herpesvirus vaccines


Summary: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family HERPESVIRIDAE.

Top Publications

  1. Thiry J, Tempesta M, Camero M, Tarsitano E, Bellacicco A, Thiry E, et al. A live attenuated glycoprotein E negative bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccine induces a partial cross-protection against caprine herpesvirus 1 infection in goats. Vet Microbiol. 2006;113:303-8 pubmed
    ..These data indicate the safety and the partial efficacy of a live attenuated gE-negative BoHV-1 vaccine intranasally administrated in goats...
  2. Minke J, Fischer L, Baudu P, Guigal P, Sindle T, Mumford J, et al. Use of DNA and recombinant canarypox viral (ALVAC) vectors for equine herpes virus vaccination. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2006;111:47-57 pubmed
  3. Camero M, Bellacicco A, Tarsitano E, Decaro N, Martella V, Tempesta M, et al. Intravaginal administration of an inactivated vaccine prevents lesions induced by caprine herpesvirus-1 in goats. Vaccine. 2007;25:1658-61 pubmed
    ..Even without adjuvants, prolonged mucosal vaccination induced production of secretory IgA and provided significant clinical protection...
  4. Mohr C, Cicin Sain L, Wagner M, Sacher T, Schnee M, Ruzsics Z, et al. Engineering of cytomegalovirus genomes for recombinant live herpesvirus vaccines. Int J Med Microbiol. 2008;298:115-25 pubmed
    ..vaccine against a human herpesvirus exists and there is no proven successful concept on rational design for herpesvirus vaccines available...
  5. Sokal E, Hoppenbrouwers K, Vandermeulen C, Moutschen M, Leonard P, Moreels A, et al. Recombinant gp350 vaccine for infectious mononucleosis: a phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of an Epstein-Barr virus vaccine in healthy young adults. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:1749-53 pubmed publisher
    ..To date, there is no commercially available vaccine to prevent infectious mononucleosis, a disease frequently induced by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in adolescents or adults devoid of preexisting immunity to the virus...
  6. Augustinova H, Hoeller D, Yao F. The dominant-negative herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) recombinant CJ83193 can serve as an effective vaccine against wild-type HSV-1 infection in mice. J Virol. 2004;78:5756-65 pubmed
    ..The results presented in this report have shed new light on the development of effective HSV viral vaccines that encode a unique safety mechanism capable of inhibiting the mutant's own replication and that of wild-type virus. ..
  7. Sakamoto K, Asanuma H, Nakamura T, Kanno T, Sata T, Katano H. Immune response to intranasal and intraperitoneal immunization with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in mice. Vaccine. 2010;28:3325-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The serum and nasal wash fluid of KSHV-encoded K8.1 protein-immunized mice neutralized KSHV infection to 293 cells in vitro. These data suggest a possibility of mucosal vaccine for prophylaxis of KSHV infection. ..
  8. Morello C, Levinson M, Kraynyak K, Spector D. Immunization with herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) genes plus inactivated HSV-2 is highly protective against acute and recurrent HSV-2 disease. J Virol. 2011;85:3461-72 pubmed publisher
  9. Khodai T, Chappell D, Christy C, Cockle P, Eyles J, Hammond D, et al. Single and combination herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein vaccines adjuvanted with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides or monophosphoryl lipid A exhibit differential immunity that is not correlated to protection in animal models. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011;18:1702-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that difficulties in correlating immune responses to efficacy in animal models will act as a deterrent to researchers attempting to develop effective HSV vaccines...

More Information


  1. Lee H, Cha S, Jang D, Lee J, Choo D, Kim Y, et al. Immunization with combined HSV-2 glycoproteins B2 : D2 gene DNAs: protection against lethal intravaginal challenges in mice. Virus Genes. 2002;25:179-88 pubmed
    ..All the DNA vaccines failed to block the latent infection in sensory nerves. ..
  2. Smith C, Khanna R. Herpesvirus vaccines: challenges and future prospects. Hum Vaccin. 2010;6:1062-7 pubmed
  3. van Lint A, Torres Lopez E, Knipe D. Immunization with a replication-defective herpes simplex virus 2 mutant reduces herpes simplex virus 1 infection and prevents ocular disease. Virology. 2007;368:227-31 pubmed
    ..Therefore, this HSV-2 replication-defective mutant strain may have applications for prevention of herpes keratitis and genital herpes due to HSV-1 infection. ..
