acellular vaccines


Summary: Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.

Top Publications

  1. van den Berg B, David S, Beekhuizen H, Mooi F, Van Furth R. Protection and humoral immune responses against Bordetella pertussis infection in mice immunized with acellular or cellular pertussis immunogens. Vaccine. 2000;19:1118-28 pubmed
    ..Each vaccine stimulated the production of IgG, but not IgA, antibodies. In mice immunized with ACV, elimination of B. pertussis from trachea and lungs correlated significantly with the titre of IgG1, but not IgG2a, antibodies. ..
  2. Da Costa Martins R, Irache J, Blasco J, Muñoz M, Marin C, Jesús Grilló M, et al. Evaluation of particulate acellular vaccines against Brucella ovis infection in rams. Vaccine. 2010;28:3038-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to overcome these drawbacks, we developed acellular vaccines based on a Brucella ovis antigenic complex (HS) containing outer membrane proteins and R-LPS entrapped in ..
  3. Vandebriel R, Gremmer E, Vermeulen J, Hellwig S, Dormans J, Roholl P, et al. Lung pathology and immediate hypersensitivity in a mouse model after vaccination with pertussis vaccines and challenge with Bordetella pertussis. Vaccine. 2007;25:2346-60 pubmed
    ..In summary, after challenge vaccination increased lung pathology, TNF-alpha expression (only WCV), and IH parameters. Th1 cells were critical for clearance...
  4. Tan T, Trindade E, Skowronski D. Epidemiology of pertussis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24:S10-8 pubmed
    ..Understanding the link between these observations may lead to better informed global control strategies, especially those pertaining to immunization schedules and use of pertussis vaccine. ..
  5. Geurtsen J, Banus H, Gremmer E, Ferguson H, de la Fonteyne Blankestijn L, Vermeulen J, et al. Lipopolysaccharide analogs improve efficacy of acellular pertussis vaccine and reduce type I hypersensitivity in mice. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2007;14:821-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these results indicate that supplementation with LPS analogs forms a promising strategy that can be used to improve aP vaccines. ..
  6. Higgins S, Jarnicki A, Lavelle E, Mills K. TLR4 mediates vaccine-induced protective cellular immunity to Bordetella pertussis: role of IL-17-producing T cells. J Immunol. 2006;177:7980-9 pubmed
    ..vaccines (Pw) induce Th1 responses and protect against Bordetella pertussis infection, whereas pertussis acellular vaccines (Pa) induce Ab and Th2-biased responses and also protect against severe disease...
  7. von König C, Halperin S, Riffelmann M, Guiso N. Pertussis of adults and infants. Lancet Infect Dis. 2002;2:744-50 pubmed
  8. Weigand M, Pawloski L, Peng Y, Ju H, Burroughs M, Cassiday P, et al. Screening and Genomic Characterization of Filamentous Hemagglutinin-Deficient Bordetella pertussis. Infect Immun. 2018;86: pubmed publisher
    ..The United States employs acellular vaccines exclusively, and current Bordetella pertussis isolates are predominantly deficient in at least one ..
  9. Littmann M, Hülsse C, Riffelmann M, Wirsing von Konig C. Long-term immunogenicity of a single dose of acellular pertussis vaccine in paediatric health-care workers. Vaccine. 2008;26:2344-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A renewed contact with B. pertussis antigens resulted in a measurable immune response to PT between 0.5% (1 year p.v.) and 12.5% (4 years p.v.). ..

More Information


  1. Torvaldsen S, Hull B, McIntyre P. Using the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register to track the transition from whole-cell to acellular pertussis vaccines. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2002;26:581-3 pubmed
    ..The use of CDT has decreased markedly since January 1996 and, since March 2000, fewer than 100 CDT vaccines per month were recorded on the ACIR, suggesting that this vaccine is not being inappropriately used. ..
  2. Li G, Wang Y, Zhang Z, Wang X, Ji M, Zhu X, et al. Identification of immunodominant Th1-type T cell epitopes from Schistosoma japonicum 28 kDa glutathione-S-transferase, a vaccine candidate. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2005;37:751-8 pubmed
    ..japonicum. Moreover, our strategy of identifying the Th1-type epitope by a combination of software prediction and experimental confirmation provides a convenient and cost-saving alternative approach to previous methods. ..
  3. van Hoek A, Campbell H, Amirthalingam G, Andrews N, Miller E. Cost-effectiveness and programmatic benefits of maternal vaccination against pertussis in England. J Infect. 2016;73:28-37 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the duration and magnitude of protection against transmission afforded by the current acellular vaccines is also uncertain as are the associated effects on future herd immunity...
  4. Sealey K, Belcher T, Preston A. Bordetella pertussis epidemiology and evolution in the light of pertussis resurgence. Infect Genet Evol. 2016;40:136-143 pubmed publisher
    ..This is linked to switching from the use of whole cell vaccines to acellular vaccines in developed countries...
