ebola vaccines


Summary: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.

Top Publications

  1. Dowling W, Thompson E, Badger C, Mellquist J, Garrison A, Smith J, et al. Influences of glycosylation on antigenicity, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of ebola virus GP DNA vaccines. J Virol. 2007;81:1821-37 pubmed
    ..Finally, we identified other potential regions of GP that may contain relevant antibody or T-cell epitopes. ..
  2. Yang L, Sanchez A, Ward J, Murphy B, Collins P, Bukreyev A. A paramyxovirus-vectored intranasal vaccine against Ebola virus is immunogenic in vector-immune animals. Virology. 2008;377:255-64 pubmed publisher
  3. Hensley L, Mulangu S, Asiedu C, Johnson J, Honko A, Stanley D, et al. Demonstration of cross-protective vaccine immunity against an emerging pathogenic Ebolavirus Species. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000904 pubmed publisher
    ..of vaccine-induced protective immunity against challenge with a heterologous EBOV species, and shows that Ebola vaccines capable of eliciting potent cellular immunity may provide the best strategy for eliciting cross-protection ..
  4. Geisbert T, Daddario DiCaprio K, Geisbert J, Reed D, Feldmann F, Grolla A, et al. Vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccines protect nonhuman primates against aerosol challenge with Ebola and Marburg viruses. Vaccine. 2008;26:6894-900 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, disease in control animals appeared to progress slower than previously seen in macaques exposed to comparable doses by intramuscular injection...
  5. Qiu X, Fernando L, Alimonti J, Melito P, Feldmann F, Dick D, et al. Mucosal immunization of cynomolgus macaques with the VSVDeltaG/ZEBOVGP vaccine stimulates strong ebola GP-specific immune responses. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5547 pubmed publisher
    ..Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) produces a lethal viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates...
  6. Sullivan N, Martin J, Graham B, Nabel G. Correlates of protective immunity for Ebola vaccines: implications for regulatory approval by the animal rule. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2009;7:393-400 pubmed publisher
    ..This research provides a basis for bridging the gap from basic research to human vaccine responses in support of the licensing of vaccines through the animal rule...
  7. Richardson J, Yao M, Tran K, Croyle M, Strong J, Feldmann H, et al. Enhanced protection against Ebola virus mediated by an improved adenovirus-based vaccine. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5308 pubmed publisher
    ..The immune response elicited by this improved expression cassette vector (Ad-CAGoptZGP) and its ability to afford protection against lethal ZEBOV challenge in mice was compared to the standard Ad-CMVZGP vector...
  8. Richardson J, Pillet S, Bello A, Kobinger G. Airway delivery of an adenovirus-based Ebola virus vaccine bypasses existing immunity to homologous adenovirus in nonhuman primates. J Virol. 2013;87:3668-77 pubmed publisher
  9. Papaneri A, Wirblich C, Cooper K, Jahrling P, Schnell M, Blaney J. Further characterization of the immune response in mice to inactivated and live rabies vaccines expressing Ebola virus glycoprotein. Vaccine. 2012;30:6136-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of these novel vaccines to induce strong humoral and cellular immunity indicates that they should be further evaluated in additional animal models of infection. ..

More Information


  1. Ou W, Delisle J, Jacques J, Shih J, Price G, Kuhn J, et al. Induction of ebolavirus cross-species immunity using retrovirus-like particles bearing the Ebola virus glycoprotein lacking the mucin-like domain. Virol J. 2012;9:32 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar vaccination strategies may be adopted for other viruses whose envelope proteins contain highly variable regions that may mask more conserved domains from the immune system. ..
  2. Jones S, Feldmann H, Stroher U, Geisbert J, Fernando L, Grolla A, et al. Live attenuated recombinant vaccine protects nonhuman primates against Ebola and Marburg viruses. Nat Med. 2005;11:786-90 pubmed
    ..No evidence of EBOV or MARV replication was detected in any of the protected animals after challenge. Our data suggest that these vaccine candidates are safe and highly efficacious in a relevant animal model. ..
