diphtheria toxoid


Summary: The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.

Top Publications

  1. Findlow H, Southern J, Mabey L, Balmer P, Heyderman R, Auckland C, et al. Immunoglobulin G subclass response to a meningococcal quadrivalent polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2006;13:507-10 pubmed
    ..of age) before and 4 to 6 weeks following immunization with a quadrivalent meningococcal-polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine against serogroups A, C, Y, and W135...
  2. Singh J, Pandit S, Bramwell V, Alpar H. Diphtheria toxoid loaded poly-(epsilon-caprolactone) nanoparticles as mucosal vaccine delivery systems. Methods. 2006;38:96-105 pubmed
    ..PCL), a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-PCL blend and co-polymer nanoparticles encapsulating diphtheria toxoid (DT) were investigated for their potential as a mucosal vaccine delivery system...
  3. Metz B, Jiskoot W, Hennink W, Crommelin D, Kersten G. Physicochemical and immunochemical techniques predict the quality of diphtheria toxoid vaccines. Vaccine. 2003;22:156-67 pubmed
    ..b>Diphtheria toxoid (DTx) is produced during this inactivation process through partly unknown, chemical modifications of the ..
  4. Granoff D, Harris S. Protective activity of group C anticapsular antibodies elicited in two-year-olds by an investigational quadrivalent Neisseria meningitidis-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23:490-7 pubmed
  5. Danilova E, Shiryayev A, Skogen V, Kristoffersen E, Sjursen H. Short-term booster effect of diphtheria toxoid in initially long-term protected individuals. Vaccine. 2005;23:1446-50 pubmed
    ..individuals eligible for the routine booster by the age of 18 years each received a single dose of 5 Lf of diphtheria toxoid in diphtheria-tetanus vaccine. A double antigen ELISA was used for the assessment of the antibody levels...
  6. Ding Z, Verbaan F, Bivas Benita M, Bungener L, Huckriede A, van den Berg D, et al. Microneedle arrays for the transcutaneous immunization of diphtheria and influenza in BALB/c mice. J Control Release. 2009;136:71-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigated in mouse the immune responses after TCI using two model antigens, diphtheria toxoid (DT) and influenza subunit vaccine...
  7. Dagan R, Muallem M, Melamed R, Leroy O, Yagupsky P. Reduction of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage in early infancy after immunization with tetravalent pneumococcal vaccines conjugated to either tetanus toxoid or diphtheria toxoid. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1997;16:1060-4 pubmed
    ..conjugated to tetanus toxoid (Pnc-T) and a vaccine containing the same four polysaccharides conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (Pnc-D) were compared with placebo, in a double blinded study (25 infants per group)...
  8. Khetsuriani N, Music S, Deforest A, Sutter R. Evaluation of a single dose of diphtheria toxoid among adults in the Republic of Georgia, 1995: immunogenicity and adverse reactions. J Infect Dis. 2000;181 Suppl 1:S208-12 pubmed
    To determine the immunogenicity and safety of a single dose of diphtheria toxoid among adults, blood samples for detecting serum antitoxin levels were obtained from 18- to 59-year-old subjects (n=248) before and 30 days after ..
  9. Bakshi R, Graves M. Guillain-Barré syndrome after combined tetanus-diphtheria toxoid vaccination. J Neurol Sci. 1997;147:201-2 pubmed
    ..The first case of GBS following a vaccination with combined tetanus-diphtheria toxoid is reported.

More Information


  1. Rennels M, King J, Ryall R, Papa T, Froeschle J. Dosage escalation, safety and immunogenicity study of four dosages of a tetravalent meninogococcal polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine in infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23:429-35 pubmed
    ..given 3 doses of a quadrivalent (group A, C, Y, W-135) polysaccharide meningococcal vaccine conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (MCV-4) at a dosage of 1 microg of each serogroup polysaccharide...