  4. Ackermann M, Engels M. Pro and contra IBR-eradication. Vet Microbiol. 2006;113:293-302 pubmed
    ..Collaborative actions to gather viral strains from as many countries as possible for inclusion into a newly created clustering library would be most advantageous...
  5. Kaushic C, Ashkar A, Reid L, Rosenthal K. Progesterone increases susceptibility and decreases immune responses to genital herpes infection. J Virol. 2003;77:4558-65 pubmed
    ..Animal models and vaccine strategies for sexually transmitted diseases need to consider the effect of hormone treatments on susceptibility and immune responses. ..
  6. Roth K, Ferreira V, Kaushic C. HSV-2 vaccine: current state and insights into development of a vaccine that targets genital mucosal protection. Microb Pathog. 2013;58:45-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Future vaccination strategies that focus on induction of robust mucosal immunity in the genital tract may hold the key for a successful vaccine against HSV-2...
  7. El Gogo S, Staib C, Meyr M, Erfle V, Sutter G, Adler H. Recombinant murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) as challenge virus to test efficacy of vaccination against chronic virus infections in the mouse model. Vaccine. 2007;25:3934-45 pubmed
    ..These data strongly suggest the usefulness of the MHV-68 challenge model for further evaluation of recombinant vaccines against persisting virus infections. ..
  8. Osorio Y, Ghiasi H. Comparison of adjuvant efficacy of herpes simplex virus type 1 recombinant viruses expressing TH1 and TH2 cytokine genes. J Virol. 2003;77:5774-83 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that, in contrast to IFN-gamma which did not exhibit an adjuvant effect, both IL-4 and IL-2 act as adjuvants in immunization with HSV, with IL-4 showing greater efficacy. ..
  9. Fischer G, Paulino N, Marcucci M, Siedler B, Munhoz L, Finger P, et al. Green propolis phenolic compounds act as vaccine adjuvants, improving humoral and cellular responses in mice inoculated with inactivated vaccines. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2010;105:908-13 pubmed
    ..05). Prenylated compounds such as Artepillin C that are found in large quantities in JFR are likely to be the substances that are responsible for the adjuvant activity. ..
  10. Haynes J, Arrington J, Dong L, Braun R, Payne L. Potent protective cellular immune responses generated by a DNA vaccine encoding HSV-2 ICP27 and the E. coli heat labile enterotoxin. Vaccine. 2006;24:5016-26 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that augmented cellular immune responses resulting from LT vector plus antigen vector administration to the skin are biologically significant, leading to enhanced protection against mucosal pathogenic challenge. ..
  11. Kydd J, Wattrang E, Hannant D. Pre-infection frequencies of equine herpesvirus-1 specific, cytotoxic T lymphocytes correlate with protection against abortion following experimental infection of pregnant mares. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2003;96:207-17 pubmed
    ..Therefore, as indicated by this study, rational approaches to the development of new vaccines for EHV-1 should stimulate cytotoxic immune responses and develop virus-specific CTL as pre-requisites for protection against abortion. ..
  12. Weinberg A, Levin M. VZV T cell-mediated immunity. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2010;342:341-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, the magnitude of these responses early after the onset of herpes zoster correlates with the extent of zoster-associated pain. These essential immune responses are boosted by the VZV vaccine developed to prevent herpes zoster...
  13. Bright H, Perez D, Christy C, Cockle P, Eyles J, Hammond D, et al. The efficacy of HSV-2 vaccines based on gD and gB is enhanced by the addition of ICP27. Vaccine. 2012;30:7529-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the addition of ICP27 to enhance the anti-viral T cell response can improve the efficacy of gD- and gB-based vaccines. ..
  14. Parr M, Parr E. Vaginal immunity in the HSV-2 mouse model. Int Rev Immunol. 2003;22:43-63 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on recent studies using a progestin-treated adult mouse model to explore mucosal immunity to HSV-2 in the vagina. Evidence indicating a major role for both humoral and T cell immunity is presented. ..
  15. Pontarollo R, Babiuk L, Hecker R, van Drunen Littel van den Hurk S. Augmentation of cellular immune responses to bovine herpesvirus-1 glycoprotein D by vaccination with CpG-enhanced plasmid vectors. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:2973-81 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that CpG-enhanced plasmids induce augmented immune responses and could be used to vaccinate against pathogens requiring a strong cellular response for protection. ..