  5. Rendi Wagner P, Kundi M, Mikolasek A, Vecsei A, Fruhwirth M, Kollaritsch H. Hospital-based active surveillance of childhood pertussis in Austria from 1996 to 2003: estimates of incidence and vaccine effectiveness of whole-cell and acellular vaccine. Vaccine. 2006;24:5960-5 pubmed
  6. Campins Marti M, Moraga Llop F. Acellular pertussis vaccines for use among infants and young children. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2004;5:807-17 pubmed
    ..The advent of acellular vaccines in recent years has constituted an important advance in the acceptance of this immunisation and consequently ..
  7. Moraga F, Roca J, Mendez C, Rodrigo C, Pineda V, Martinez A, et al. Epidemiology and surveillance of pertussis among infants in Catalonia, Spain, during 1997-2001. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24:510-3 pubmed
    ..6%; therefore, the real incidence is likely to be greatly underestimated. Pertussis incidence remains high among infants, most of whom are <4 months of age and have had no or 1 dose of vaccine. ..
  8. Donnelly S, Loscher C, Lynch M, Mills K. Whole-cell but not acellular pertussis vaccines induce convulsive activity in mice: evidence of a role for toxin-induced interleukin-1beta in a new murine model for analysis of neuronal side effects of vaccination. Infect Immun. 2001;69:4217-23 pubmed
  9. Watanabe M, Nagai M. Acellular pertussis vaccines in Japan: past, present and future. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2005;4:173-84 pubmed
    ..This review describes the major events associated with the Japanese vaccination program. The Japanese experience should be valuable to other countries that are considering the development and use of such vaccines. ..
  10. Taranger J, Trollfors B, Bergfors E, Knutsson N, Lagergard T, Schneerson R, et al. Immunologic and epidemiologic experience of vaccination with a monocomponent pertussis toxoid vaccine. Pediatrics. 2001;108:E115 pubmed
    ..As observed with cellular and with multicomponent acellular vaccines, PTox reduced the severity of disease and the percent of children with positive cultures...
  11. Yuen C, Horiuchi Y, Asokanathan C, Cook S, Douglas Bardsley A, Ochiai M, et al. An in vitro assay system as a potential replacement for the histamine sensitisation test for acellular pertussis based combination vaccines. Vaccine. 2010;28:3714-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The new in vitro test system was shown to be a potential alternative to the current in vivo HIST. ..
  12. Guiso N, Boursaux Eude C, Weber C, Hausman S, Sato H, Iwaki M, et al. Analysis of Bordetella pertussis isolates collected in Japan before and after introduction of acellular pertussis vaccines. Vaccine. 2001;19:3248-52 pubmed
    ..Our preliminary results suggest that, if acellular pertussis vaccine-induced antigenic divergence exists, it is likely to be a slow or rare process. ..
  13. Locht C. Pertussis: Where did we go wrong and what can we do about it?. J Infect. 2016;72 Suppl:S34-40 pubmed publisher
    ..a trend towards increased pertussis incidence was already visible before the switch from whole-cell to acellular vaccines, it was really since the introduction of the acellular vaccines that the number of cases reached record ..
  14. Watanabe M, Komatsu E, Sato T, Nagai M. Evaluation of efficacy in terms of antibody levels and cell-mediated immunity of acellular pertussis vaccines in a murine model of respiratory infection. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2002;33:219-25 pubmed
    ..However, antibody levels and cell-mediated immune responses were not correlated with the protective effects of the vaccines after aerosol challenge and after i.c. challenge. ..
  15. Steenblock E, Wrzesinski S, Flavell R, Fahmy T. Antigen presentation on artificial acellular substrates: modular systems for flexible, adaptable immunotherapy. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2009;9:451-64 pubmed
    ..These constructs could be administered parenterally as APC replacements for active vaccines or used ex vivo for adoptive immunotherapy. ..
  16. De Serres G, Shadmani R, Boulianne N, Duval B, Rochette L, Douville Fradet M, et al. Effectiveness of a single dose of acellular pertussis vaccine to prevent pertussis in children primed with pertussis whole cell vaccine. Vaccine. 2001;19:3004-8 pubmed
    ..4 and 2.1 times higher respectively than in those who received 4 wP + 1 aP. A single dose of aP increased the protection against pertussis and this protection was greater than that obtained with a wP booster. ..
  17. Gomez S, Yuen C, Asokanathan C, Douglas Bardsley A, Corbel M, Coote J, et al. ADP-ribosylation activity in pertussis vaccines and its relationship to the in vivo histamine-sensitisation test. Vaccine. 2007;25:3311-8 pubmed
    ..Refinement of the in vitro test to include a step which monitors the B-subunit activity of PTx may provide a better correlation with the in vivo HIST. ..