  3. Feldmann H, Jones S, Daddario DiCaprio K, Geisbert J, Stroher U, Grolla A, et al. Effective post-exposure treatment of Ebola infection. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e2 pubmed
  4. Bukreyev A, DiNapoli J, Yang L, Murphy B, Collins P. Mucosal parainfluenza virus-vectored vaccine against Ebola virus replicates in the respiratory tract of vector-immune monkeys and is immunogenic. Virology. 2010;399:290-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that HPIV3/EboGP will be immunogenic in adults as well as children. ..
  5. Warfield K, Swenson D, Olinger G, Kalina W, Aman M, Bavari S. Ebola virus-like particle-based vaccine protects nonhuman primates against lethal Ebola virus challenge. J Infect Dis. 2007;196 Suppl 2:S430-7 pubmed
    ..On the basis of safety and efficacy, eVLPs represent a promising filovirus vaccine for use in humans. ..
  6. Papaneri A, Wirblich C, Cann J, Cooper K, Jahrling P, Schnell M, et al. A replication-deficient rabies virus vaccine expressing Ebola virus glycoprotein is highly attenuated for neurovirulence. Virology. 2012;434:18-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our findings indicate that RV-GP retains the attenuation phenotype of the live-attenuated RABV vaccine, and RVΔG-GP would appear to be an even safer alternative for use in wildlife or consideration for human use. ..
  7. Richardson J, Dekker J, Croyle M, Kobinger G. Recent advances in Ebolavirus vaccine development. Hum Vaccin. 2010;6:439-49 pubmed
    ..Post-exposure protection is particularly important in outbreak and biodefense settings, as well as clinical and laboratory settings in the case of accidental exposure. ..
  8. Martin J, Sullivan N, Enama M, Gordon I, Roederer M, Koup R, et al. A DNA vaccine for Ebola virus is safe and immunogenic in a phase I clinical trial. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2006;13:1267-77 pubmed publisher
  9. Sullivan N, Geisbert T, Geisbert J, Shedlock D, Xu L, Lamoreaux L, et al. Immune protection of nonhuman primates against Ebola virus with single low-dose adenovirus vectors encoding modified GPs. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e177 pubmed
    ..Elimination of NP from the vaccine and dose reductions to 10(10) rAd particles do not diminish protection and simplify the vaccine, providing the basis for selection of a human vaccine candidate. ..
  10. Bukreyev A, Yang L, Zaki S, Shieh W, Rollin P, Murphy B, et al. A single intranasal inoculation with a paramyxovirus-vectored vaccine protects guinea pigs against a lethal-dose Ebola virus challenge. J Virol. 2006;80:2267-79 pubmed publisher
  11. Marzi A, Engelmann F, Feldmann F, Haberthur K, Shupert W, Brining D, et al. Antibodies are necessary for rVSV/ZEBOV-GP-mediated protection against lethal Ebola virus challenge in nonhuman primates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:1893-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that antibodies play a critical role in rVSV-mediated protection against ZEBOV. ..
  12. Sun Y, Carrion R, Ye L, Wen Z, Ro Y, Brasky K, et al. Protection against lethal challenge by Ebola virus-like particles produced in insect cells. Virology. 2009;383:12-21 pubmed publisher
  13. Geisbert T, Bailey M, Hensley L, Asiedu C, Geisbert J, Stanley D, et al. Recombinant adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) and Ad35 vaccine vectors bypass immunity to Ad5 and protect nonhuman primates against ebolavirus challenge. J Virol. 2011;85:4222-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Increases in efficacy are paralleled by substantial increases in T- and B-cell responses to EBOV GP. These results suggest that Ad26 and Ad35 vectors warrant further development as candidate vaccines for EBOV. ..
  14. Swenson D, Wang D, Luo M, Warfield K, Woraratanadharm J, Holman D, et al. Vaccine to confer to nonhuman primates complete protection against multistrain Ebola and Marburg virus infections. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15:460-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study indicates the feasibility of vaccination against all current filovirus threats in the event of natural hemorrhagic fever outbreak or biological attack...