  16. Wang P, Hurley D, Braun L, Chase C. Detection of bovine herpesvirus-1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells eight months postinfection. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2001;13:424-7 pubmed
    ..The BHV-1 DNA and viral antigen were detected in PBMC samples at 8 months postinfection, but no virus was isolated. ..
  17. Tengvall S, Harandi A. Importance of myeloid differentiation factor 88 in innate and acquired immune protection against genital herpes infection in mice. J Reprod Immunol. 2008;78:49-57 pubmed
  18. Balzli C, Bertran K, Lee D, Killmaster L, Pritchard N, Linz P, et al. The efficacy of recombinant turkey herpesvirus vaccines targeting the H5 of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus from the 2014-2015 North American outbreak. Vaccine. 2018;36:84-90 pubmed publisher
  19. Luce R, Shepherd M, Paillot R, Blacklawst B, Wood J, Kydd J. Equine herpesvirus-1-specific interferon gamma (IFNgamma) synthesis by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in thoroughbred horses. Equine Vet J. 2007;39:202-9 pubmed
    ..The method requires validation in the field...
  20. Roos T, de Lara A, Dummer L, Fischer G, Leite F. The immune modulation of Bacillus cereus var. Toyoi in mice immunized with experimental inactivated Bovine Herpesvirus Type 5 vaccine. Vaccine. 2012;30:2173-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that this probiotic could provide a promising means of improving vaccine efficacy, particularly those vaccines that rely on a cell-mediated immune response. ..
  21. Ghiasi H, Osorio Y, Nesburn A, Wechsler S. Enhanced clearance of herpes simplex virus type 1 and reduced herpetic eye disease in STAT6 knockout mice is associated with increased IL-2. Virology. 2002;302:286-93 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that in the absence of the STAT6 pathway, IL-2-mediated immune responses are up-regulated. This, in turn, leads to faster viral clearance and, consequently, lower levels of eye disease...
  22. Hayney M. Shingles prevention: vaccine presents opportunity to pharmacists. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2006;46:647-9 pubmed
  23. van Drunen Littel van den Hurk S. Cell-mediated immune responses induced by BHV-1: rational vaccine design. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2007;6:369-80 pubmed
    ..This includes well-defined genetically engineered gene-deleted, subunit and vectored vaccines...
  24. Chentoufi A, Zhang X, Lamberth K, Dasgupta G, Bettahi I, Nguyen A, et al. HLA-A*0201-restricted CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes identified from herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D. J Immunol. 2008;180:426-37 pubmed
    ..The functional gD CD8+ T cell epitopes described herein are potentially important components of clinical immunotherapeutic and immunoprophylactic herpes vaccines. ..
  25. Koplan J, Harpaz R. Shingles vaccine: effective and costly or cost-effective?. Ann Intern Med. 2006;145:386-7 pubmed
  26. Johnston C, Koelle D, Wald A. HSV-2: in pursuit of a vaccine. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:4600-9 pubmed publisher
  27. Kamaraj G, Rana S, Srinivasan V. Serological response in cattle immunized with inactivated oil and Algel adjuvant vaccines against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. New Microbiol. 2009;32:135-41 pubmed
    ..Adequate titres of vaccine induced anti BHV-1 antibodies could be demonstrated both by ELISA and MNT up to 180 days post vaccination in both the groups...
  28. Stasikova J, Kutinova L, Smahel M, Nemeckova S. Immunization with Varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E expressing vectors: Comparison of antibody response to DNA vaccine and recombinant vaccinia virus. Acta Virol. 2003;47:1-10 pubmed
    ..The antibody response elicited by DNA vaccine was boosted by a secondary immunization with rVV. The boosting effect was highest if the virus was administered intraperitoneal (i.p.). ..
  29. Van De Walle G, May M, Peters S, Metzger S, Rosas C, Osterrieder N. A vectored equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) vaccine elicits protective immune responses against EHV-1 and H3N8 equine influenza virus. Vaccine. 2010;28:1048-55 pubmed publisher
  30. Langellotti C, Pappalardo J, Quattrocchi V, Mongini C, Zamorano P. Induction of specific cytotoxic activity for bovine herpesvirus-1 by DNA immunization with different adjuvants. Antiviral Res. 2011;90:134-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report we propose the use of ISA25, ISA206 or Cliptox as adjuvants in a DNA vaccine since they are able to induce not only a specific humoral immune response but also a specific cellular immune response...
