Summary: Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.

Top Publications

  1. Amimoto K, Ohgitani T, Sasaki O, Oishi E, Katayama S, Isogai M, et al. Protective effect of Clostridium septicum alpha-toxoid vaccine against challenge with spores in guinea pigs. J Vet Med Sci. 2002;64:67-9 pubmed
    ..All these animals produced titers of 20 units or higher of antitoxin at the challenge. The results suggest that C. septicum alpha-toxin plays an important role in protection against challenge with spores in guinea pigs. ..
  2. Liu M, Ruan X, Zhang C, Lawson S, Knudsen D, Nataro J, et al. Heat-labile- and heat-stable-toxoid fusions (LTR???G-STaP??F) of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli elicit neutralizing antitoxin antibodies. Infect Immun. 2011;79:4002-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our recent study showed that porcine-type STa toxoids became immunogenic and elicited neutralizing anti-STa antibodies after being genetically fused to a full-length ..
  3. Del Giudice G, Rappuoli R. Genetically derived toxoids for use as vaccines and adjuvants. Vaccine. 1999;17 Suppl 2:S44-52 pubmed
    ..These successful results show that rational design of stronger and safer vaccines is feasible. ..
  4. Lovland A, Kaldhusdal M, Redhead K, Skjerve E, Lillehaug A. Maternal vaccination against subclinical necrotic enteritis in broilers. Avian Pathol. 2004;33:83-92 pubmed
    ..perfringens type A and type C toxoids adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide. Vaccination resulted in a strong serum immunoglobulin G response to C...
  5. Sougioultzis S, Kyne L, Drudy D, Keates S, Maroo S, Pothoulakis C, et al. Clostridium difficile toxoid vaccine in recurrent C. difficile-associated diarrhea. Gastroenterology. 2005;128:764-70 pubmed
    ..The results of this study support the feasibility of active vaccination against C difficile and its toxins in high-risk individuals but must be validated in larger, randomized, controlled trials. ..
  6. Wen S, Teel L, Judge N, O Brien A. Genetic toxoids of Shiga toxin types 1 and 2 protect mice against homologous but not heterologous toxin challenge. Vaccine. 2006;24:1142-8 pubmed
    ..Whether antisera to Stx1 or Stx2 are cross-neutralizing remains controversial, so we constructed genetic toxoids of Stx1 and Stx2 and evaluated them as vaccines...
  7. Keller J. Characterization of new formalin-detoxified botulinum neurotoxin toxoids. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15:1374-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The toxoids were derived primarily from the serotype A 150-kDa neurotoxin protein, while one toxoid was derived from the ..
  8. Crouch C, Withanage G, de Haas V, Etore F, Francis M. Safety and efficacy of a maternal vaccine for the passive protection of broiler chicks against necrotic enteritis. Avian Pathol. 2010;39:489-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that, under commercial conditions, maternal vaccination with Netvax™ can help to control losses related to necrotic enteritis...
  9. Saleh N, Fathalla S, Nabil R, Mosaad A. Clinicopathological and immunological studies on toxoids vaccine as a successful alternative in controlling clostridial infection in broilers. Anaerobe. 2011;17:426-30 pubmed publisher
    ..perfringens) type A, C and combined A&C toxoids based on their clinical signs and immunological effects...

More Information

Publications102 found, 100 shown here

  1. Staneková Z, Adkins I, Kosova M, Janulíková J, Sebo P, Varečková E. Heterosubtypic protection against influenza A induced by adenylate cyclase toxoids delivering conserved HA2 subunit of hemagglutinin. Antiviral Res. 2013;97:24-35 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report on heterosubtypic protection against influenza A infection mediated by an HA2-based vaccine that can induce both humoral and cellular immune responses without the need of adjuvant. ..
  2. Jost B, Trinh H, Songer J, Billington S. Immunization with genetic toxoids of the Arcanobacterium pyogenes cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, pyolysin, protects mice against infection. Infect Immun. 2003;71:2966-9 pubmed
    ..were found to be nontoxic, and vaccinated mice were protected from infection, indicating the potential of these toxoids as vaccines. Furthermore, in a mouse model of infection, A...