  2. Bartels I, Jüngert J, Lugauer S, Stehr K, Heininger U. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a single dose of a diphtheria--tetanus--acellular pertussis component vaccine (DTaP) compared to a diphtheria--tetanus toxoid (Td) and a diphtheria toxoid vaccine (d) in adults. Vaccine. 2001;19:3137-45 pubmed
  3. Baskan E, Tunali S, Kacar S, Adim S, Saricaoglu H. A case of granuloma annulare in a child following tetanus and diphtheria toxoid vaccination. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2005;19:639-40 pubmed
  4. Stojanov S, Liese J, Bendjenana H, Harzer E, Barrand M, Jow S, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of a trivalent tetanus, low dose diphtheria, inactivated poliomyelitis booster compared with a standard tetanus, low dose diphtheria booster at six to nine years of age. Munich Vaccine Study Group. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000;19:516-21 pubmed
    ..Reactions were generally mild and all were temporary. A booster dose of Td-IPV induced in all children seroprotection against tetanus, diphtheria and poliomyelitis. The overall safety profile of the two vaccines was acceptable. ..
  5. Ahman H, Kayhty H, Lehtonen H, Leroy O, Froeschle J, Eskola J. Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine is immunogenic in early infancy and able to induce immunologic memory. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1998;17:211-6 pubmed
    ..conjugate vaccine, containing capsular polysaccharides from serotypes 6B, 14, 19F and 23F conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (PncD), was given to 75 infants at 2, 4 and 6 months of age...
  6. El Bashir H, Heath P, Papa T, Ruggeberg J, Johnson N, Sinha R, et al. Antibody responses to meningococcal (groups A, C, Y and W135) polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine in children who previously received meningococcal C conjugate vaccine. Vaccine. 2006;24:2544-9 pubmed
    ..5 years of age to evaluate immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a meningococcal (serogroups A, C, Y, W135) diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine (MCV-4) in healthy children previously vaccinated with a monovalent meningococcal C ..
  7. Stickings P, Peyre M, Coombes L, Muller S, Rappuoli R, Del Giudice G, et al. Transcutaneous immunization with cross-reacting material CRM(197) of diphtheria toxin boosts functional antibody levels in mice primed parenterally with adsorbed diphtheria toxoid vaccine. Infect Immun. 2008;76:1766-73 pubmed publisher
    ..boosted preexisting immune responses elicited after parenteral priming with aluminum hydroxide-adsorbed diphtheria toxoid (DTxd) vaccine...
  8. Schellenberger M, Grova N, Willième S, Farinelle S, Prodhomme E, Muller C. Modulation of benzo[a]pyrene induced immunotoxicity in mice actively immunized with a B[a]P-diphtheria toxoid conjugate. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009;240:37-45 pubmed publisher
    ..a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, we have immunized mice with a B[a]P-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine...
  9. Kumar V, Ganguly N, Joshi K, Mittal R, Harjai K, Chhibber S, et al. Protective efficacy and immunogenicity of Escherichia coli K13 diphtheria toxoid conjugate against experimental ascending pyelonephritis. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2005;194:211-7 pubmed
    ..Unconjugated capsular polysaccharide failed to provide any protection. However, coupling of K13 to diphtheria toxoid (DT) enhanced its immunogenicity and led to significant production of anticapsular antibodies in mice...
  10. Amidi M, Pellikaan H, Hirschberg H, de Boer A, Crommelin D, Hennink W, et al. Diphtheria toxoid-containing microparticulate powder formulations for pulmonary vaccination: preparation, characterization and evaluation in guinea pigs. Vaccine. 2007;25:6818-29 pubmed
    ..chitosan (TMC, degree of quaternization 50%) and dextran microparticles for pulmonary delivery of diphtheria toxoid (DT) was investigated...
  11. Lagergard T, Trollfors B, Claesson B, Karlberg J, Taranger J. Determination of neutralizing antibodies and specific immunoglobulin isotype levels in infants after vaccination against diphtheria. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1992;11:341-5 pubmed
    ..of 3, 5 and 12 months with an aluminium-adsorbed diphtheria-tetanus toxoid vaccine containing 15 Lf units of diphtheria toxoid. Toxin-neutralizing antibodies (antitoxin) were measured by the Vero cell assay and IgG, IgM and IgA ..
