viral vaccines


Summary: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.

Top Publications

  1. Gong M, Zhu H, Zhou J, Yang C, Feng J, Huang X, et al. Cryo-electron microscopy study of insect cell-expressed enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus a16 virus-like particles provides a structural basis for vaccine development. J Virol. 2014;88:6444-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide a structural basis for the development of insect cell-expressed VLP vaccines and for a potential bivalent VLP vaccine against both EV71- and CA16-associated HFMD. ..
  2. Binjawadagi B, Dwivedi V, Manickam C, Ouyang K, Wu Y, LEE L, et al. Adjuvanted poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticle-entrapped inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine elicits cross-protective immune response in pigs. Int J Nanomedicine. 2014;9:679-94 pubmed publisher
    ..A similar approach to control other respiratory diseases in food animals and humans appears to be feasible...
  3. Mao Q, Cheng T, Zhu F, Li J, Wang Y, Li Y, et al. The cross-neutralizing activity of enterovirus 71 subgenotype c4 vaccines in healthy chinese infants and children. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e79599 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the degree of induced cross-protective immunity, and the potential escape evolution for EV71 still need to be monitored and researched in future for these new vaccines. ..
  4. Ye X, Ku Z, Liu Q, Wang X, Shi J, Zhang Y, et al. Chimeric virus-like particle vaccines displaying conserved enterovirus 71 epitopes elicit protective neutralizing antibodies in mice through divergent mechanisms. J Virol. 2014;88:72-81 pubmed publisher
  5. Zhao H, Li H, Han J, Deng Y, Li Y, Zhu S, et al. Virus-like particles produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae elicit protective immunity against Coxsackievirus A16 in mice. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013;97:10445-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data demonstrated that VLPs produced in yeast might have the potential to be further developed as a vaccine candidate against HFMD. ..
  6. Almazán F, DeDiego M, Sola I, Zúñiga S, Nieto Torres J, Marquez Jurado S, et al. Engineering a replication-competent, propagation-defective Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus as a vaccine candidate. MBio. 2013;4:e00650-13 pubmed publisher
    ..This virus constitutes a vaccine candidate that may represent a balance between safety and efficacy for the induction of mucosal immunity, which is needed to prevent MERS-CoV infection. ..
  7. Racz R, Chung M, Xiang Z, He Y. Systematic annotation and analysis of "virmugens"-virulence factors whose mutants can be used as live attenuated vaccines. Vaccine. 2013;31:797-805 pubmed publisher
    ..The bioinformatics annotation and analysis of virmugens helps to elucidate enriched virmugen profiles and the mechanisms of protective immunity, and further supports rational vaccine design. ..
  8. Karniychuk U, Saha D, Vanhee M, Geldhof M, Cornillie P, Caij A, et al. Impact of a novel inactivated PRRS virus vaccine on virus replication and virus-induced pathology in fetal implantation sites and fetuses upon challenge. Theriogenology. 2012;78:1527-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The reduction of fetal infection and pathology is most probably attributable to the vaccine-mediated decrease of PRRSV transfer from the endometrium to the fetal placenta...
  9. Liu L, Zhang Y, Wang J, Zhao H, Jiang L, Che Y, et al. Study of the integrated immune response induced by an inactivated EV71 vaccine. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54451 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the immune response was not accompanied by the development of a remarkable inflammatory response. NCT01391494 and NCT01512706. ..

More Information


  1. Smit R. Cost-effectiveness of tick-borne encephalitis vaccination in Slovenian adults. Vaccine. 2012;30:6301-6 pubmed publisher
  2. Zhu F, Wang J, Li X, Liang Z, Ge H, Meng F, et al. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of an enterovirus 71 vaccine in Chinese healthy children and infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012;31:1158-65 pubmed publisher
    ..A single dose induced typical booster response in the participants with a seropositive baseline, and 2 doses were needed for the immunologically naive participants. ..