  15. Hoenen T, Groseth A, Feldmann H. Current ebola vaccines. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2012;12:859-72 pubmed publisher
    ..However, already now there is sufficient evidence that, from a scientific perspective, a vaccine protective against ebolaviruses is possible. ..
  16. Kobinger G, Feldmann H, Zhi Y, Schumer G, Gao G, Feldmann F, et al. Chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine protects against Zaire Ebola virus. Virology. 2006;346:394-401 pubmed publisher
    ..These results validate further development of Chimpanzee-based vaccine and highlight the impact of pre-existing immunity to the vaccine carrier...
  17. Falzarano D, Feldmann F, Grolla A, Leung A, Ebihara H, Strong J, et al. Single immunization with a monovalent vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine protects nonhuman primates against heterologous challenge with Bundibugyo ebolavirus. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 3:S1082-9 pubmed publisher
  18. Marzi A, Ebihara H, Callison J, Groseth A, Williams K, Geisbert T, et al. Vesicular stomatitis virus-based Ebola vaccines with improved cross-protective efficacy. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 3:S1066-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that cross-protection between the EBOV species can be achieved, although EBOV-GP alone cannot induce the required immune response. ..
  19. Tsuda Y, Caposio P, Parkins C, Botto S, Messaoudi I, Cicin Sain L, et al. A replicating cytomegalovirus-based vaccine encoding a single Ebola virus nucleoprotein CTL epitope confers protection against Ebola virus. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1275 pubmed publisher
  20. Blaney J, Wirblich C, Papaneri A, Johnson R, Myers C, Juelich T, et al. Inactivated or live-attenuated bivalent vaccines that confer protection against rabies and Ebola viruses. J Virol. 2011;85:10605-16 pubmed publisher
  21. Bukreyev A, Marzi A, Feldmann F, Zhang L, Yang L, Ward J, et al. Chimeric human parainfluenza virus bearing the Ebola virus glycoprotein as the sole surface protein is immunogenic and highly protective against Ebola virus challenge. Virology. 2009;383:348-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the attenuation, the virus was highly immunogenic, and a single IN dose completely protected the animals against a highly lethal intraperitoneal challenge of guinea pig-adapted EBOV. ..
  22. Pratt W, Wang D, Nichols D, Luo M, Woraratanadharm J, Dye J, et al. Protection of nonhuman primates against two species of Ebola virus infection with a single complex adenovirus vector. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:572-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the feasibility of creating a robust, multivalent Ebola virus vaccine that would be effective in the event of a natural virus outbreak or biological threat. ..
  23. Bukreyev A, Rollin P, Tate M, Yang L, Zaki S, Shieh W, et al. Successful topical respiratory tract immunization of primates against Ebola virus. J Virol. 2007;81:6379-88 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first study in which topical immunization through respiratory tract achieved prevention of a viral hemorrhagic fever infection in a primate model. ..
  24. Sullivan N, Hensley L, Asiedu C, Geisbert T, Stanley D, Johnson J, et al. CD8+ cellular immunity mediates rAd5 vaccine protection against Ebola virus infection of nonhuman primates. Nat Med. 2011;17:1128-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the immunologic mechanism of Ebola virus protection will facilitate the development of vaccines for Ebola and related hemorrhagic fever viruses in humans. ..
  25. Konduru K, Bradfute S, Jacques J, Manangeeswaran M, Nakamura S, Morshed S, et al. Ebola virus glycoprotein Fc fusion protein confers protection against lethal challenge in vaccinated mice. Vaccine. 2011;29:2968-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggested that Filovirus GP Fc fusion proteins could be developed as a simple, safe, efficacious, and cost effective vaccine against Filovirus infection for human use. ..