  12. Weston W, Friedland L, Wu X, Howe B. Vaccination of adults 65 years of age and older with tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Boostrix(®)): results of two randomized trials. Vaccine. 2012;30:1721-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Two studies examined the safety and immunogenicity of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine (Boostrix(®)) in healthy ?65 year olds...
  13. Pina L, Bassily E, Machmer A, Hou V, Reinhardt A. Safety and immunogenicity of a quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine in infants and toddlers: three multicenter phase III studies. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012;31:1173-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Serious adverse events were uncommon. MenACWY-D was safe and immunogenic when given in 2 doses to infants and toddlers; this vaccine can be given with other common childhood immunizations. ..
  14. Ding Z, Bal S, Romeijn S, Kersten G, Jiskoot W, Bouwstra J. Transcutaneous immunization studies in mice using diphtheria toxoid-loaded vesicle formulations and a microneedle array. Pharm Res. 2011;28:145-58 pubmed publisher
    To determine the immunogenicity of diphtheria toxoid (DT) formulated in two types of vesicles following transcutaneous immunization (TCI) of mice onto microneedle array-treated skin...
  15. Schroder U, Svenson S. Nasal and parenteral immunizations with diphtheria toxoid using monoglyceride/fatty acid lipid suspensions as adjuvants. Vaccine. 1999;17:2096-103 pubmed
    ..In the present study, diphtheria toxoid was used as a model antigen primarily due to its weak immunological properties as well as to its importance ..
  16. Isaka M, Yasuda Y, Kozuka S, Taniguchi T, Matano K, Maeyama J, et al. Induction of systemic and mucosal antibody responses in mice immunized intranasally with aluminium-non-adsorbed diphtheria toxoid together with recombinant cholera toxin B subunit as an adjuvant. Vaccine. 1999;18:743-51 pubmed
    ..The aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility of changing the immunization procedure of diphtheria toxoid (DT) from intramuscular or subcutaneous injection to intranasal administration...
  17. Brennan M, Vitek C, Strebel P, Wattigney W, Bisgard K, Brisgalov S, et al. How many doses of diphtheria toxoid are required for protection in adults? Results of a case-control study among 40- to 49-year-old adults in the Russian Federation. J Infect Dis. 2000;181 Suppl 1:S193-6 pubmed
    ..matched case-control study was done to measure the effectiveness of one, two, or three or more doses of diphtheria toxoid against diphtheria among 40- to 49-year-old Russians...
  18. Regnstrom K, Ragnarsson E, Artursson P. Gene expression after vaccination of mice with formulations of diphtheria toxoid or tetanus toxoid and different adjuvants: identification of shared and vaccine-specific genes in spleen lymphocytes. Vaccine. 2003;21:2307-17 pubmed
    We immunized mice with four different combinations of diphtheria toxoid or tetanus toxoid with aluminum phosphate or Freund's adjuvant and studied the resulting gene expression profiles in spleen lymphocytes...
  19. McCluskie M, Pryde D, Gervais D, Stead D, Zhang N, Benoit M, et al. Enhancing immunogenicity of a 3'aminomethylnicotine-DT-conjugate anti-nicotine vaccine with CpG adjuvant in mice and non-human primates. Int Immunopharmacol. 2013;16:50-6 pubmed publisher
    ..adjuvants with a model anti-nicotine antigen comprising trans-3'aminomethylnicotine (3'AmNic) conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (DT)...
  20. Galazka A. The changing epidemiology of diphtheria in the vaccine era. J Infect Dis. 2000;181 Suppl 1:S2-9 pubmed
  21. Schellenberger M, Grova N, Farinelle S, Willième S, Schroeder H, Muller C. Modulation of benzo[a]pyrene induced neurotoxicity in female mice actively immunized with a B[a]P-diphtheria toxoid conjugate. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013;271:175-83 pubmed publisher
    ..prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, female Balb/c mice immunized with a B[a]P-diphtheria toxoid (B[a]P-DT) conjugate vaccine were sub-acutely exposed to 2mg/kg B[a]P and behavioral performances were ..
