to 2005. ..
  38. Blatter M, Klein N, Shepard J, Leonardi M, Shapiro S, Schear M, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of two tetravalent (measles, mumps, rubella, varicella) vaccines coadministered with hepatitis a and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines to children twelve to fourteen months of age. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012;31:e133-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The vaccines showed acceptable reactogenicity/safety when coadministered with HAV and PCV7. ..
  39. Lin P, Yoon M, Chiu C. Herpes zoster keratouveitis and inflammatory ocular hypertension 8 years after varicella vaccination. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2009;17:33-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Herpes zoster ophthalmicus is very rare in the pediatric population after varicella vaccination but can cause severe inflammatory glaucoma that requires aggressive therapy. ..
  40. Chaves S, Lopez A, Watson T, Civen R, Watson B, Mascola L, et al. Varicella in infants after implementation of the US varicella vaccination program. Pediatrics. 2011;128:1071-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe varicella disease in infants since implementation of the varicella vaccination program in the United States...
  41. Walter E, Snyder M, Clements D, Katz S. Large injection site reactions after a second dose of varicella vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27:757-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The reactions resolved with symptomatic therapy. Clinicians should continue to administer the second dose of varicella vaccine, but should use the preferred site in the arm. ..
  42. Lopez A, Kolasa M, Seward J. Status of school entry requirements for varicella vaccination and vaccination coverage 11 years after implementation of the varicella vaccination program. J Infect Dis. 2008;197 Suppl 2:S76-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The newly adopted vaccine policy recommendation of 2 doses of varicella vaccine for all school-aged children should be incorporated into the states' school entry requirements. ..
  43. Kurugol Z, Halicioglu O, Koc F, Koturoglu G, Aksit S. Varicella rates among unvaccinated and one-dose vaccinated healthy children in Izmir, Turkey. Int J Infect Dis. 2011;15:e475-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to determine the rate of breakthrough varicella in Turkey, a country with low varicella vaccination coverage...
  44. Gan L, Wang M, Yang S, Gershon A, Chen J. Transmission of varicella vaccine virus to a non-family member in China. Vaccine. 2011;29:2015-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report in China in which an adult with varicella was attributable to vaccine virus and the 6th report of transmission of vaccine virus to a susceptible adult around the world...
  45. Hambleton S, Steinberg S, LaRussa P, Shapiro E, Gershon A. Risk of herpes zoster in adults immunized with varicella vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2008;197 Suppl 2:S196-9 pubmed publisher
    ..00 case/1000 person-years. Overall, the incidence of HZ in this cohort, therefore, is similar to published data for the US population in the prevaccine era. ..
  46. Carbajal T, Civen R, Reynolds M, Chaves S, Mascola L. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding varicella vaccination among health care providers participating in the varicella active surveillance project, Antelope Valley, California, 2005. J Infect Dis. 2008;197 Suppl 2:S66-70 pubmed publisher
  47. Seward J, Marin M, Vazquez M. Varicella vaccine effectiveness in the US vaccination program: a review. J Infect Dis. 2008;197 Suppl 2:S82-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Monitoring the effectiveness of the newly recommended 2-dose childhood vaccine schedule for varicella vaccine is a priority. ..
  48. Hammerschmidt T, Bisanz H, Wutzler P. Universal mass vaccination against varicella in Germany using an MMRV combination vaccine with a two-dose schedule: an economic analysis. Vaccine. 2007;25:7307-12 pubmed
    ..Indeed we found that universal mass vaccination of infants against varicella with a two-dose vaccine is cost-saving from societal as well as from health care perspective. ..
  49. Bonanni P, Boccalini S, Bechini A, Banz K. Economic evaluation of varicella vaccination in Italian children and adolescents according to different intervention strategies: the burden of uncomplicated hospitalised cases. Vaccine. 2008;26:5619-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our analysis confirmed the favourable clinical and economic impact of routine varicella vaccination with two doses of vaccine in Italy. ..