  3. Ludi A, Rodriguez L. Novel approaches to foot-and-mouth disease vaccine development. Dev Biol (Basel). 2013;135:107-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Each of these approaches will be discussed in terms of their safety and efficacy characteristics, product transition feasibility as well as their applicability to global control and eradication efforts. ..
  4. Euler K, Hauck S, Ueffing M, Deeg C. Bovine neonatal pancytopenia--comparative proteomic characterization of two BVD vaccines and the producer cell surface proteome (MDBK). BMC Vet Res. 2013;9:18 pubmed publisher
    ..To narrow down possible candidate proteins, those most likely to represent a trigger for BNP pathogenesis are presented in this study, giving a fundament for further analysis in future research. ..
  5. Marinaro M, Rezza G, Del Giudice G, Colao V, Tarsitano E, Camero M, et al. A caprine herpesvirus 1 vaccine adjuvanted with MF59™ protects against vaginal infection and interferes with the establishment of latency in goats. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34913 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a vaccine composed of inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ as adjuvant was strongly immunogenic and induced effective immunity against vaginal CpHV-1 infection in goats...
  6. Martelli P, Ardigò P, Ferrari L, Morganti M, De Angelis E, Bonilauri P, et al. Concurrent vaccinations against PCV2 and PRRSV: study on the specific immunity and clinical protection in naturally infected pigs. Vet Microbiol. 2013;162:558-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The study demonstrates that concurrent PRRSV+PCV2 vaccination has no interference with the development of the specific humoral and cell-mediated immunity and it is associated with clinical protection upon natural challenge...
  7. Ku Z, Ye X, Huang X, Cai Y, Liu Q, Li Y, et al. Neutralizing antibodies induced by recombinant virus-like particles of enterovirus 71 genotype C4 inhibit infection at pre- and post-attachment steps. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57601 pubmed publisher
    ..However, how neutralizing antibodies inhibit infection in vitro remains unclear...
  8. Lukashevich I. Advanced vaccine candidates for Lassa fever. Viruses. 2012;4:2514-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered...
  9. Fett C, DeDiego M, Regla Nava J, Enjuanes L, Perlman S. Complete protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-mediated lethal respiratory disease in aged mice by immunization with a mouse-adapted virus lacking E protein. J Virol. 2013;87:6551-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach will be generally useful for development of vaccines protective against human coronaviruses as well as against coronaviruses that cause disease in domestic and companion animals...
  10. Cameron M, Kelvin A, Leon A, Cameron C, Ran L, Xu L, et al. Lack of innate interferon responses during SARS coronavirus infection in a vaccination and reinfection ferret model. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45842 pubmed publisher
    ..This data provides insight into the molecular pathogenesis of SARS-CoV and SARS-like-CoV infections and is an important resource for the development of CoV antiviral therapeutics and vaccines. ..
  11. López Gil E, Lorenzo G, Hevia E, Borrego B, Eiden M, Groschup M, et al. A single immunization with MVA expressing GnGc glycoproteins promotes epitope-specific CD8+-T cell activation and protects immune-competent mice against a lethal RVFV infection. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2309 pubmed publisher
    ..To help combat the spread of the disease, prophylactic measures need to be developed and/or improved...
  12. Mahgoub H, Bailey M, Kaiser P. An overview of infectious bursal disease. Arch Virol. 2012;157:2047-57 pubmed publisher
  13. Pathan A, Minassian A, Sander C, Rowland R, Porter D, Poulton I, et al. Effect of vaccine dose on the safety and immunogenicity of a candidate TB vaccine, MVA85A, in BCG vaccinated UK adults. Vaccine. 2012;30:5616-24 pubmed publisher
    ..A higher dose of 1×10(8)PFU of MVA85A is well-tolerated, increases the frequency of IFN-? secreting T cells detected following immunisation and broadens the range of Ag85A epitopes detected. ..