  26. Vandebosch A, Mogg R, Goeyvaerts N, Truyers C, Greenwood B, Watson Jones D, et al. Simulation-guided phase 3 trial design to evaluate vaccine effectiveness to prevent Ebola virus disease infection: Statistical considerations, design rationale, and challenges. Clin Trials. 2016;13:57-65 pubmed publisher
  27. Wong G, Qiu X. Designing Efficacious Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Vectored Vaccines Against Ebola Virus. Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1403:245-57 pubmed publisher
    ..This chapter presents methodologies for the design, cloning, rescue, and preparation of live, recombinant VSV vaccines expressing GP for research purposes. ..
  28. Piot P. Ebola's perfect storm. Science. 2014;345:1221 pubmed publisher
  29. Stroher U, Feldmann H. Progress towards the treatment of Ebola haemorrhagic fever. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2006;15:1523-35 pubmed
    ..The current development in this field encourages discussions on how to move some of the experimental approaches towards clinical application...
  30. Blaney J, Marzi A, Willet M, Papaneri A, Wirblich C, Feldmann F, et al. Antibody quality and protection from lethal Ebola virus challenge in nonhuman primates immunized with rabies virus based bivalent vaccine. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003389 pubmed publisher
    ..We also showed that a dual vaccine against RABV and filoviruses is achievable; therefore addressing concerns for the marketability of this urgently needed vaccine. ..
  31. Ye L, Yang C. Development of vaccines for prevention of Ebola virus infection. Microbes Infect. 2015;17:98-108 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the development of animal models for efficacy evaluation of Ebola vaccines and the mechanism of immune protection against Ebola virus infection are also discussed.
  32. Callaway E. Positive results spur race for Ebola vaccine. Nature. 2014;516:15-6 pubmed publisher
  33. Bausch D, Sprecher A, Jeffs B, Boumandouki P. Treatment of Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers: a strategy for testing new drugs and vaccines under outbreak conditions. Antiviral Res. 2008;78:150-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the present research priorities and environment for field study of the filovirus hemorrhagic fevers and outline a strategy for future prospective clinical research on treatment and vaccine prevention...
  34. Hartman A, Dover J, Towner J, Nichol S. Reverse genetic generation of recombinant Zaire Ebola viruses containing disrupted IRF-3 inhibitory domains results in attenuated virus growth in vitro and higher levels of IRF-3 activation without inhibiting viral transcription or replication. J Virol. 2006;80:6430-40 pubmed
  35. Zahn R, Gillisen G, Roos A, Koning M, van der Helm E, Spek D, et al. Ad35 and ad26 vaccine vectors induce potent and cross-reactive antibody and T-cell responses to multiple filovirus species. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44115 pubmed publisher
    ..Combination of the five selected filovirus glycoproteins in one multivalent vaccine potentially elicits protective immunity in man against all major filovirus strains that have caused lethal outbreaks in the last 20 years. ..
  36. Piszczek J, Partlow E. Stepped-wedge trial design to evaluate Ebola treatments. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015;15:762-3 pubmed publisher
  37. O Brien L, Stokes M, Lonsdale S, Maslowski D, Smither S, Lever M, et al. Vaccination with recombinant adenoviruses expressing Ebola virus glycoprotein elicits protection in the interferon alpha/beta receptor knock-out mouse. Virology. 2014;452-453:324-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the IFNR(-/-) mouse is a relevant small animal model for studying ebolavirus-specific therapeutics. ..
  38. Gunther S, Feldmann H, Geisbert T, Hensley L, Rollin P, Nichol S, et al. Management of accidental exposure to Ebola virus in the biosafety level 4 laboratory, Hamburg, Germany. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 3:S785-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Otherwise, the person remained healthy, and ZEBOV RNA, except for the glycoprotein gene expressed in the vaccine, was never detected in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells during the 3-week observation period. ..
  39. Diamond M, Fremont D. Ebola images emerge from the cave. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;4:87-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, the crystal structure of the Ebola virus glycoprotein in complex with a human neutralizing antibody was illuminated, providing a path from the shadows toward understanding cellular attachment, viral fusion, and immune evasion. ..