  3. Fernandes da Costa S, Mot D, Bokori Brown M, Savva C, Basak A, Van Immerseel F, et al. Protection against avian necrotic enteritis after immunisation with NetB genetic or formaldehyde toxoids. Vaccine. 2013;31:4003-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The immunisation of poultry with a formaldehyde NetB toxoid or with a NetB genetic toxoid (W262A) resulted in the induction of antibody responses against NetB and provided partial protection against disease...
  4. Ausiello C, Fedele G, Urbani F, Lande R, Di Carlo B, Cassone A. Native and genetically inactivated pertussis toxins induce human dendritic cell maturation and synergize with lipopolysaccharide in promoting T helper type 1 responses. J Infect Dis. 2002;186:351-60 pubmed
    ..The synergic interaction between PT and LPS in IL-12 production might be relevant for the mechanisms of vaccine-induced protection. ..
  5. Robbins J, Schneerson R, Keith J, Miller M, Kubler Kielb J, Trollfors B. Pertussis vaccine: a critique. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28:237-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, the genetically-inactivated mutant pertussis toxoid is safer, more immunogenic, and should be more effective than the current chemically-inactivated pertussis toxin. ..
  6. Barrette R, Szczepanek S, Rood D, Challa S, Avery N, Vajdy M, et al. Use of inactivated Escherichia coli enterotoxins to enhance respiratory mucosal adjuvanticity during vaccination in swine. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011;18:1996-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Detoxified Escherichia coli enterotoxins LTK63 and LTR72 enhanced antigen-specific mucosal and systemic immunity, demonstrating their efficacy as adjuvants for nonreplicating antigens upon intranasal immunization in swine. ..
  7. Sapsford K, Taitt C, Loo N, Ligler F. Biosensor detection of botulinum toxoid A and staphylococcal enterotoxin B in food. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:5590-2 pubmed
    ..1 ng/ml and 20 ng/ml, respectively. The toxins were also spiked and measured in a variety of food samples, including canned tomatoes, sweet corn, green beans, mushrooms, and tuna. ..
  8. Gracia A, Polewicz M, Halperin S, Hancock R, Potter A, Babiuk L, et al. Antibody responses in adult and neonatal BALB/c mice to immunization with novel Bordetella pertussis vaccine formulations. Vaccine. 2011;29:1595-604 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that this uniquely adjuvanted vaccine induces a stronger and more balanced immune response with an earlier onset of this response than vaccination with PTd antigen alone. ..
  9. Simondon F, Preziosi M, Pinchinat S, Yam A, Chabirand L, Wassilak S, et al. Randomised study of the possible adjuvant effect of BCG vaccine on the immunogenicity of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine in Senegalese infants. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1999;18:23-9 pubmed
    ..0001). These results suggest that BCG and DTaP vaccines can be given simultaneously without interference or enhancement and that more optimal immunogenicity is achieved with an extended than with an accelerated schedule. ..
  10. Chandra T, Maier W, König H, Hirzel K, Kogel D, Schuler T, et al. Molecular interactions of the type 1 human immunodeficiency virus transregulatory protein Tat with N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunits. Neuroscience. 2005;134:145-53 pubmed
    ..We therefore propose that release of Zn(2+)-mediated inhibition of NMDA receptors by HIV-1 Tat contributes to the neurotoxic effect of glutamate and may participate in the pathogenesis of AIDS-associated dementia. ..
  11. Zhao Z, Smith P, Hill H. Evaluation of potentially achievable vaccination coverage with simultaneous administration of vaccines among children in the United States. Vaccine. 2016;34:3030-3036 pubmed publisher
    ..Evaluate the potentially achievable vaccination coverage for ?4 doses of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (4+DTaP), ?4 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (4+PCV), and the full series ..