  18. Li P, Asokanathan C, Liu F, Khaing K, Kmiec D, Wei X, et al. PLGA nano/micro particles encapsulated with pertussis toxoid (PTd) enhances Th1/Th17 immune response in a murine model. Int J Pharm. 2016;513:183-190 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the NP/MP formulation may provide an alternative to conventional acellular vaccines to achieve a more balanced Th1/Th2 immune response.
  19. Juretzko P, von Kries R, Hermann M, Wirsing von König C, Weil J, Giani G. Effectiveness of acellular pertussis vaccine assessed by hospital-based active surveillance in Germany. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35:162-7 pubmed
    ..Vaccine effectiveness was even slightly higher for pertussis with complications. Thus, even after partial vaccination, acellular pertussis vaccine is highly effective in preventing hospitalizations for pertussis. ..
  20. Klein N, Massolo M, Greene J, Dekker C, Black S, Escobar G. Risk factors for developing apnea after immunization in the neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatrics. 2008;121:463-9 pubmed publisher
    ..For infants in the NICU without apnea during the 24 hours immediately before immunization, younger age, smaller size, and more severe illness at birth are important predictors of postimmunization apnea. ..
  21. Yuen C, Canthaboo C, Menzies J, Cyr T, Whitehouse L, Jones C, et al. Detection of residual pertussis toxin in vaccines using a modified ribosylation assay. Vaccine. 2002;21:44-52 pubmed
    ..This method forms the basis of a new assay which could replace the unsatisfactory animal test currently used in pertussis vaccines control. ..
  22. Geier D, Geier M. The true story of pertussis vaccination: a sordid legacy?. J Hist Med Allied Sci. 2002;57:249-84 pubmed
  23. Southern J, Crowley Luke A, Borrow R, Andrews N, Miller E. Immunogenicity of one, two or three doses of a meningococcal C conjugate vaccine conjugated to tetanus toxoid, given as a three-dose primary vaccination course in UK infants at 2, 3 and 4 months of age with acellular pertussis-containing DTP/Hib vacc. Vaccine. 2006;24:215-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that a reduced number of doses of MCC-TT would be adequate in infancy if given concomitantly with an acellular pertussis-containing vaccine. ..
  24. Zanaboni E, Arato V, Pizza M, Seubert A, Leuzzi R. A novel high-throughput assay to quantify the vaccine-induced inhibition of Bordetella pertussis adhesion to airway epithelia. BMC Microbiol. 2016;16:215 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the causes of pertussis resurgence are matter of debate, emerging evidences suggest that acellular vaccines efficiently protect against the hallmark symptoms of pertussis disease but fail to prevent colonization...
  25. Blondelle S, Pinilla C, Boggiano C. Synthetic combinatorial libraries as an alternative strategy for the development of novel treatments for infectious diseases. Methods Enzymol. 2003;369:322-44 pubmed
  26. Diavatopoulos D, EDWARDS K. What Is Wrong with Pertussis Vaccine Immunity? Why Immunological Memory to Pertussis Is Failing. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..Although acellular vaccines generate higher levels of antigen-specific IgG to the antigens included in the aP vaccines, there are many ..
  27. Yeh S, Mink C. Shift in the epidemiology of pertussis infection: an indication for pertussis vaccine boosters for adults?. Drugs. 2006;66:731-41 pubmed
    ..With the recent availability of acellular pertussis vaccines for older children to adults, consideration of a change in current vaccination policy is necessary in order to provide better disease control. ..
  28. Vermeulen F, Verscheure V, Damis E, Vermeylen D, Leloux G, Dirix V, et al. Cellular immune responses of preterm infants after vaccination with whole-cell or acellular pertussis vaccines. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:258-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that like full-term infants, most preterm infants are able to mount a specific cellular immune response to the administration of the first doses of an acellular or a whole-cell pertussis vaccine...
  29. Perret P C. [Pertussis vaccine for adolescents and adults]. Rev Chilena Infectol. 2006;23:257-60 pubmed
    ..The introduction of this vaccine into a universal vaccination program for adolescents and adults, would decrease the incidence of the disease in this population and more importantly, transmission of the microorganism to infants. ..
  30. Yeh S. Pertussis: persistent pathogen, imperfect vaccines. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2003;2:113-27 pubmed
    ..New methodologies for understanding disease pathogenesis, immune responses and vaccine development are needed to effectively interrupt continued transmission of this pathogen. ..
  31. Hovav A, Bercovier H. Pseudo-rationale design of efficient TB vaccines: lesson from the mycobacterial 27-kDa lipoprotein. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2006;86:225-35 pubmed
    To develop or improve acellular vaccines against tuberculosis, scientists are in quest for the most efficient Th1 antigens. Immunization of mice with the M...