  14. Roques E, Girard A, Gagnon C, Archambault D. Antibody responses induced in mice immunized with recombinant adenovectors expressing chimeric proteins of various porcine pathogens. Vaccine. 2013;31:2698-704 pubmed publisher
    ..Unexpectedly, immunization with vaccines expressing P97c in fusion to either Cap or GP5 enhanced the Ab responses against Cap and GP5, suggesting an immunopotentiator effect for P97c. ..
  15. Partidos C, Paykel J, Weger J, Borland E, Powers A, Seymour R, et al. Cross-protective immunity against o'nyong-nyong virus afforded by a novel recombinant chikungunya vaccine. Vaccine. 2012;30:4638-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings highlight the potential of the CHIKV/IRES vaccine to protect humans against not only CHIKV but also against ONNV-induced disease...
  16. Dwivedi V, Manickam C, Binjawadagi B, Renukaradhya G. PLGA nanoparticle entrapped killed porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine helps in viral clearance in pigs. Vet Microbiol. 2013;166:47-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, intranasal delivery of Nano-KAg vaccine may be a suitable strategy to elicit anti-PRRSV immune response required to better clear viremia in pigs...
  17. Bird B, Nichol S. Breaking the chain: Rift Valley fever virus control via livestock vaccination. Curr Opin Virol. 2012;2:315-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Preventing RVFV infection of livestock by vaccination is a key element in breaking the chain of human epidemics, and could lead to control of this significant public health threat. ..
  18. Li Y, Liang Z, Gao Q, Huang L, Mao Q, Wen S, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of a novel human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, Phase I clinical trial. Vaccine. 2012;30:3295-303 pubmed publisher
    ..1 (95% CI, 44.5-292.4), 159.5 (95% CI, 49.3-515.3), and 509.0 (95% CI, 181.3-1429.1), respectively. identifier: NCT01273246 and NCT01273233. ..
  19. Parra G, Bok K, Taylor R, Haynes J, Sosnovtsev S, Richardson C, et al. Immunogenicity and specificity of norovirus Consensus GII.4 virus-like particles in monovalent and bivalent vaccine formulations. Vaccine. 2012;30:3580-6 pubmed publisher
  20. Gabriel C, Blome S, Urniza A, Juanola S, Koenen F, Beer M. Towards licensing of CP7_E2alf as marker vaccine against classical swine fever-Duration of immunity. Vaccine. 2012;30:2928-36 pubmed publisher
  21. Prymula R, Pöllabauer E, Pavlova B, Löw Baselli A, Fritsch S, Angermayr R, et al. Antibody persistence after two vaccinations with either FSME-IMMUN® Junior or ENCEPUR® Children followed by third vaccination with FSME-IMMUN® Junior. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2012;8:736-42 pubmed publisher
  22. Renukaradhya G, Dwivedi V, Manickam C, Binjawadagi B, BENFIELD D. Mucosal vaccines to prevent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome: a new perspective. Anim Health Res Rev. 2012;13:21-37 pubmed publisher
    ..This information may help in the design of innovative mucosal vaccines to elicit superior cross-protective immunity against divergent field strains of PRRSV. ..
  23. Fraile L, Sibila M, Nofrarias M, López Jimenez R, Huerta E, Llorens A, et al. Effect of sow and piglet porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination on piglet mortality, viraemia, antibody titre and production parameters. Vet Microbiol. 2012;161:229-34 pubmed publisher
    ..PCV2 vaccination was able to overcome this interference since the ADWG was improved in both groups of vaccinated piglets, independently of the sow treatment, being the highest ones obtained in the double vaccination group...
  24. Zhu F, Meng F, Li J, Li X, Mao Q, Tao H, et al. Efficacy, safety, and immunology of an inactivated alum-adjuvant enterovirus 71 vaccine in children in China: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2013;381:2024-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed the efficacy, safety, immunogenicity, antibody persistence, and immunological correlates of an inactivated alum-adjuvant EV71 vaccine...