  12. Nishimura H, Yoshikai Y. [Development of vaccine and its immunological mechanism]. Nihon Rinsho. 2005;63 Suppl 5:585-9 pubmed
  13. Sharma S, Mukkur T, Benson H, Chen Y. Enhanced immune response against pertussis toxoid by IgA-loaded chitosan-dextran sulfate nanoparticles. J Pharm Sci. 2012;101:233-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The study also revealed the potential important role of IgA-loaded CS-DS nanoparticles as a novel immunological adjuvant for vaccine delivery. ..
  14. Lu P, O Halloran A, Ding H, Liang J, Williams W. National and State-Specific Td and Tdap Vaccination of Adult Populations. Am J Prev Med. 2016;50:616-626 pubmed publisher
    ..dose of tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) for adults followed by tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) booster doses every 10 years thereafter...
  15. Yu R, Yi S, Yu C, Fang T, Liu S, Yu T, et al. A conformational change of C fragment of tetanus neurotoxin reduces its ganglioside-binding activity but does not destroy its immunogenicity. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011;18:1668-72 pubmed publisher
    ..TeNT-Hc with bound sulfhydryls may be developed into an ideal human vaccine with a lower potential for side effects. ..
  16. Yano A, Miwa Y, Kanazawa Y, Ito K, Makino M, Imai S, et al. A novel method for enhancement of peptide vaccination utilizing T-cell epitopes from conventional vaccines. Vaccine. 2013;31:1510-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that our peptide vaccines with the novel protocol would provide an effective method for antibody induction. ..
  17. Han S, Rhim J, Shin H, Kim S, Kim J, Kim H, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of the new reduced-dose tetanus-diphtheria vaccine in healthy Korean adolescents: A comparative active control, double-blind, randomized, multicenter phase III study. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2017;50:207-213 pubmed publisher
    ..seroprotection rate, booster response, and geometric mean titer of antibodies against diphtheria and tetanus toxoids were compared after the vaccination...
  18. Aquino P, Fonseca F, Mozzer O, Giordano R, Sousa R. Optimization of the Production of Inactivated Clostridium novyi Type B Vaccine Using Computational Intelligence Techniques. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2016;179:895-909 pubmed publisher
    ..The main strategy to combat diseases caused by C. novyi is vaccination, employing vaccines produced with toxoids or with toxoids and bacterins...
  19. Harada K. Production of secondary metabolites by freshwater cyanobacteria. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2004;52:889-99 pubmed
  20. Pichichero M, Rennels M, Edwards K, Blatter M, Marshall G, Bologa M, et al. Combined tetanus, diphtheria, and 5-component pertussis vaccine for use in adolescents and adults. JAMA. 2005;293:3003-11 pubmed
    ..Antibody titers to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids for Tdap and Td were measured in sera collected from subsets of adolescents and adults, before and 28 days after ..
  21. El Enbaawy M, Saad M, Selim S. Humoral and cellular immune responses of a murine model against Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis antigens. Egypt J Immunol. 2005;12:13-9 pubmed
    ..All mice were challenged 2 weeks after the last dose of immunization with live C. pseudotuberclosis (2x10(5) CFU/mouse). Protection levels were observed with different degrees between the immunized mice groups. ..
  22. Yuen C, Asokanathan C, Cook S, Lin N, Xing D. Effect of different detoxification procedures on the residual pertussis toxin activities in vaccines. Vaccine. 2016;34:2129-34 pubmed publisher
    ..the effect of different detoxification processes on these two functional activities of the residual PTx in toxoids and vaccines currently marketed worldwide using a recently developed in vitro biochemical assay system...
  23. Amimoto K, Oishi E, Yasuhar H, Sasak O, Katayama S, Kitajima T, et al. Protective effects of clostridium sordellii LT and HT toxoids against challenge with spores in guinea pigs. J Vet Med Sci. 2001;63:879-83 pubmed
    The protective effects of Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin (LT) and hemorrhagic toxin (HT) toxoids against challenge with spores in guinea pigs were investigated...
  24. Amorim J, Diniz M, Cariri F, Rodrigues J, Bizerra R, Gonçalves A, et al. Protective immunity to DENV2 after immunization with a recombinant NS1 protein using a genetically detoxified heat-labile toxin as an adjuvant. Vaccine. 2012;30:837-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these results indicate that the combination of a purified recombinant NS1 and a nontoxic LT derivative is a promising alternative for the generation of safe and effective protein-based anti-dengue vaccine. ..