  31. Wang X, Xie G, Liao J, Yin D, Guan W, Pan M, et al. Design and evaluation of a multi-epitope assembly peptide (MEAP) against herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in BALB/c mice. Virol J. 2011;8:232 pubmed publisher
    ..The MEAP provided complete protection against infection with HSV-2 in mice, which indicates that it might be a potential candidate vaccine against HSV-2. ..
  32. Red kin I, Odokienko A. [Modern approaches to pharmacotherapy of recidivating herpes infection]. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2005;68:67-71 pubmed
  33. Schmid D. Varicella-zoster virus vaccine: molecular genetics. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2010;342:323-40 pubmed publisher
  34. Vere Hodge A. Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - 43rd Annual Meeting. Herpes viruses. 13-17 September 2003, Chicago, IL, USA. IDrugs. 2003;6:1033-5 pubmed
  35. Ono E, Lafer M, Weckx L, Granato C, de Moraes Pinto M. A simple and cheaper in house varicella zoster virus antibody indirect ELISA. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2004;46:165-8 pubmed
    ..The cost per sample to test VZV IgG was 2.7 times cheaper with our ELISA, allowing the testing of many samples without the burden of production of VZV antigen in the laboratory. ..
  36. Mitka M. FDA approves shingles vaccine: herpes zoster vaccine targets older adults. JAMA. 2006;296:157-8 pubmed
  37. König P, Beer M, Makoschey B, Teifke J, Polster U, Giesow K, et al. Recombinant virus-expressed bovine cytokines do not improve efficacy of a bovine herpesvirus 1 marker vaccine strain. Vaccine. 2003;22:202-12 pubmed
    ..In summary, all recombinant viruses were safe and effective, but protection afforded by the recombinants was not improved as compared to vaccination with the parental virus strain GK/D. ..
  38. Zhang S, Xiang J, Cheng A, Wang M, Li X, Li L, et al. Production, purification and characterization of polyclonal antibody against the truncated gK of the duck enteritis virus. Virol J. 2010;7:241 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach also provides effective experimental technology for epidemiological investigation and retrospective diagnose of the preservative paraffin blocks. ..
  39. Soboll G, Breathnach C, Kydd J, Hussey S, Mealey R, Lunn D. Vaccination of ponies with the IE gene of EHV-1 in a recombinant modified live vaccinia vector protects against clinical and virological disease. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;135:108-17 pubmed publisher
  40. Aricò E, Robertson K, Belardelli F, Ferrantini M, Nash A. Vaccination with inactivated murine gammaherpesvirus 68 strongly limits viral replication and latency and protects type I IFN receptor knockout mice from a lethal infection. Vaccine. 2004;22:1433-40 pubmed
    ..Of note, the inactivated MHV-68 vaccine completely protected type I IFN receptor knockout mice from the infection with a lethal dose of MHV-68. ..
  41. Jones C, Chowdhury S. Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) is an important cofactor in the bovine respiratory disease complex. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2010;26:303-21 pubmed publisher
    ..BHV-1 encodes several proteins that inhibit various arms of the immune system suggesting that these proteins are important in the development of BRDC...
  42. Martina B, Harder T, Osterhaus A. Purification of phocid herpesvirus type 1 glycoproteins B and D and pilot studies of immunogenicity in mice. Vaccine. 2006;24:90-4 pubmed
    ..The corresponding antibody and T cell proliferative responses were higher against PhHV-1 than against FHV. These data favour further testing of these candidate vaccines based on gB and gD in the FHV-cat model. ..
  43. Jamali A, Soleimanjahi H, Moin M, Mahdavi M, Hashemi H, Sabahi F, et al. Withdrawal from morphine reduces cell-mediated immunity against herpes simplex virus generated by natural immunization. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2012;19:229-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings raise the possibility that withdrawal from morphine may increase the susceptibility of drug addicts to infectious diseases. ..
  44. Cairns T, Ditto N, Lou H, Brooks B, Atanasiu D, Eisenberg R, et al. Global sensing of the antigenic structure of herpes simplex virus gD using high-throughput array-based SPR imaging. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006430 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this technology provides new insights into the antigenic structure of gD and provides a rationale as to how vaccination with a gD2 subunit may lead to protection from HSV-1 infection. ..