  25. Kasonta R, Sauter Louis C, Holsteg M, Duchow K, Cussler K, Bastian M. Effect of the vaccination scheme on PregSure® BVD induced alloreactivity and the incidence of Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia. Vaccine. 2012;30:6649-55 pubmed publisher
  26. Kortekaas J, Antonis A, Kant J, Vloet R, Vogel A, Oreshkova N, et al. Efficacy of three candidate Rift Valley fever vaccines in sheep. Vaccine. 2012;30:3423-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A single vaccination with each vaccine resulted in a neutralizing antibody response within three weeks after vaccination and protected lambs from viremia, pyrexia and mortality...
  27. Graham R, Becker M, Eckerle L, Bolles M, Denison M, Baric R. A live, impaired-fidelity coronavirus vaccine protects in an aged, immunocompromised mouse model of lethal disease. Nat Med. 2012;18:1820-6 pubmed publisher
    ..ExoN inactivation has potential for broad applications in the stable attenuation of CoVs and, perhaps, other RNA viruses. ..
  28. Zapata J, Poonia B, Bryant J, Davis H, Ateh E, George L, et al. An attenuated Lassa vaccine in SIV-infected rhesus macaques does not persist or cause arenavirus disease but does elicit Lassa virus-specific immunity. Virol J. 2013;10:52 pubmed publisher
    ..SIV-infected and uninfected rhesus macaques responded similarly to ML29 vaccination, and none developed chronic arenavirus infection. Importantly, none of the macaques developed signs, classical or non-classical, of arenavirus disease. ..
  29. Weyer C, Quan M, Joone C, Lourens C, MacLachlan N, Guthrie A. African horse sickness in naturally infected, immunised horses. Equine Vet J. 2013;45:117-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential impact of such cases on the epidemiology of AHS warrants further investigation...
  30. Capone S, D Alise A, Ammendola V, Colloca S, Cortese R, Nicosia A, et al. Development of chimpanzee adenoviruses as vaccine vectors: challenges and successes emerging from clinical trials. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2013;12:379-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Here the authors review the recent findings of this novel class of adenovirus vectors and compare their properties to other clinical stage vaccine vectors derived from poxvirus, alphavirus and human adenovirus. ..
  31. DiGangi B, Levy J, Griffin B, Reese M, Dingman P, Tucker S, et al. Effects of maternally-derived antibodies on serologic responses to vaccination in kittens. J Feline Med Surg. 2012;14:118-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Serologic response to vaccination of kittens varies based on vaccination type and MDA level. In most situations, MLV vaccination should be utilized and protocols continued beyond 14 weeks of age to optimize response by all kittens...
  32. El Garch H, Crafford J, Amouyal P, Durand P, Edlund Toulemonde C, Lemaitre L, et al. An African horse sickness virus serotype 4 recombinant canarypox virus vaccine elicits specific cell-mediated immune responses in horses. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2012;149:76-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our data demonstrated that an experimental recombinant canarypox based vaccine induced significant CMI specific for both VP2 and VP5 proteins of AHSV4...
  33. Pretorius A, Van Kleef M, van Wyngaardt W, Heath J. Virus-specific CD8? T-cells detected in PBMC from horses vaccinated against African horse sickness virus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2012;146:81-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to the expected antibody response, an increase in CD8? cells was also detected. Although these CD8? cells may be CTL, the role of these cells in immunity against AHSV still has to be determined...
  34. Backer J, Hagenaars T, Nodelijk G, van Roermund H. Vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease I: epidemiological consequences. Prev Vet Med. 2012;107:27-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In a more sparsely populated livestock area in the Netherlands with about 2 farms/km(2) the minimal control strategy of culling only detected farms seems sufficient to control an epidemic. ..