  40. Alazard Dany N, Ottmann Terrangle M, Volchkov V. [Ebola and Marburg viruses: the humans strike back]. Med Sci (Paris). 2006;22:405-10 pubmed
    ..As for Jones SM et al., they have successfully vaccinated monkeys with recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing Ebola or Marburg virus surface glycoprotein GP, a promising vaccine approach. ..
  41. Russek Cohen E, Rubin D, Price D, Sun W, Cox E, Borio L. A US Food and Drug Administration perspective on evaluating medical products for Ebola. Clin Trials. 2016;13:105-9 pubmed publisher
  42. Choi J, Croyle M. Emerging targets and novel approaches to Ebola virus prophylaxis and treatment. BioDrugs. 2013;27:565-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The utility of novel pharmaceutical approaches to refine and overcome barriers associated with the most promising therapeutic platforms are also discussed. ..
  43. Pettitt J, Zeitlin L, Kim D, Working C, Johnson J, Bohorov O, et al. Therapeutic intervention of Ebola virus infection in rhesus macaques with the MB-003 monoclonal antibody cocktail. Sci Transl Med. 2013;5:199ra113 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the treated animals, 43% survived challenge, whereas both the controls and all historical controls with the same challenge stock succumbed to infection. These results represent successful therapy of EBOV infection in NHPs. ..
  44. Marzi A, Murphy A, Feldmann F, Parkins C, Haddock E, Hanley P, et al. Cytomegalovirus-based vaccine expressing Ebola virus glycoprotein protects nonhuman primates from Ebola virus infection. Sci Rep. 2016;6:21674 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, vaccination was associated with high levels of GP-specific antibodies, but with no detectable GP-directed cellular immunity. ..
  45. Venkatraman N, Silman D, Folegatti P, Hill A. Vaccines against Ebola virus. Vaccine. 2018;36:5454-5459 pubmed publisher
    ..This review outlines a brief history of the development of Ebola vaccines, the significant progress made since the scale of the outbreak became apparent, some lessons learnt and how ..
  46. Halperin S, Arribas J, Rupp R, Andrews C, Chu L, Das R, et al. Six-Month Safety Data of Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Zaire Ebola Virus Envelope Glycoprotein Vaccine in a Phase 3 Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Randomized Study in Healthy Adults. J Infect Dis. 2017;215:1789-1798 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support the use of rVSV?G-ZEBOV-GP vaccine in persons at risk for Ebola virus disease. NCT02503202. ..
  47. Watanabe T, Kawaoka Y. Control of Ebola hemorrhagic fever: vaccine development and our Ebola project in Sierra Leone. Uirusu. 2016;66:53-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we evaluated the vaccine efficacy of Ebola ?VP30 virus in a non-human primate model and describe our collaborative Ebola project in Sierra Leone. ..
  48. MacNeil A, Rollin P. Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers: neglected tropical diseases?. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1546 pubmed publisher
  49. Osterholm M, Moore K, Ostrowsky J, Kimball Baker K, Farrar J. The Ebola Vaccine Team B: a model for promoting the rapid development of medical countermeasures for emerging infectious disease threats. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016;16:e1-e9 pubmed publisher
    In support of accelerated development of Ebola vaccines from preclinical research to clinical trials, in November, 2014, the Wellcome Trust and the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP) at the University of Minnesota ..
  50. Mohan G, Li W, Ye L, Compans R, Yang C. Antigenic subversion: a novel mechanism of host immune evasion by Ebola virus. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1003065 pubmed publisher
    ..Antigenic subversion represents a novel virus escape strategy that likely helps EBOV evade host immunity, and may represent an important obstacle to EBOV vaccine design. ..
  51. Yasmin T, Nabi A. B and T Cell Epitope-Based Peptides Predicted from Evolutionarily Conserved and Whole Protein Sequences of Ebola Virus as Vaccine Targets. Scand J Immunol. 2016;83:321-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these predicted epitopes may be used as vaccine targets against EBV and can be validated in model hosts to verify their efficacy as vaccine. ..