  25. Samuels S, Alwan Z, Egnin M, Jaynes J, Connell T, Bernard G, et al. Novel Therapeutic Approach for Inhibition of HIV-1 Using Cell-Penetrating Peptide and Bacterial Toxins. J AIDS Clin Res. 2017;8: pubmed publisher
    ..Pretreatment of cells with bacterial toxins or toxoids derived from enterotoxigenic E...
  26. Cherry J. The protein content of diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussis vaccines and an emerging clinical problem. J Infect Dis. 2005;191:1386-8 pubmed
  27. Vojtova J, Kofronova O, Sebo P, Benada O. Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin induces a cascade of morphological changes of sheep erythrocytes and localizes into clusters in erythrocyte membranes. Microsc Res Tech. 2006;69:119-29 pubmed
    ..Indeed, a decrease of CyaA binding after cholesterol depletion of erythrocytes suggests toxin targeting and binding to membrane microdomains (rafts). ..
  28. Kende M, Tan X, Wlazlowski C, Williams R, Lindsey C, Del Giudice G. Enhancement of intranasal vaccination with recombinant chain A ricin vaccine (rRV) in mice by the mucosal adjuvants LTK63 and LTR72. Vaccine. 2007;25:3219-27 pubmed
    ..Most likely, a larger than suboptimal dose could resolve the lung injury of the vaccinated mice in the presence of a larger dose of the mucosal adjuvant. ..
  29. Sagerup K, Larsen H, Skaare J, Johansen G, Gabrielsen G. The toxic effects of multiple persistent organic pollutant exposures on the post-hatch immunity maturation of glaucous gulls. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2009;72:870-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Data indicate that the combined effect of multiple persistent organic pollution exposures occurring naturally in the Arctic negatively affect the immune system of the glaucous gull chick. ..
  30. Walke S, Srivastava G, Routaray C, Dhavale D, Pai K, Doshi J, et al. Preparation and characterization of microencapsulated DwPT trivalent vaccine using water soluble chitosan and its in-vitro and in-vivo immunological properties. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018;107:2044-2056 pubmed publisher
    ..model, stating fickian diffusion relates to diffusion, erosion and controlled release rate of the encapsulated toxoids. Application of formulations on caco-2 cell line showed negligible cytotoxic effect and efficient uptake of FITC ..
  31. Mori S, Horita A, Ginnaga A, Miyatsu Y, Sawabe K, Matsumura T, et al. Venom and Antivenom of the Redback Spider (Latrodectus hasseltii) in Japan. Part II. Experimental Production of Equine Antivenom against the Redback Spider. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2017;70:635-641 pubmed publisher
    ..We captured 10,000 redback spiders in Japan and prepared the toxoids of crude venom extract, mixed the toxoids with a mineral oil adjuvant, and immunized healthy horses repeatedly ..
  32. Vidor E, Plotkin S. Immunogenicity of a two-component (PT & FHA) acellular pertussis vaccine in various combinations. Hum Vaccin. 2008;4:328-40 pubmed
    ..The consistent immunogenicity of the DTaP(2Fr) vaccine is accompanied by effectiveness in controlling pertussis disease in the areas where it is used on a large scale with good vaccination coverage. ..
  33. Mahdi L, Wang H, Van der Hoek M, Paton J, Ogunniyi A. Identification of a novel pneumococcal vaccine antigen preferentially expressed during meningitis in mice. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:2208-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide the basis of a strategy that can be adapted to identify genes that contribute to the development of meningitis caused by other pathogens. ..
  34. Shen Y, Lo K, Lin C, Chakraborty R. Microbial transformation of baccatin VI and 1beta-hydroxy baccatin I by Aspergillus niger. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003;13:4493-6 pubmed
    ..1beta-Dehydroxybaccatin VI (7) remained unreacted under the same condition. ..