  35. Dortmans J, Peeters B, Koch G. Newcastle disease virus outbreaks: vaccine mismatch or inadequate application?. Vet Microbiol. 2012;160:17-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that it is not antigenic variation but rather poor flock immunity due to inadequate vaccination practices that may be responsible for outbreaks and spreading of virulent NDV field strains...
  36. Brake D, McIlhaney M, Miller T, Christianson K, Keene A, Lohnas G, et al. Human adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease vaccines: establishment of a vaccine product profile through in vitro testing. Dev Biol (Basel). 2012;134:123-33 pubmed
  37. Calvo Pinilla E, Navasa N, Anguita J, Ortego J. Multiserotype protection elicited by a combinatorial prime-boost vaccination strategy against bluetongue virus. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34735 pubmed publisher
    ..Remarkably, the vaccine induced cross-protection against lethal doses of heterologous BTV-8 and BTV-1 suggesting that the DNA/rMVA-VP2,-VP7,-NS1 marker vaccine is a promising multiserotype vaccine against BTV. ..
  38. Ramp K, Topfstedt E, Wäckerlin R, Höper D, Ziller M, Mettenleiter T, et al. Pathogenicity and immunogenicity of different recombinant Newcastle disease virus clone 30 variants after in ovo vaccination. Avian Dis. 2012;56:208-17 pubmed
    ..However, alteration of specific amino acids in F and HN proteins of rNDV did not lead to further attenuation as indicated by their pathogenicity for chicken after in ovo inoculation. ..
  39. Tameris M, Hatherill M, Landry B, Scriba T, Snowden M, Lockhart S, et al. Safety and efficacy of MVA85A, a new tuberculosis vaccine, in infants previously vaccinated with BCG: a randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2b trial. Lancet. 2013;381:1021-8 pubmed
    ..Reasons for the absence of MVA85A efficacy against tuberculosis or M tuberculosis infection in infants need exploration. Aeras, Wellcome Trust, and Oxford-Emergent Tuberculosis Consortium (OETC). ..
  40. Mire C, Miller A, Carville A, Westmoreland S, Geisbert J, Mansfield K, et al. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccine vectors expressing filovirus glycoproteins lack neurovirulence in nonhuman primates. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1567 pubmed publisher
    ..These data strongly suggest that rVSV filovirus GP vaccine vectors lack the neurovirulence properties associated with the rVSV-wt parent vector and support their further development as a vaccine platform for human use. ..
  41. Kumar M, Sudeep A, Arankalle V. Evaluation of recombinant E2 protein-based and whole-virus inactivated candidate vaccines against chikungunya virus. Vaccine. 2012;30:6142-9 pubmed publisher
    ..With the re-emergence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in an explosive form and in the absence of a commercially available vaccine, we aimed to develop candidate vaccines employing recombinant E2 protein or chemically inactivated whole virus...
  42. Indran S, Ikegami T. Novel approaches to develop Rift Valley fever vaccines. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2012;2:131 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, problems of traditional vaccines and the safety and efficacy of recently reported novel RVF candidate vaccines including subunit vaccines, virus vector, and replicons are discussed. ..
  43. Chou A, Liu C, Chang C, Guo M, Hsieh S, Yang W, et al. Pilot scale production of highly efficacious and stable enterovirus 71 vaccine candidates. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34834 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the success of inactivated poliovirus vaccine, a prototype chemically inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate has been developed and currently in human phase 1 clinical trial...
  44. van Gelder P, Makoschey B. Production of viral vaccines for veterinary use. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2012;125:103-9 pubmed
    ..The quality standards for vaccines are layed down in international regulations and laws. Numerous tests are performed during the different production steps and on the final product in order to warrant the quality of each batch. ..