  52. Leroy E, Baize S, Gonzalez J. [Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever viruses: update on filoviruses]. Med Trop (Mars). 2011;71:111-21 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this review is to present the main developments in these particular fields in the last decade...
  53. Ledgerwood J, Costner P, Desai N, Holman L, Enama M, Yamshchikov G, et al. A replication defective recombinant Ad5 vaccine expressing Ebola virus GP is safe and immunogenic in healthy adults. Vaccine. 2010;29:304-13 pubmed publisher
    ..This recombinant Ebola virus vaccine was safe and subjects developed antigen specific humoral and cellular immune responses. ..
  54. Dentico N. [Ebola and the global governance of health]. Recenti Prog Med. 2014;105:405-6 pubmed publisher
  55. Porco T, Keenan J, Enanoria W, Lietman T. The permuted locus trial--Well suited for emerging pathogens?. Contemp Clin Trials. 2016;47:72-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The permuted locus trial may be used when classic individual and cluster-randomized trial design and analyses may not be optimal. ..
  56. Halfmann P, Ebihara H, Marzi A, Hatta Y, Watanabe S, Suresh M, et al. Replication-deficient ebolavirus as a vaccine candidate. J Virol. 2009;83:3810-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Guinea pigs immunized twice with EbolaDeltaVP30 were also protected from a lethal infection of guinea pig-adapted Ebolavirus. Our study demonstrates the potential of the EbolaDeltaVP30 virus as a new vaccine platform. ..
  57. Formenty P, Epelboin A, Allarangar Y, Libama F, Boumandouki P, Kone L, et al. [Training the trainers seminar and analysis of the Ebola virus hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in central Africa from 2001 to 2004. (Brazzaville, Républic of Congo, April 6-8, 2004]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2005;98:244-54 pubmed
  58. Beavogui A, Delamou A, Yansane M, Kondé M, Diallo A, Aboulhab J, et al. Clinical research during the Ebola virus disease outbreak in Guinea: Lessons learned and ways forward. Clin Trials. 2016;13:73-8 pubmed publisher
  59. Zhao X, Howell K, He S, Brannan J, Wec A, Davidson E, et al. Immunization-Elicited Broadly Protective Antibody Reveals Ebolavirus Fusion Loop as a Site of Vulnerability. Cell. 2017;169:891-904.e15 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have important implications for developing pan-ebolavirus vaccine and immunotherapeutic cocktails. ..
  60. Vu H, Shulenin S, Grolla A, Audet J, He S, Kobinger G, et al. Quantitative serology assays for determination of antibody responses to Ebola virus glycoprotein and matrix protein in nonhuman primates and humans. Antiviral Res. 2016;126:55-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, these ELISAs were used to successfully detect antibody responses to VP40, GPΔTM and GPΔmuc in human sera from EBOV infected individuals. ..
  61. Zhang Q, Seto D. Chimpanzee Adenovirus Vector Ebola Vaccine--Preliminary Report. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:775-6 pubmed publisher
  62. Reardon S. Ebola treatments caught in limbo. Nature. 2014;511:520 pubmed publisher
  63. Fenimore P, Muhammad M, Fischer W, Foley B, Bakken R, Thurmond J, et al. Designing and testing broadly-protective filoviral vaccines optimized for cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope coverage. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44769 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate in vivo immunogenicity and protection against a heterologous challenge in a mouse model. This design work delineates the likely requirements and limitations on broadly-protective filoviral CTL vaccines...
  64. Tsuda Y, Safronetz D, Brown K, LaCasse R, Marzi A, Ebihara H, et al. Protective efficacy of a bivalent recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccine in the Syrian hamster model of lethal Ebola virus infection. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 3:S1090-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Bivalent VSV vectors are a feasible approach to vaccination against multiple pathogens. ..