  35. Nijland R, Lindner C, van Hartskamp M, Hamoen L, Kuipers O. Heterologous production and secretion of Clostridium perfringens beta-toxoid in closely related Gram-positive hosts. J Biotechnol. 2007;127:361-72 pubmed
    ..In these organisms secretion of beta-toxoid was ten times higher compared to the best producing B. subtilis strain. These results show the usefulness of the rpsF based broad host range expression system. ..
  36. Zhang W, Sack D. Current Progress in Developing Subunit Vaccines against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-Associated Diarrhea. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2015;22:983-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic fusion of toxoids derived from ETEC heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin (STa) induced antibodies neutralizing both ..
  37. Gewurz H, Mergenhagen S, Nowotny A, Phillips J. Interactions of the complement system with native and chemically modified endotoxins. J Bacteriol. 1968;95:397-405 pubmed
    ..These experiments supported the hypothesis that certain of the biological activities induced by endotoxins are mediated via the complement system...
  38. Tillett J. The use of vaccines in pregnancy. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs. 2004;18:216-29 pubmed
    ..Basic principles of vaccine administration are discussed as well as standards for immunization practice. Concerns regarding vaccine safety in any population are reviewed. ..
  39. Fritsche P, Helbling A, Ballmer Weber B. Vaccine hypersensitivity--update and overview. Swiss Med Wkly. 2010;140:238-46 pubmed publisher
    ..If allergy is suspected, an accurate examination followed by algorithms is the key for correct diagnosis, treatment and the decision regarding revaccination in patients with immediate-type reactions to vaccines. ..
  40. Reddy P, Paul S, Sripathy M, Batra H. Evaluation of recombinant SEA-TSST fusion toxoid for protection against superantigen induced toxicity in mouse model. Toxicon. 2015;103:106-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Failures with traditional monovalent vaccines or toxoids have brought a shift towards the use of multivalent formulas and neutralizing antibodies to combat and prevent ..
  41. Singh B, Sharma V. Potential of Klebsiella pneumoniae cytotoxin toxoid as vaccine against klebsiellosis in rabbits and mice. Vaccine. 2001;19:4505-10 pubmed
    The protective efficacy of toxoids prepared from crude cytotoxin (polymyxin-B extract, PBE) and purified Klebsiella cytotoxins (KCTs) was studied in rabbits and mice...
  42. James K, Crowley J, Hamilton B, Lehane M, Skulberg O, Furey A. Anatoxins and degradation products, determined using hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight and quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometry: forensic investigations of cyanobacterial neurotoxin poisoning. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2005;19:1167-75 pubmed
    ..The application to forensic samples in which the principal neurotoxin had undergone rapid biodegradation has been demonstrated and used to confirm anatoxin poisoning of dogs. ..
  43. Vertiev Y, Zdanovsky A, Shevelev A, Borinskaya S, Gening E, Martin T, et al. Recombinant Listeria strains producing the nontoxic L-chain of botulinum neurotoxin A in a soluble form. Res Microbiol. 2001;152:563-7 pubmed
  44. Brito L, Singh M. Acceptable levels of endotoxin in vaccine formulations during preclinical research. J Pharm Sci. 2011;100:34-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It is clear that certain families of vaccines such as toxoids contain much higher levels of endotoxin, where others such as purified recombinant subunits and gene vectors may ..
  45. Kotloff K, Wasserman S, Losonsky G, Thomas W, Nichols R, Edelman R, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of increasing doses of a Clostridium difficile toxoid vaccine administered to healthy adults. Infect Immun. 2001;69:988-95 pubmed
    ..We assessed the safety, immunogenicity, and dose response of a parenteral vaccine containing C. difficile toxoids A and B...
  46. Denoel P, Poolman J, Carletti G, Veitch K. Effects of adsorption of acellular pertussis antigens onto different aluminium salts on the protective activity in an intranasal murine model of Bordetella pertussis infection. Vaccine. 2002;20:2551-5 pubmed
    ..These effects could be reversed by inclusion of fimbriae (FIM) 2 and 3 in the formulation. These data emphasis the importance of correct formulation for such vaccines. ..