  50. Silverberg J, Kleiman E, Silverberg N, Durkin H, Joks R, Smith Norowitz T. Chickenpox in childhood is associated with decreased atopic disorders, IgE, allergic sensitization, and leukocyte subsets. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2012;23:50-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to determine whether WTVZV in childhood protects against atopic disorders, allergic sensitization or decreases serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels...
  51. Civen R, Chaves S, Jumaan A, Wu H, Mascola L, Gargiullo P, et al. The incidence and clinical characteristics of herpes zoster among children and adolescents after implementation of varicella vaccination. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28:954-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The increase in herpes zoster incidence among 10- to 19-year-olds could not be confidently explained and needs to be confirmed from other data sources. ..
  52. Lopez A, Zhang J, Brown C, Bialek S. Varicella-related hospitalizations in the United States, 2000-2006: the 1-dose varicella vaccination era. Pediatrics. 2011;127:238-45 pubmed publisher
  53. Reynolds M, Watson B, Plott Adams K, Jumaan A, Galil K, Maupin T, et al. Epidemiology of varicella hospitalizations in the United States, 1995-2005. J Infect Dis. 2008;197 Suppl 2:S120-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The fact that 4 vaccinated children required hospitalization for varicella-related complications demonstrates that 1 dose of varicella vaccine does not prevent serious disease in all cases, even among previously healthy children. ..
  54. Liao S, Huang T, Huang Y, Jiang D. Survey of the status of self-paid varicella vaccination among children one to six years of age in Taiwan. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2007;40:112-5 pubmed
    ..In case of other effective vaccines of high cost and not included in mass immunization, partially paying for the vaccine may be an option, since the parents' willingness was substantially greater when the cost is lowered. ..
  55. Macartney K, Burgess M. Varicella vaccination in Australia and New Zealand. J Infect Dis. 2008;197 Suppl 2:S191-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The anticipated licensure of combination measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccines in both countries may lead to future schedule changes. ..
  56. Goulleret N, Mauvisseau E, Essevaz Roulet M, Quinlivan M, Breuer J. Safety profile of live varicella virus vaccine (Oka/Merck): five-year results of the European Varicella Zoster Virus Identification Program (EU VZVIP). Vaccine. 2010;28:5878-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The European VZVIP provides data on VZV clade distribution...
  57. Sosa L, Hadler J. Epidemiology of varicella in Connecticut, 2001-2005. J Infect Dis. 2008;197 Suppl 2:S90-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Continued surveillance is needed in order to monitor changing trends in varicella epidemiology. ..
  58. Baldo V, Baldovin T, Russo F, Busana M, Piovesan C, Bordignon G, et al. Varicella: epidemiological aspects and vaccination coverage in the Veneto Region. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:150 pubmed publisher
    ..Continued surveillance will be important to monitor the impact of the recently introduced mass vaccination policy. ..
  59. Alfonsi V, D Ancona F, Giambi C, Nacca G, Rota M. Current immunization policies for pneumococcal, meningococcal C, varicella and rotavirus vaccinations in Italy. Health Policy. 2011;103:176-83 pubmed publisher
  60. Flatt A, Breuer J. Varicella vaccines. Br Med Bull. 2012;103:115-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of live-attenuated varicella vaccine to reduce the burden of these diseases has been established in many countries for a number of years...
  61. Spackova M, Muehlen M, Siedler A. Complications of varicella after implementation of routine childhood varicella vaccination in Germany. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:884-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Case-based questionnaires are completed for VC. We evaluated trend and clinical features of reported VC from April 2005 to March 2009. Reported VC decreased by 81%...
  62. Brisson M, Melkonyan G, Drolet M, De Serres G, Thibeault R, De Wals P. Modeling the impact of one- and two-dose varicella vaccination on the epidemiology of varicella and zoster. Vaccine. 2010;28:3385-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Adding a 2-dose program may help guarantee high population-level effectiveness against varicella. However, the incremental benefit of a second dose is highly dependant on the effectiveness of the first dose and its impact on zoster...