  45. Young J, Suon S, Andrews C, Henry L, Windsor P. Assessment of financial impact of foot and mouth disease on smallholder cattle farmers in Southern Cambodia. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2013;60:166-74 pubmed publisher
  46. Wang Y, Liu D, Guo L, Tang Q, Wei Y, Wu H, et al. Enhanced protective immune response to PCV2 subunit vaccine by co-administration of recombinant porcine IFN-? in mice. Vaccine. 2013;31:833-8 pubmed publisher
  47. Odutola A, Owolabi O, Owiafe P, McShane H, Ota M. A new TB vaccine, MVA85A, induces durable antigen-specific responses 14 months after vaccination in African infants. Vaccine. 2012;30:5591-4 pubmed publisher
    ..All the children had negligible evidence of latent infection with M. tuberculosis (Mtb), suggesting that deploying a prophylactic vaccine against Mtb infection at this age could still be effective in this setting. ..
  48. Kolpe A, Kiener T, Grotenbreg G, Kwang J. Display of enterovirus 71 VP1 on baculovirus as a type II transmembrane protein elicits protective B and T cell responses in immunized mice. Virus Res. 2012;168:64-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, EV71 specific T cell responses were stimulated. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the display of VP1 as a type II transmembrane protein efficiently stimulated both humoral and cellular immunities...
  49. Graham S, Haines F, Johns H, Sosan O, La Rocca S, Lamp B, et al. Characterisation of vaccine-induced, broadly cross-reactive IFN-? secreting T cell responses that correlate with rapid protection against classical swine fever virus. Vaccine. 2012;30:2742-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support the involvement of broadly cross-reactive T cell IFN-? responses in the rapid protection conferred by the C-strain vaccine and this information should aid the development of the next generation of CSFV vaccines. ..
  50. McMinn P. Recent advances in the molecular epidemiology and control of human enterovirus 71 infection. Curr Opin Virol. 2012;2:199-205 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, ongoing investigations into the molecular basis of HEV71 infection and virulence have pointed the way towards novel approaches to live attenuated vaccine development...
  51. Cai Y, Liu Q, Huang X, Li D, Ku Z, Zhang Y, et al. Active immunization with a Coxsackievirus A16 experimental inactivated vaccine induces neutralizing antibodies and protects mice against lethal infection. Vaccine. 2013;31:2215-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results provide a solid foundation for further development of inactivated whole-virus CA16 vaccines for human use. ..
  52. Suhrbier A, Jaffar Bandjee M, Gasque P. Arthritogenic alphaviruses--an overview. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2012;8:420-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the small market size and/or the unpredictable and rapid nature of epidemics present major hurdles for development and deployment of new alphavirus-specific interventions. ..
  53. Carr B, Lefevre E, Windsor M, Inghese C, Gubbins S, Prentice H, et al. CD4+ T-cell responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus in vaccinated cattle. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:97-107 pubmed publisher
    ..However, our studies demonstrate the importance of stimulating CD4(+) T-cell responses for the induction of optimum antibody responses to FMD-killed vaccines...
  54. Thim H, Iliev D, Christie K, Villoing S, McLoughlin M, Strandskog G, et al. Immunoprotective activity of a Salmonid Alphavirus Vaccine: comparison of the immune responses induced by inactivated whole virus antigen formulations based on CpG class B oligonucleotides and poly I:C alone or combined with an oil adjuvant. Vaccine. 2012;30:4828-34 pubmed publisher
  55. Li H, Han J, Qin C, Chen R. Virus-like particles for enterovirus 71 produced from Saccharomyces cerevisiae potently elicits protective immune responses in mice. Vaccine. 2013;31:3281-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our study indicated that VLP from yeast is another potential vaccine candidate against EV71 infection. ..
  56. Chattopadhyay A, Wang E, Seymour R, Weaver S, Rose J. A chimeric vesiculo/alphavirus is an effective alphavirus vaccine. J Virol. 2013;87:395-402 pubmed publisher
    ..VSVΔG-alphavirus chimeras could have general applicability as alphavirus vaccines. ..