  45. Pérez Filgueira D, Zamorano P, Dominguez M, Taboga O, Del Médico Zajac M, Puntel M, et al. Bovine herpes virus gD protein produced in plants using a recombinant tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) vector possesses authentic antigenicity. Vaccine. 2003;21:4201-9 pubmed
    ..The positive immunological characterization obtained for the gDc, indicated that an important part of the natural conformation was retained in the plant recombinant protein. ..
  46. Toussaint J, Coen L, Letellier C, Dispas M, Gillet L, Vanderplasschen A, et al. Genetic immunisation of cattle against bovine herpesvirus 1: glycoprotein gD confers higher protection than glycoprotein gC or tegument protein VP8. Vet Res. 2005;36:529-44 pubmed
    ..Altogether the DNA vaccines induced weaker immunity and protection than conventional marker vaccines tested previously, confirming the difficulty to develop efficient DNA vaccines in large species. ..
  47. Patel J, Didlick S. Epidemiology, disease and control of infections in ruminants by herpesviruses--an overview. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2008;79:8-14 pubmed
    ..New gammaherpesviruses within these subfamilies are likely to be discovered in the future...
  48. Patel J, Foldi J, Bateman H, Williams J, Didlick S, Stark R. Equid herpesvirus (EHV-1) live vaccine strain C147: efficacy against respiratory diseases following EHV types 1 and 4 challenges. Vet Microbiol. 2003;92:1-17 pubmed
    ..However, only 1 of 7 vaccinated horses showed a significant antibody rise and only to EHV-4...
  49. Loehr B, Pontarollo R, Rankin R, Latimer L, Willson P, Babiuk L, et al. Priming by DNA immunization augments T-cell responses induced by modified live bovine herpesvirus vaccine. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:3035-43 pubmed
    ..Similar levels of protection were induced by the MLV vaccine alone and the DNA prime and MLV boost regimen, which suggests that there is no correlation between the induction of T-cell responses and protection from BHV-1 challenge. ..
  50. Lambert M, Gannage M, Karras A, Abel M, Legendre C, Kerob D, et al. Differences in the frequency and function of HHV8-specific CD8 T cells between asymptomatic HHV8 infection and Kaposi sarcoma. Blood. 2006;108:3871-80 pubmed
    ..They may also have important implications for the design of prophylactic and therapeutic HHV8 vaccines, and for adoptive immunotherapy of KS. ..
  51. Volkova A. [The current aspects of herpes-zoster infection. Post herpes neuralgia: clinical symptoms, treatment, prevention]. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2007;107:76-9 pubmed
  52. Poland G. The growing paradigm of preventing disease: vaccines to prevent herpes zoster and pertussis in adults. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143:539-41 pubmed
  53. Rahaus M, Augustinski K, Castells M, Desloges N. Application of a new bivalent Marek's disease vaccine does not interfere with infectious bronchitis or Newcastle disease vaccinations and proves efficacious. Avian Dis. 2013;57:498-502 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, no signs of interference or adverse effects were detected. Thus, the vaccines can be administered concomitantly on chickens' first day of life. ..
  54. Ferrer M, Del Médico Zajac M, Zanetti F, Valera A, Zabal O, Calamante G. Recombinant MVA expressing secreted glycoprotein D of BoHV-1 induces systemic and mucosal immunity in animal models. Viral Immunol. 2011;24:331-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion our data encourage further studies to evaluate MVA-gDs, alone or combined with other immunogens, as a candidate vaccine for BoHV-1. ..
  55. McGowin C, Pyles R. Mucosal treatments for herpes simplex virus: insights on targeted immunoprophylaxis and therapy. Future Microbiol. 2010;5:15-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, immunization at genital and extragenital mucosal sites is discussed. Finally, preclinical success with novel immunotherapies for ocular HSV that address herpetic keratitis and corneal blindness is reviewed. ..
  56. Kanbayashi Y, Hosokawa T. Vaccination against and treatment of acute herpes zoster for prevention of post-herpetic neuralgia. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2013;17:371 pubmed publisher
    ..This review discusses vaccination against HZ, and further reviews recent pharmacotherapy for prevention of PHN. ..
  57. Morello C, Kraynyak K, Levinson M, Chen Z, Lee K, Spector D. Inactivated HSV-2 in MPL/alum adjuvant provides nearly complete protection against genital infection and shedding following long term challenge and rechallenge. Vaccine. 2012;30:6541-6550 pubmed publisher
    ..Most notably, an optimized vaccine formulation of FI-HSV2 MPL/Alhydrogel given i.m. completely protected against detectable vaginal HSV-2 shedding in the majority of animals and HSV-2 latent DNA in the DRG of all animals. ..