  47. Amimoto K, Sasaki Y, Fukuyama S, Tamura Y. Genetic variation and cross-reactivity of Clostridium septicum alpha-toxin. Vet Microbiol. 2006;114:51-9 pubmed
    ..septicum alpha-toxin gene, C. septicum strains toxoid of strain No.44 induces protective immunity against exposure to C. septicum that produce other subtypes of alpha-toxin containing several different amino acid residues. ..
  48. Prior S, Corbel M, Xing D. Development of an approach for the laboratory toxicological evaluation of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase genetic toxoid constructs as multipurpose vaccines. Hum Vaccin. 2005;1:151-9 pubmed
    ..However, in vivo specific toxicity tests and potential toxic implications of enzymatic activity-independent effects of CyaA on cell function should be investigated. ..
  49. Ghose C, Kalsy A, Sheikh A, Rollenhagen J, John M, Young J, et al. Transcutaneous immunization with Clostridium difficile toxoid A induces systemic and mucosal immune responses and toxin A-neutralizing antibodies in mice. Infect Immun. 2007;75:2826-32 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that transcutaneous immunization with CDA toxoid may be a feasible immunization strategy against C. difficile, an important cause of morbidity and mortality against which current preventative strategies are failing. ..
  50. Peres C, Aronoff D, Serezani C, Flamand N, Faccioli L, Peters Golden M. Specific leukotriene receptors couple to distinct G proteins to effect stimulation of alveolar macrophage host defense functions. J Immunol. 2007;179:5454-61 pubmed
  51. Lancaster L, Markey K, Ho M. An assessment of thermal stability of Clostridium difficile toxoid formulations. Hum Vaccin. 2011;7:202-10 pubmed
    ..To evaluate thermal stability, a lyophilized and liquid formulation of toxoids A and B were stored at a range of temperatures for 5 weeks...
  52. Mann B, Thornton J, Heath R, Wade K, Tweten R, Gao G, et al. Broadly protective protein-based pneumococcal vaccine composed of pneumolysin toxoid-CbpA peptide recombinant fusion protein. J Infect Dis. 2014;209:1116-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The CbpA peptide-L460D pneumolysoid fusion protein was broadly protective against pneumococcal infection, with the potential for additional protection against other meningeal pathogens. ..
  53. Sun J, Mielcarek N, Lakew M, Grzych J, Capron A, Holmgren J, et al. Intranasal administration of a Schistosoma mansoni glutathione S-transferase-cholera toxoid conjugate vaccine evokes antiparasitic and antipathological immunity in mice. J Immunol. 1999;163:1045-52 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that it may be possible to design a therapeutic vaccine against schistosomiasis that both limits infection and suppresses parasite-induced pathology. ..
  54. Guermonprez P, Fayolle C, Rojas M, Rescigno M, Ladant D, Leclerc C. In vivo receptor-mediated delivery of a recombinant invasive bacterial toxoid to CD11c + CD8 alpha -CD11bhigh dendritic cells. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:3071-81 pubmed
  55. Kende M, Del Giudice G, Rivera N, Hewetson J. Enhancement of intranasal vaccination in mice with deglycosylated chain A ricin by LTR72, a novel mucosal adjuvant. Vaccine. 2006;24:2213-21 pubmed
    ..In mice treated with high(er) dose of vaccine, histological examinations during longer observation period rather than at one time point could reveal a different pattern. ..
  56. Hansen R, Christensen C, Korshunova I, Kriebel M, Burkarth N, Kiselyov V, et al. Identification of NCAM-binding peptides promoting neurite outgrowth via a heterotrimeric G-protein-coupled pathway. J Neurochem. 2007;103:1396-407 pubmed
    ..Thus, ENFIN2 and ENFIN11 may be valuable for exploring this particular type of NCAM-mediated signaling. ..