  22. Matsuo K, Ishii Y, Quan Y, Kamiyama F, Mukai Y, Yoshioka Y, et al. Transcutaneous vaccination using a hydrogel patch induces effective immune responses to tetanus and diphtheria toxoid in hairless rat. J Control Release. 2011;149:15-20 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of these results, we are now performing translational research to apply TCI for tetanus and diphtheria. ..
  23. Ding Z, Bivas Benita M, Hirschberg H, Kersten G, Jiskoot W, Bouwstra J. Preparation and characterization of diphtheria toxoid-loaded elastic vesicles for transcutaneous immunization. J Drug Target. 2008;16:555-63 pubmed publisher
    The objective was to develop surfactant-based vesicle formulations containing diphtheria toxoid (DT) for transcutaneous immunization...
  24. Scharton Kersten T, Glenn G, Vassell R, Yu J, Walwender D, Alving C. Principles of transcutaneous immunization using cholera toxin as an adjuvant. Vaccine. 1999;17 Suppl 2:S37-43 pubmed
    ..Potent antibody responses against hen egg lysozyme and/or diphtheria toxoid were observed using CT as adjuvant...
  25. Shukla A, Singh B, Katare O. Significant systemic and mucosal immune response induced on oral delivery of diphtheria toxoid using nano-bilosomes. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;164:820-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our objective was to investigate the incorporation of diphtheria toxoid (DTx) into bilosomes, which could provide protection as well as aid transmucosal uptake and subsequent ..
  26. Bal S, Slütter B, van Riet E, Kruithof A, Ding Z, Kersten G, et al. Efficient induction of immune responses through intradermal vaccination with N-trimethyl chitosan containing antigen formulations. J Control Release. 2010;142:374-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo, mice were injected thrice with TMC based formulations containing either OVA or diphtheria toxoid (DT), a more relevant antigen...
  27. Maeyama J, Komiya T, Takahashi M, Isaka M, Goto N, Yamamoto S. The mucosal adjuvanticity of the oligodeoxynucleotides containing a non-methylated CpG motif on BCG and diphtheria toxoid. Vaccine. 2009;27:1166-73 pubmed publisher
    ..of oligo B, which is a synthetic CpG-DNA, in mucosal administration of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and diphtheria toxoid (DT)...
  28. Bal S, Ding Z, Kersten G, Jiskoot W, Bouwstra J. Microneedle-based transcutaneous immunisation in mice with N-trimethyl chitosan adjuvanted diphtheria toxoid formulations. Pharm Res. 2010;27:1837-47 pubmed publisher
    ..this study was to gain insight into the delivery and immunogenicity of N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) adjuvanted diphtheria toxoid (DT) formulations applied transcutaneously with microneedles...
  29. Cruz S, Silva G, Sampaio F, Souza S, Dias A, Milagres L. Comparison of long-term humoral memory development after immunisation against Neisseria meningitidis B or diphtheria toxoid. Vaccine. 2010;28:6841-6 pubmed publisher
    ..cells [ASC], memory B cell and IgG) evoked by a MenB vaccine (VA-MENGOC-BC(®)) with the B-cell response to diphtheria toxoid (DT) induced by a successful vaccine (Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis [DTP])...
  30. Chippaux J, Garba A, Ethevenaux C, Campagne G, de Chabalier F, Djibo S, et al. Immunogenicity, safety, and memory of different schedules of Neisseria meningitidis A/C-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine in infants in Niger. Vaccine. 2004;22:3303-11 pubmed
    We studied one to four doses of meningococcal polysaccharides A and C conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (Men D) versus A/C polysaccharide (Men PS) vaccine in 618 infants in Niger. Men PS at 24 months permitted evaluating memory...
  31. Dagan R, Melamed R, Zamir O, Leroy O. Safety and immunogenicity of tetravalent pneumococcal vaccines containing 6B, 14, 19F and 23F polysaccharides conjugated to either tetanus toxoid or diphtheria toxoid in young infants and their boosterability by native polysaccharide antigens. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1997;16:1053-9 pubmed
    ..containing pneumococcal 6B, 14, 19F and 23F polysaccharides conjugated to either tetanus toxoid (Pnc-T) or diphtheria toxoid (Pnc-D)...