  57. Meng F, Li J, Li X, Chu K, Zhang Y, Ji H, et al. Tolerability and immunogenicity of an inactivated enterovirus 71 vaccine in Chinese healthy adults and children: an open label, phase 1 clinical trial. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2012;8:668-74 pubmed publisher
    ..No obvious dose-response relationship for immunogenicity was found...
  58. Premanand B, Kiener T, Meng T, Tan Y, Jia Q, Chow V, et al. Induction of protective immune responses against EV71 in mice by baculovirus encoding a novel expression cassette for capsid protein VP1. Antiviral Res. 2012;95:311-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This study revealed that baculovirus displaying VP1 with a HA transmembrane domain efficiently induced cross-neutralizing antibody responses in mice...
  59. Wernike K, Nikolin V, Hechinger S, Hoffmann B, Beer M. Inactivated Schmallenberg virus prototype vaccines. Vaccine. 2013;31:3558-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Although further evaluations e.g. regarding duration of immunity will be necessary, the newly developed vaccines are promising candidates for the prevention of SBV-infection and could be a valuable tool in SBV control strategies. ..
  60. Pallister J, Klein R, Arkinstall R, Haining J, Long F, White J, et al. Vaccination of ferrets with a recombinant G glycoprotein subunit vaccine provides protection against Nipah virus disease for over 12 months. Virol J. 2013;10:237 pubmed publisher
    ..Since NiV was first identified in 1999, outbreaks have continued to occur in humans in Bangladesh and India on an almost annual basis with case fatality rates reported between 40% and 100%...
  61. Dodd K, Bird B, Metcalfe M, Nichol S, Albarino C. Single-dose immunization with virus replicon particles confers rapid robust protection against Rift Valley fever virus challenge. J Virol. 2012;86:4204-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that replicon vaccines successfully bridge the gap between safety and efficacy and provide insights into the kinetics of antiviral protection from RVFV infection...
  62. Scriba T, Tameris M, Smit E, van der Merwe L, Hughes E, Kadira B, et al. A phase IIa trial of the new tuberculosis vaccine, MVA85A, in HIV- and/or Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected adults. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;185:769-78 pubmed publisher
    ..MVA85A was safe and immunogenic in persons with HIV and/or M.tb infection. These results support further evaluation of safety and efficacy of this vaccine for prevention of TB in these target populations. ..
  63. Zhu F, Liang Z, Li X, Ge H, Meng F, Mao Q, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of an enterovirus 71 vaccine in healthy Chinese children and infants: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 clinical trial. Lancet. 2013;381:1037-45 pubmed
    ..We aimed to assess the best possible dose and formulation, immunogenicity, and safety profile of this EV71 vaccine in healthy Chinese children...
  64. Ballesteros N, Saint Jean S, Encinas P, Pérez Prieto S, Coll J. Oral immunization of rainbow trout to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (Ipnv) induces different immune gene expression profiles in head kidney and pyloric ceca. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2012;33:174-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of new gene markers on head kidney/pyloric ceca could be used to follow up and/or to improve immunity during fish oral vaccination...
  65. Chong P, Hsieh S, Liu C, Chou A, Chang J, Wu S, et al. Production of EV71 vaccine candidates. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2012;8:1775-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This review also demonstrates the opportunities and challenges that the Asian vaccine industry faces today. ..
  66. Cawood R, Hills T, Wong S, Alamoudi A, Beadle S, Fisher K, et al. Recombinant viral vaccines for cancer. Trends Mol Med. 2012;18:564-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We focus on the challenge of producing an effective response within the immune-suppressive tumour microenvironment, and discuss how the technology can overcome these obstacles. ..
  67. Xu W, Watts D, Costanzo M, Tang X, Venegas L, Jiao F, et al. The nucleocapsid protein of Rift Valley fever virus is a potent human CD8+ T cell antigen and elicits memory responses. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59210 pubmed publisher
  68. Shi J, Huang X, Liu Q, Huang Z. Identification of conserved neutralizing linear epitopes within the VP1 protein of coxsackievirus A16. Vaccine. 2013;31:2130-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequence alignment also showed that these epitopes are extremely conserved among CA16 strains of different genotypes. These findings have important implications for the development of peptide-based broadly protective CA16 vaccines. ..