  57. Held D, Shurtleff A, Fields S, Green C, Fong J, Jones R, et al. Vaccination of rabbits with an alkylated toxoid rapidly elicits potent neutralizing antibodies against botulinum neurotoxin serotype B. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:930-6 pubmed publisher
  58. Bechini A, Tiscione E, Boccalini S, Levi M, Bonanni P. Acellular pertussis vaccine use in risk groups (adolescents, pregnant women, newborns and health care workers): a review of evidences and recommendations. Vaccine. 2012;30:5179-90 pubmed publisher
  59. Zhang C, Knudsen D, Liu M, Robertson D, Zhang W. Toxicity and immunogenicity of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile and heat-stable toxoid fusion 3xSTa(A14Q)-LT(S63K/R192G/L211A) in a murine model. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e77386 pubmed publisher
    ..Data from this study indicated that toxoid fusion 3xSTa(A14Q)-tmLT is safe and can induce neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and provided helpful information for vaccine development against ETEC diarrhea. ..
  60. Sheldon E, Kitchin N, Peng Y, Eiden J, Gruber W, Johnson E, et al. A phase 1, placebo-controlled, randomized study of the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a Clostridium difficile vaccine administered with or without aluminum hydroxide in healthy adults. Vaccine. 2016;34:2082-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The toxoids, either alone or in combination with aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3), were administered to healthy adults 50-85 ..
  61. Zeinalzadeh N, Salmanian A, Goujani G, Amani J, Ahangari G, Akhavian A, et al. A Chimeric protein of CFA/I, CS6 subunits and LTB/STa toxoid protects immunized mice against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Microbiol Immunol. 2017;61:272-279 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that 3CL can induce anti-CF and neutralizing antitoxin antibodies along with introducing CFA/I as a platform for epitope insertion. ..
  62. Gordon V, Whipp S, Moon H, O Brien A, Samuel J. An enzymatic mutant of Shiga-like toxin II variant is a vaccine candidate for edema disease of swine. Infect Immun. 1992;60:485-90 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that SLT-IIvE167Q may represent an effective vaccine against ED...
  63. Halperin S, Smith B, Russell M, Scheifele D, Mills E, Hasselback P, et al. Adult formulation of a five component acellular pertussis vaccine combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and inactivated poliovirus vaccine is safe and immunogenic in adolescents and adults. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000;19:276-83 pubmed
    ..hemagglutinin, pertactin, fimbriae 2 and 3) acellular pertussis vaccine (aP) combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (TdaP) and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (TdaP-IPV) in adolescents and adults and to assess the response to a ..
  64. Jones R, Liu Y, Rigsby P, Sesardic D. An improved method for development of toxoid vaccines and antitoxins. J Immunol Methods. 2008;337:42-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Toxoid produced by the new method should substantially improve both antitoxin and vaccine production and be applicable to other toxins and immunogens. ..
  65. Goldman E, Anderson G, Conway J, Sherwood L, Fech M, Vo B, et al. Thermostable llama single domain antibodies for detection of botulinum A neurotoxin complex. Anal Chem. 2008;80:8583-91 pubmed publisher
    ..a library of phage-displayed sdAb from a llama immunized with a cocktail of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) complex toxoids and panned the library for binders for BoNT A complex toxoid...
  66. Chandran D, Naidu S, Sugumar P, Rani G, Vijayan S, Mathur D, et al. Development of a recombinant epsilon toxoid vaccine against enterotoxemia and its use as a combination vaccine with live attenuated sheep pox virus against enterotoxemia and sheep pox. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:1013-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, the use of this construct in a combination vaccine against sheep pox resulted in the sheep being protected against both sheep pox and enterotoxemia...
  67. Cockeran R, Steel H, Theron A, Mitchell T, Feldman C, Anderson R. Characterization of the interactions of the pneumolysoid, ?6 PLY, with human neutrophils in vitro. Vaccine. 2011;29:8780-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed absence of pro-inflammatory interactions of ?6 PLY with neutrophils is clearly an important property of this pneumococcal protein vaccine candidate. ..
  68. Abu El Hammed W, Soufy H, El Shemy A, Nasr S, Dessouky M. Use of allicin as feed additive to enhance vaccination capacity of Clostridium perfringens toxoid in rabbits. Vaccine. 2016;34:2000-7 pubmed publisher
    ..perfringens type A infection compared to rabbits vaccinated with C. perfringens toxoid only. ..