  32. Bisgard K, Rhodes P, Hardy I, Litkina I, Filatov N, Monisov A, et al. Diphtheria toxoid vaccine effectiveness: A case-control study in Russia. J Infect Dis. 2000;181 Suppl 1:S184-7 pubmed
    Prior to the completion of this and other studies, low effectiveness of diphtheria toxoid-containing vaccine was suspected to be a major contributing factor to the diphtheria epidemic that began in the Russian Federation in 1990...
  33. Edmunds W, Pebody R, Aggerback H, Baron S, Berbers G, Conyn van Spaendonck M, et al. The sero-epidemiology of diphtheria in Western Europe. ESEN Project. European Sero-Epidemiology Network. Epidemiol Infect. 2000;125:113-25 pubmed
    ..Although the United Kingdom and Sweden both have higher proportions of seronegative children than elsewhere the likelihood of a resurgence of diphtheria in these countries seems remote...
  34. Granoff D, Morgan A, Welsch J. Immunogenicity of an investigational quadrivalent Neisseria meningitidis-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine in 2-year old children. Vaccine. 2005;23:4307-14 pubmed
    ..Compared with unvaccinated children, serum antibody titers remain elevated for 2 years after MC-4 vaccination. However, many vaccinated children have titers <1:4 and may require a booster dose for sustained protection. ..
  35. Batzloff M, Hayman W, Davies M, Zeng M, Pruksakorn S, Brandt E, et al. Protection against group A streptococcus by immunization with J8-diphtheria toxoid: contribution of J8- and diphtheria toxoid-specific antibodies to protection. J Infect Dis. 2003;187:1598-608 pubmed
    ..quot; Here, we investigate the immunogenicity of a J8-diphtheria toxoid (DT) conjugate adjuvanted with the human-compatible adjuvants, SBAS2 and alum, and demonstrate that it is ..
  36. Ding Z, van Riet E, Romeijn S, Kersten G, Jiskoot W, Bouwstra J. Immune modulation by adjuvants combined with diphtheria toxoid administered topically in BALB/c mice after microneedle array pretreatment. Pharm Res. 2009;26:1635-43 pubmed publisher
    In this study, modulation of the immune response against diphtheria toxoid (DT) by various adjuvants in transcutaneous immunization (TCI) with microneedle array pretreatment was investigated...
  37. Campbell J, Edelman R, King J, Papa T, Ryall R, Rennels M. Safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of a tetravalent meningococcal polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine given to healthy adults. J Infect Dis. 2002;186:1848-51 pubmed
    ..were immunized once with a tetravalent (serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135) meningococcal vaccine conjugated to diphtheria toxoid at 1 of 3 doses and were monitored for safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity...
  38. Coombes L, Stickings P, Tierney R, Rigsby P, Sesardic D. Development and use of a novel in vitro assay for testing of diphtheria toxoid in combination vaccines. J Immunol Methods. 2009;350:142-9 pubmed publisher
    ..a simple and sensitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) which has been developed to quantify diphtheria toxoid antigen in combined vaccine products and can also be used to monitor the degree of adsorption...
  39. Colino J, Snapper C. Exosomes from bone marrow dendritic cells pulsed with diphtheria toxoid preferentially induce type 1 antigen-specific IgG responses in naive recipients in the absence of free antigen. J Immunol. 2006;177:3757-62 pubmed
    ..We show that murine bone marrow DC pulsed in vitro with an intact protein (diphtheria toxoid (DT)) produce exosomes that induce, in the absence of free protein, in vivo Ig responses specific for DT in ..
  40. Keyserling H, Pollard A, Detora L, Gilmet G. Experience with MCV-4, a meningococcal, diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine against serogroups A, C, Y and W-135. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2006;5:445-59 pubmed
    ..The vaccine was well tolerated; the most common reactions were transient, mild injection-site reactions and headache. MCV-4 should provide significant clinical benefits in the future. ..