  65. Croyle M, Patel A, Tran K, Gray M, Zhang Y, Strong J, et al. Nasal delivery of an adenovirus-based vaccine bypasses pre-existing immunity to the vaccine carrier and improves the immune response in mice. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3548 pubmed publisher
  66. Bellan S, Pulliam J, Dushoff J, Meyers L. Ebola virus vaccine trials: the ethical mandate for a therapeutic safety net. BMJ. 2014;349:g7518 pubmed publisher
  67. Kennedy S, Bolay F, Kieh M, Grandits G, Badio M, Ballou R, et al. Phase 2 Placebo-Controlled Trial of Two Vaccines to Prevent Ebola in Liberia. N Engl J Med. 2017;377:1438-1447 pubmed publisher
    ..The safety and efficacy of vaccines to prevent Ebola virus disease (EVD) were unknown when the incidence of EVD was peaking in Liberia...
  68. Wang D, Raja N, Trubey C, Juompan L, Luo M, Woraratanadharm J, et al. Development of a cAdVax-based bivalent ebola virus vaccine that induces immune responses against both the Sudan and Zaire species of Ebola virus. J Virol. 2006;80:2738-46 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates the potential efficacy of a bivalent EBOV vaccine based on a cAdVax vaccine vector design. ..
  69. Heppner D, Kemp T, Martin B, Ramsey W, Nichols R, Dasen E, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of the rVSV?G-ZEBOV-GP Ebola virus vaccine candidate in healthy adults: a phase 1b randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017;17:854-866 pubmed publisher
    ..The immunogenicity results support selection of the 2?×?107 PFU dose. Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, US Department of Health and Human Services. ..
  70. Wang D, Hevey M, Juompan L, Trubey C, Raja N, Deitz S, et al. Complex adenovirus-vectored vaccine protects guinea pigs from three strains of Marburg virus challenges. Virology. 2006;353:324-32 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the cAdVaxM(fus) vaccine serves as a promising vaccine candidate to prevent and contain multi-strain infections by MARV...
  71. Furuyama W, Takada A. Ebola vaccine, therapeutics, and diagnostics. Uirusu. 2016;66:63-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews previous researches and recent advances on the development of vaccine, therapeutics, and diagnostics for EVD. ..
  72. Halfmann P, Kim J, Ebihara H, Noda T, Neumann G, Feldmann H, et al. Generation of biologically contained Ebola viruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1129-33 pubmed publisher
  73. Widdowson M, Schrag S, Carter R, Carr W, Legardy Williams J, Gibson L, et al. Implementing an Ebola Vaccine Study - Sierra Leone. MMWR Suppl. 2016;65:98-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Health and Sanitation, and CDC joined the global effort to accelerate assessment and availability of candidate Ebola vaccines and began planning for the Sierra Leone Trial to Introduce a Vaccine against Ebola (STRIVE)...
  74. Vogel G. Conservation. Scientists say Ebola has pushed western gorillas to the brink. Science. 2007;317:1484 pubmed
  75. Milligan I, Gibani M, Sewell R, Clutterbuck E, Campbell D, Plested E, et al. Safety and Immunogenicity of Novel Adenovirus Type 26- and Modified Vaccinia Ankara-Vectored Ebola Vaccines: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2016;315:1610-23 pubmed publisher
    ..ZEBOV; boosting by MVA-BN-Filo resulted in sustained elevation of specific immunity. These vaccines are being further assessed in phase 2 and 3 studies. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02313077. ..
  76. Wu Y, Wu S, Hou L, Wei W, Zhou M, Su Z, et al. Novel thermal-sensitive hydrogel enhances both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses by intranasal vaccine delivery. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2012;81:486-97 pubmed publisher
    ..All these results strongly supported this hydrogel as a safe and effective delivery system for nasal immunization. ..
  77. Wu S, Yu T, Song X, Yi S, Hou L, Chen W. Prediction and identification of mouse cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes in Ebola virus glycoproteins. Virol J. 2012;9:111 pubmed publisher
    ..Three peptides within the GPs of two EBOV strains were identified as T cell epitopes. The identification of these epitopes should facilitate the evaluation of vaccines based on the Ebola virus glycoprotein in a BALB/c mouse model. ..