  69. Hofmann B, Nishanian P, Nguyen T, Insixiengmay P, Fahey J. Human immunodeficiency virus proteins induce the inhibitory cAMP/protein kinase A pathway in normal lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:6676-80 pubmed
    ..These studies show that the HIV-induced augmentation of cAMP/PKA activity may be a key part of the mechanism responsible for all or part of the HIV-induced anergy of T lymphocytes. ..
  70. Schallert N, Pihlgren M, Kovarik J, Roduit C, Tougne C, Bozzotti P, et al. Generation of adult-like antibody avidity profiles after early-life immunization with protein vaccines. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:752-60 pubmed
  71. Ludwig K, Karmali M, Smith C, Petric M. Cross-protection against challenge by intravenous Escherichia coli verocytotoxin 1 (VT1) in rabbits immunized with VT2 toxoid. Can J Microbiol. 2002;48:99-103 pubmed
    ..In rabbits immunized with either VT1 or VT2 toxoids, both the homologous or heterologous toxins are prevented from binding to target organs...
  72. Natori Y. [New drugs that prevent cytotoxicity of Shiga toxins]. Nihon Rinsho. 2002;60:1131-7 pubmed
    ..Although most of these are now under the laboratory investigations, one of these drugs may hopefully be utilized clinically to prevent hemolytic uremic syndrome in future. ..
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    ..33% protection. Thus it can be concluded that passive immunity confided by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Weltevreden (BM 1643) toxoid can protect chicks against salmonellosis during their early days of life. ..
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    ..vaccines, containing different pertussis-component antigens but all comprizing diphtheria (D) and tetanus (T) toxoids, were tested...
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    ..Furthermore, under the conditions of this study, the advantage of the microencapsulated RT vaccine over the aqueous vaccine for effective oral immunization was well demonstrated. ..
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    ..The results showed that the recombinant strain BL21 (DE3)(pET-28a-hly) could be candidate of hemolysin toxoid vaccine to provide protective immunity against diseases caused by Aeromonas hydrophila. ..
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    ..Taken together, the differential reactivity of the IgG fractions seems to indicate a preferential segregation of antibody reactivities according to the nature of the antigen. ..
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    ..Challenge with Stx2e toxin resulted in clinical signs of edema disease and death of all control piglets from nonimmunized sows, whereas none of the piglets from immunized sows developed clinical signs of ED...
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    ..Binding of ET A toxoid to human peripheral lymphocytes is of the same magnitude as binding of gold-labelled ET A. ..
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    ..Dihydrohomoanatoxin-a and a novel isomer of epoxyanatoxin-a were identified in blue-green algae tablets. This finding suggests that a potential human health hazard could be associated with the consumption of these food supplements. ..
  89. Christie C, Garrison K, Kiely L, Gupta R, Heubi J, Marchant C. A trial of acellular pertussis vaccine in hospital workers during the Cincinnati pertussis epidemic of 1993. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33:997-1003 pubmed
    ..However, recent evidence of Bordetella pertussis infection before immunization was shown. Thus, AP vaccine was safe and immunogenic in adults. ..
  90. Richardson M, Mirchandani J, Silvera P, Regulier E, Capini C, Bojczuk P, et al. Immunogenicity of HIV-1 IIIB and SHIV 89.6P Tat and Tat toxoids in rhesus macaques: induction of humoral and cellular immune responses. DNA Cell Biol. 2002;21:637-51 pubmed
    ..6P Tat, and carboxymethylated IIIB and 89.6P Tat toxoids. Immunization with either IIIB or 89...
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    ..These data support the need for adolescent or adult vaccination against Bordetella pertussis. Healthcare providers and their clients should be aware of the risk for infant infection via family member transmission. ..
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    ..The system was highly reproducible and more objective than the current method. Only three sets of duplicate data were sufficient for statistically significant determination of toxoid Lf by parabolic regression. ..