  69. Lambton S, Colloff A, Smith R, Caldow G, Scholes S, Willoughby K, et al. Factors associated with bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP) in calves: a case-control study. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34183 pubmed publisher
    ..11, p?=?0.006). The longer that a cattle herd had been established on the farm was also associated with decreased odds of a calf in that herd being a BNP case (OR 0.97, p?=?0.011). ..
  70. Dwivedi V, Manickam C, Binjawadagi B, Joyappa D, Renukaradhya G. Biodegradable nanoparticle-entrapped vaccine induces cross-protective immune response against a virulent heterologous respiratory viral infection in pigs. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51794 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we demonstrated the benefits of intranasal delivery of nanoparticle-based viral vaccine in eliciting cross-protective immune response in pigs, a potential large animal model. ..
  71. Morrill J, Laughlin R, Lokugamage N, Pugh R, Sbrana E, Weise W, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of recombinant Rift Valley fever MP-12 vaccine candidates in sheep. Vaccine. 2013;31:559-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The large deletion in the NSm gene may also provide a negative marker that will allow serologic differentiation of naturally infected animals from vaccinated animals. ..
  72. McLean G, Walton R, Shetty S, Peel T, Paktiawal N, Kebadze T, et al. Rhinovirus infections and immunisation induce cross-serotype reactive antibodies to VP1. Antiviral Res. 2012;95:193-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunisation strategies boosted homotypic as well as inducing cross-serotype neutralising IgG responses. We conclude that VP1 based antigens combined with adjuvants may permit successful antibody-mediated vaccine design and development...
  73. Lee M, Tseng F, Wang J, Chi C, Chong P, Su I. Challenges to licensure of enterovirus 71 vaccines. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1737 pubmed publisher
    ..Prospective cohort studies are warranted to clarify clinical and epidemiological significances of the antigenic and genetic variations between different EV71 genogroups, which is critical for vaccine design...
  74. Xu X, Zhao H, Zhang Q, Ding L, Li Z, Li W, et al. Oral vaccination with attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing Cap protein of PCV2 and its immunogenicity in mouse and swine models. Vet Microbiol. 2012;157:294-303 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicated that attenuated S. typhimurium X4550/pYA3341-Cap can be a potential vaccine against PCV2 infections...
  75. Chen H, Zhang Y, Yang E, Liu L, Che Y, Wang J, et al. The effect of enterovirus 71 immunization on neuropathogenesis and protein expression profiles in the thalamus of infected rhesus neonates. Virology. 2012;432:417-26 pubmed publisher
  76. Ayari Fakhfakh E, do Valle T, Guillemot L, Panthier J, Bouloy M, Ghram A, et al. MBT/Pas mouse: a relevant model for the evaluation of Rift Valley fever vaccines. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:1456-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that this model is relevant for vaccine testing. ..
  77. Manickam C, Dwivedi V, Miller J, Papenfuss T, Renukaradhya G. Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole cell lysate enhances proliferation of CD8 positive lymphocytes and nitric oxide secretion in the lungs of live porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus vaccinated pigs. Viral Immunol. 2013;26:102-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the adjuvant effects of Mtb WCL to PRRS-MLV resulted in favorable anti-PRRSV immune microenvironment in the lungs to help better viral clearance. ..
  78. Heinz F, Stiasny K, Holzmann H, Grgic Vitek M, Kriz B, Essl A, et al. Vaccination and tick-borne encephalitis, central Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:69-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Incidence rates remained high for the nonvaccinated population. The vaccine was effective for persons in all age groups. During 2000-2011 in Austria, ?4,000 cases of TBE were prevented by vaccination. ..