  58. Gershon A, Gershon M. Perspectives on vaccines against varicella-zoster virus infections. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2010;342:359-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite gaps in our understanding of the details of immunity to VZV, successful vaccines have been developed against both varicella and zoster. ..
  59. Woodland D, Usherwood E, Liu L, Flano E, Kim I, Blackman M. Vaccination against murine gamma-herpesvirus infection. Viral Immunol. 2001;14:217-26 pubmed
    ..Here we review the T-cell response to different phases of the infection and the impact of vaccination against either lytic-cycle, or latency-associated T-cell epitopes. ..
  60. Breathnach C, Yeargan M, Sheoran A, Allen G. The mucosal humoral immune response of the horse to infective challenge and vaccination with equine herpesvirus-1 antigens. Equine Vet J. 2001;33:651-7 pubmed
    ..EHV-1-specific mucosal antibodies impeded EHV-1 plaque formation in vitro. Such virus-neutralising antibody probably contributes to a reduction of shedding of EHV-1 from the respiratory tract of virus-infected horses. ..
  61. Schroeder C, Horner S, Bürger N, Engemann C, Bange U, Knoop E, et al. Improving the sensitivity of the IBR-gE ELISA for testing IBR marker vaccinated cows from bulk milk. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2012;125:290-6 pubmed
    ..After further evaluation this procedure could allow a cost efficient and reliable method of monitoring IBR marker-vaccinated herds for IBR-gE antibodies. ..
  62. Balfour H. Epstein-Barr virus vaccine for the prevention of infectious mononucleosis--and what else?. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:1724-6 pubmed publisher
  63. Kamiyoshi T, Murakami K, Konishi M, Izumi Y, Sentsui H. The presence of a deletion sequence in the BHV-1 UL49 homolog in a live attenuated vaccine for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR). Vaccine. 2008;26:477-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results provide a new and important information to distinguish the vaccine strain 758-43 clearly from wild-type BHV-1 isolates in Japan. The UL49 homolog gene seems to participate in pathogenicity in herpesvirus infections. ..
  64. Gogev S, Georgin J, Schynts F, Vanderplasschen A, Thiry E. Bovine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein D expression in bovine upper respiratory tract mediated by a human adenovirus type 5. Vet Res. 2004;35:715-21 pubmed
    ..Observed limited gene transfer into well differentiated cattle airway epithelial cells must be taken into consideration in order to enhance transfection efficiency, and consequently the vaccine potential of this vector. ..
  65. Hornberger J, Robertus K. Cost-effectiveness of a vaccine to prevent herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in older adults. Ann Intern Med. 2006;145:317-25 pubmed
    ..Resolution of uncertainties about the average quality-of-life effects of acute zoster and the duration of vaccine efficacy is needed to better determine the cost-effectiveness of zoster vaccination in older adults. ..
  66. Pearson W, Omar S, Clarke A. Low-dose ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) modulates the course and magnitude of the antibody response to vaccination against equid herpesvirus I in horses. Can J Vet Res. 2007;71:213-7 pubmed
    ..No adverse effects of ginseng treatment were identified by hematologic and blood biochemistry profiles. Thus, low-dose dietary supplementation with ginseng in healthy horses may be a useful adjunct to vaccination. ..
  67. Huang Y, Babiuk L, van Drunen Littel van den Hurk S. Immunization with a bovine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein B DNA vaccine induces cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in mice and cattle. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:887-98 pubmed
    ..This demonstrated that pMASIAtgB elicited both humoral responses and activated gamma interferon-secreting CD8+ CTLs, suggesting that a DNA vaccine expressing tgB induces a CTL response in the natural host of BHV-1. ..
  68. BenMohamed L, Wechsler S, Nesburn A. Lipopeptide vaccines--yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Lancet Infect Dis. 2002;2:425-31 pubmed
    ..In particular, the recent development of mucosal application of lipopeptide vaccines may present an ideal strategy against many pathogens that infect mucosal surfaces. ..
  69. Yasumoto S. [Immune responses to varicella-zoster virus infection]. Nihon Rinsho. 2006;64 Suppl 3:184-7 pubmed
  70. Schiffer J, Corey L. Rapid host immune response and viral dynamics in herpes simplex virus-2 infection. Nat Med. 2013;19:280-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The fact that immune responses usually control viral replication in genital skin before lesions develop provides hope that enhancing such responses could lead to effective vaccines and immunotherapies. ..