  63. Lin Y, Huang L, Chang I, Tsai F, Chang L. Disease burden and epidemiological characteristics of varicella in Taiwan from 2000 to 2005. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2009;42:5-12 pubmed
    ..The incidence of varicella among 3- to 6-year-old children was significantly lower in the areas with a free public vaccination policy. The hospital admission rates were highest for infants and elderly people. ..
  64. Galea S, Sweet A, Beninger P, Steinberg S, LaRussa P, Gershon A, et al. The safety profile of varicella vaccine: a 10-year review. J Infect Dis. 2008;197 Suppl 2:S165-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Disseminated Oka VZV was identified in 6 immunocompromised patients and 1 patient with Down syndrome. This review has shown that the vaccine is generally safe and well tolerated. ..
  65. Han J, Hanson D, Way S. Herpes zoster and meningitis due to reactivation of varicella vaccine virus in an immunocompetent child. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:266-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Vaccine strain of VZV was recovered from a skin swab and the cerebrospinal fluid. Reactivation of the vaccine strain of VZV should be recognized as a potential cause of meningitis in children. ..
  66. Gould P, Leung J, Scott C, Schmid D, Deng H, Lopez A, et al. An outbreak of varicella in elementary school children with two-dose varicella vaccine recipients--Arkansas, 2006. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28:678-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This outbreak is the first to document varicella in both 1- and 2-dose vaccine recipients; both groups had mild disease. The vaccine effectiveness of 1 and 2 doses were similar. ..
  67. Pozza F, Piovesan C, Russo F, Bella A, Pezzotti P, Emberti Gialloreti L. Impact of universal vaccination on the epidemiology of varicella in Veneto, Italy. Vaccine. 2011;29:9480-7 pubmed publisher
    ..There was a remarkable decline of both varicella incidence and hospitalizations especially in 1-4 year-old children. This study confirms the positive impact of universal vaccination...
  68. Italiano C, Toi C, Chan S, Dwyer D. Prolonged varicella viraemia and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome following varicella vaccination of a health care worker. Med J Aust. 2009;190:451-3 pubmed
    ..Vaccination was accompanied by prolonged viraemia with the varicella vaccine strain - also, we believe, the first report of this in an immunocompetent patient. ..
  69. Patel M, Gebremariam A, Davis M. Herpes zoster-related hospitalizations and expenditures before and after introduction of the varicella vaccine in the United States. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2008;29:1157-63 pubmed publisher
    ..As the rates of VRHDs and the associated charges have decreased, there has been a significant increase in HZHDs and associated charges, disproportionately among older adults. Herpes zoster vaccine may mitigate these trends for HZHDs. ..
  70. Levin M, Debiasi R, Bostik V, Schmid D. Herpes zoster with skin lesions and meningitis caused by 2 different genotypes of the Oka varicella-zoster virus vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:1444-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of distinct strains in skin lesions and cerebrospinal fluid indicate that >1 variant strain may reactivate to cause herpes zoster...
  71. Rozenbaum M, van Hoek A, Vegter S, Postma M. Cost-effectiveness of varicella vaccination programs: an update of the literature. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2008;7:753-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite that, those aspects limit the timeliness of our review and we believe that the current work does provide useful insights in the cost-effectiveness of varicella vaccination. ..
  72. Zhou F, Ortega Sanchez I, Guris D, Shefer A, Lieu T, Seward J. An economic analysis of the universal varicella vaccination program in the United States. J Infect Dis. 2008;197 Suppl 2:S156-64 pubmed publisher
  73. Patrick D. Prevention strategies: experience of varicella vaccination programmes. Herpes. 2007;14 Suppl 2:48-51 pubmed
    ..Ongoing surveillance for the reactivation of herpes zoster and safety programmes are also highlighted as key recommendations. ..
  74. Marin M, Guris D, Chaves S, Schmid S, Seward J. Prevention of varicella: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2007;56:1-40 pubmed
    ..ACIP also approved criteria for evidence of immunity to varicella. ..