  41. Pichichero M, Papa T, Blatter M, Mitchell D, Kratz R, Sneed J, et al. Immune memory in children previously vaccinated with an experimental quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;25:995-1000 pubmed
    In a previous study, a meningococcal diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine (MCV-4) triggered robust bactericidal antibody responses against serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135 in 2- to 10-year-old children...
  42. Stanisic D, Martin L, Liu X, Jackson D, Cooper J, Good M. Analysis of immunological nonresponsiveness to the 19-kilodalton fragment of merozoite surface Protein 1 of Plasmodium yoelii: rescue by chemical conjugation to diphtheria toxoid (DT) and enhancement of immunogenicity by prior DT vaccination. Infect Immun. 2003;71:5700-13 pubmed
    ..Nonresponsiveness could be overcome by using chemical linkers to conjugate yMSP1(19) to diphtheria toxoid (DT), resulting in immunogens capable of inducing protective yMSP1(19)-specific antibodies in both MSP1(19)-..
  43. Beytout J, Denis F, Giet R, Allaert F. [Regional variations of adult population vaccinal status]. Med Mal Infect. 2004;34:460-8 pubmed
    ..These results show insufficient vaccination coverage against diphtheria, tetanus, and poliomyelitis in all regions and show other important variations in vaccination coverage between regions, especially for hepatitis A and B. ..
  44. Harris S, Finn A, Granoff D. Disparity in functional activity between serum anticapsular antibodies induced in adults by immunization with an investigational group A and C Neisseria meningitidis-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine and by a polysaccharide vaccine. Infect Immun. 2003;71:3402-8 pubmed
    ..005). The disparities in the functional activity of the anticapsular antibodies elicited in adults by the two vaccines imply fundamental differences in the respective B-cell populations stimulated...
  45. van Gageldonk P, von Hunolstein C, van der Klis F, Berbers G. Improved specificity of a multiplex immunoassay for quantitation of anti-diphtheria toxin antibodies with the use of diphtheria toxoid. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011;18:1183-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This can be significantly reduced by the use of diphtheria toxoid, achieving a good correlation with the Vero cell neutralization test and the toxin binding inhibition assay.
  46. Mohseni Zadeh M, Rey D, Batard M, Beck Wirth G, Partisani M, Lang J, et al. [Inadequate vaccination coverage in a French cohort of HIV positive patients]. Med Mal Infect. 2010;40:683-90 pubmed publisher
    ..It is necessary to inform prescribers and HIV positive patients about the interest of vaccination. ..
  47. Yorkgitis B, Timoney G, Salim A, Berg P, Goldberg A, Pathak A, et al. Pertussis vaccination in adult trauma patients: Are we missing an opportunity?. Surgery. 2015;158:602-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In the United States, there are different vaccinations available for adult administration: tetanus/diphtheria toxoid (Td) or tetanus/reduced diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap)...
  48. Vitek C. Diphtheria. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2006;304:71-94 pubmed
    ..While improved coverage of children in developing countries with diphtheria toxoid has led to progressive decreases in diphtheria; eradication is unlikely in the foreseeable future and gaps ..
  49. Burrage M, Robinson A, Borrow R, Andrews N, Southern J, Findlow J, et al. Effect of vaccination with carrier protein on response to meningococcal C conjugate vaccines and value of different immunoassays as predictors of protection. Infect Immun. 2002;70:4946-54 pubmed
  50. Fordymacka A. [Immunity against diphtheria and tetanus in various age groups after 40 years since implementation of the mass vaccination program]. Przegl Epidemiol. 2000;54:333-41 pubmed
    ..The comparison with results of several serologic surveys performed earlier showed gradually increasing immunity level against tetanus in all age groups. ..