  71. Emery V. Human herpesvirus vaccines and future directions. Am J Transplant. 2013;13 Suppl 3:79-86; quiz 86 pubmed publisher
  72. Jones L, Black A, Malavige G, Ogg G. Persistent high frequencies of varicella-zoster virus ORF4 protein-specific CD4+ T cells after primary infection. J Virol. 2006;80:9772-8 pubmed
    ..In summary, we have identified an ORF4 protein as a novel target antigen for persistent VZV-specific CD4+ T cells, with implications for disease pathogenesis and future vaccine development. ..
  73. Veselenak R, Shlapobersky M, Pyles R, Wei Q, Sullivan S, Bourne N. A Vaxfectin(®)-adjuvanted HSV-2 plasmid DNA vaccine is effective for prophylactic and therapeutic use in the guinea pig model of genital herpes. Vaccine. 2012;30:7046-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel adjuvanted pDNA vaccine has demonstrated both prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy in the guinea pig model of genital herpes and warrants further development. ..
  74. Zheng C, Babiuk L, van Drunen Littel van den Hurk S. Bovine herpesvirus 1 VP22 enhances the efficacy of a DNA vaccine in cattle. J Virol. 2005;79:1948-53 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of the use of VP22 as a transport molecule in the context of a DNA vaccine for a large animal species. ..
  75. Delbende C, Verwaerde C, Mougel A, Tranchand Bunel D. Induction of therapeutic antibodies by vaccination against external loops of tumor-associated viral latent membrane protein. J Virol. 2009;83:11734-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide a proof of concept for 2LS immunization against short external loops of viral LMPs. This approach might possibly be extended to other infectious agents expressing type III membrane proteins. ..
  76. Lee A, Ashkar A. Herpes simplex virus-2 in the genital mucosa: insights into the mucosal host response and vaccine development. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2012;25:92-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This review aims to summarize the innate and adaptive immune responses against HSV-2 and examines the current status of vaccine development...
  77. Szpara M, Tafuri Y, Parsons L, Shamim S, Verstrepen K, Legendre M, et al. A wide extent of inter-strain diversity in virulent and vaccine strains of alphaherpesviruses. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002282 pubmed publisher
    ..These data add to growing evidence that even plaque-purified stocks of stable DNA viruses exhibit limited sequence heterogeneity, which likely seeds future strain evolution. ..
  78. Manoj S, Griebel P, Babiuk L, van Drunen Littel van den Hurk S. Modulation of immune responses to bovine herpesvirus-1 in cattle by immunization with a DNA vaccine encoding glycoprotein D as a fusion protein with bovine CD154. Immunology. 2004;112:328-38 pubmed
  79. Toussaint J, Letellier C, Paquet D, Dispas M, Kerkhofs P. Prime-boost strategies combining DNA and inactivated vaccines confer high immunity and protection in cattle against bovine herpesvirus-1. Vaccine. 2005;23:5073-81 pubmed
    ..Individual IgG2 titers of vaccinated calves were significantly correlated to IFN-gamma production. The immunization protocol described in the present study demonstrates the complementarity between DNA and conventional marker vaccines. ..
  80. Caselli E, Boni M, Di Luca D, Salvatori D, Vita A, Cassai E. A combined bovine herpesvirus 1 gB-gD DNA vaccine induces immune response in mice. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2005;28:155-66 pubmed
    ..The data suggest the potential use of this combined vaccine in in vivo trials of calves, in order to evaluate its protective efficacy...
  81. Moser J, Farrell M, Krug L, Upton J, Speck S. A gammaherpesvirus 68 gene 50 null mutant establishes long-term latency in the lung but fails to vaccinate against a wild-type virus challenge. J Virol. 2006;80:1592-8 pubmed
    ..These data indicate gammaherpesviruses that are unable to undergo lytic replication in vivo may not be viable vaccine candidates despite the detection of cells harboring viral genome at late times postinfection. ..
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    ..Insight into epidemiology of varicella zoster is needed for the assessment of the desirability of introduction of routine varicella zoster vaccination. ..
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    ..Collectively, we demonstrate that vaccination with CJ9-gD elicits strong and protective immune responses against primary HSV-1 skin disease and reduces the extent of latent infection by challenge virus. ..
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