  51. Kassianos G. The new vaccines in the UK: chaos or progress?. Int J Clin Pract. 2005;59:126-7 pubmed
  52. Whitelegg A, Birtwistle J, Richter A, Campbell J, Turner J, Ahmed T, et al. Measurement of antibodies to pneumococcal, meningococcal and haemophilus polysaccharides, and tetanus and diphtheria toxoids using a 19-plexed assay. J Immunol Methods. 2012;377:37-46 pubmed publisher
    ..vaccines: pneumococcal vaccines, meningococcal vaccines, Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib), and tetanus and diphtheria toxoid vaccines. 89-SF was employed as the standard serum...
  53. Dravid M, Joshi S. Resurgence of diphtheria in Malegaon & Dhule regions of north Maharashtra. Indian J Med Res. 2008;127:616-7 pubmed
  54. Chen R, Hardy I, Rhodes P, Tyshchenko D, Moiseeva A, Marievsky V. Ukraine, 1992: first assessment of diphtheria vaccine effectiveness during the recent resurgence of diphtheria in the Former Soviet Union. J Infect Dis. 2000;181 Suppl 1:S178-83 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that initial priority for scarce resources for controlling this outbreak should be placed on vaccination of persons susceptible to diphtheria (e.g., adults) rather than revaccination of children. ..
  55. Lee S, Hwang H, Kim J, Kim H, Lee H, Chung E, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of a combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (DTaP-IPV) compared to separate administration of standalone DTaP and IPV vaccines: a randomized, controlled study in infants in the . Vaccine. 2011;29:1551-7 pubmed publisher
    ..5% of doses in Group A and ? 0.9% in Group B. No withdrawals occurred because of adverse events. The DTaP-IPV combined vaccine given at 2, 4, and 6 months of age was well tolerated; immunogenicity was similar to the control vaccines. ..
  56. Watson S, Michael D, Justin T, Grimes S, Morris T, Robinson G, et al. Pre-clinical evaluation of the Gastrimmune immunogen alone and in combination with 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin in a rat colorectal cancer model. Int J Cancer. 1998;75:873-7 pubmed
    ..The immunogen Gastrimmune is composed of the amino terminus of gastrin-17 linked to diphtheria toxoid and raises antibodies in situ which neutralise amidated and glycine-extended gastrin-17...
  57. Sesardic D, Winsnes R, Rigsby P, Gaines Das R. Calibration of replacement international standard and European Pharmacopoeia Biological Reference Preparation for Diphtheria Toxoid, Adsorbed. Biologicals. 2001;29:107-22 pubmed
    We report here the characterisation of a preparation of diphtheria toxoid, adsorbed, and its calibration by twenty laboratories in fourteen countries in terms of the Second International Standard (I.S...
  58. Cherian T, Thomas N, Raghupathy P, Durot I, Dutta A. Safety and immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine given in combination with DTwP at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. Indian Pediatr. 2002;39:427-36 pubmed
    ..However, use of TetrAct-Hib combination vaccine would be preferable in view of its lower reactogenicity and superior immunogenicity with respect to diphtheria and tetanus. ..
  59. Alavi S, Rashidi A, Arzanian M, Shamsian B, Nourbakhsh K. Humoral immunity against hepatitis B, tetanus, and diphtheria following chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies: a report and review of literature. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2010;27:188-94 pubmed publisher
    ..7, P < .001) and hepatitis B (OR = 3.13, P = .008). These results indicate that chemotherapy has independent adverse effects on vaccine-induced antibody protection against diphtheria and hepatitis B. ..
  60. Adem A, Tacettin I, Sevin A, Vildan E. Diphtheria immunization rates and the effect of several sociodemographic factors on immunization of children in eastern Turkey. Pediatr Int. 2003;45:461-6 pubmed
    ..The present study was performed to determine the level of child immunization against diphtheria and the effect of several sociodemographic factors on immunization of children aged 0-6 years...
  61. Eick A, Croll J, Weatherholtz R, Croll L, Santosham M. Safety and immunogenicity of two octavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in American Indian infants. Vaccine. 2004;22:1260-4 pubmed
    ..pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines (serotypes 3, 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F) conjugated to either diphtheria toxoid (PncD) or tetanus protein (PncT) among White Mountain Apache and Gila River Indian Community infants...