  32. Southern J, McVernon J, Gelb D, Andrews N, Morris R, Crowley Luke A, et al. Immunogenicity of a fourth dose of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine and antibody persistence in young children from the United Kingdom who were primed with acellular or whole-cell pertussis component-containing Hib combinations i. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2007;14:1328-33 pubmed
    ..15 microg/ml in about 90% of individuals. A booster dose of Hib vaccine given after the first year of life should provide long-lasting protection. ..
  33. Wood N, McIntyre P, Marshall H, Roberton D. Acellular pertussis vaccine at birth and one month induces antibody responses by two months of age. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:209-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Larger and more detailed studies of aPV from birth are needed to evaluate other antibody responses and the potential of this approach to reduce death and morbidity from Bordetella pertussis infection in the first 3 months of life. ..
  34. Schmitt H, Mohnike K, Zepp F, Herden P, Hosbach P. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the Biken acellular pertussis vaccine in young adults. Vaccine. 2000;19:403-8 pubmed
    ..The study vaccine was safe and induced infrequent and mostly mild, local and general symptoms that all resolved spontaneously; it was highly immunogenic in adults, whether or not they had been previously vaccinated with DTwP. ..
  35. Acosta A, DeBolt C, Tasslimi A, Lewis M, Stewart L, Misegades L, et al. Tdap vaccine effectiveness in adolescents during the 2012 Washington State pertussis epidemic. Pediatrics. 2015;135:981-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies examining Tdap vaccine effectiveness (VE) among adolescents who have received all acellular vaccines are limited...
  36. Meyer C, Zepp F, Decker M, Lee M, Chang S, Ward J, et al. Cellular immunity in adolescents and adults following acellular pertussis vaccine administration. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2007;14:288-92 pubmed
    ..CMI responses may be a better correlate of long-term protection. ..
  37. Carter C, Dagg B, Whitmore K, Keeble J, Asokanathan C, Xing D, et al. The effect of pertussis whole cell and acellular vaccines on pulmonary immunology in an aerosol challenge model. Cell Immunol. 2004;227:51-8 pubmed
    ..We have compared the effects of pertussis whole cell and acellular vaccines on pulmonary immune responses after aerosol challenge in a murine model of infection...
  38. Elliott E, McIntyre P, Ridley G, Morris A, Massie J, McEniery J, et al. National study of infants hospitalized with pertussis in the acellular vaccine era. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23:246-52 pubmed
    ..Strategies to improve pertussis control in countries with high DTPa coverage could include adult-formulated booster pertussis vaccines for adolescents and recent parents and/or accelerated pertussis vaccine schedules for infants. ..
  39. Gaines Das R, Horiuchi Y, Zhang S, Newland P, Kim Y, Corbel M, et al. Modified intra-cerebral challenge assay for acellular pertussis vaccines: comparisons among whole cell and acellular vaccines. Vaccine. 2009;27:6824-32 pubmed publisher
  40. Kamachi K, Fukuda T, Han H, Toyoizumi Ajisaka H, Mochida K, Konda T, et al. Genetic verification of Bordetella pertussis seed strains used for production of Japanese acellular pertussis vaccines. Biologicals. 2010;38:290-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations indicate that B. pertussis seed strains for Japanese aP vaccine production are genetically comparable with B. pertussis Tohama. ..
  41. Lee J, Robinson J, Spady D. Frequency of apnea, bradycardia, and desaturations following first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B immunization in hospitalized preterm infants. BMC Pediatr. 2006;6:20 pubmed
  42. de Carvalho A, Pereira E. Acellular pertussis vaccine for adolescents. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2006;82:S15-24 pubmed
    ..Perhaps the strategy of using a second booster dose in adolescence to replace the double diphtheria and tetanus vaccine should be adopted immediately. ..
  43. Zielinski A, Rosinska M. Comparison of adverse effects following immunization with vaccine containing whole-cell vs. acellular pertussis components. Przegl Epidemiol. 2008;62:589-96 pubmed
    ..There was no significant difference in incidence of the most severe reactions, including encephalopathy and nonfebrile seizures, and there was no significant difference in allergic reactions. ..
  44. Gaines Das R, Xing D, Rigsby P, Newland P, Corbel M. International collaborative study: evaluation of proposed International Reference Reagent of pertussis antiserum (mouse) 97/642. Biologicals. 2001;29:137-48 pubmed
    ..These recommendations were agreed by the Expert Committee on Biological Standardization of the World Health Organization. ..
  45. Rowe J, Yerkovich S, Richmond P, Suriyaarachchi D, Fisher E, Feddema L, et al. Th2-associated local reactions to the acellular diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine in 4- to 6-year-old children. Infect Immun. 2005;73:8130-5 pubmed
    b>Acellular vaccines against diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (acellular pertussis) (DTaP) are being progressively introduced into vaccination programs worldwide, with the aim of reducing T-helper 1 (Th1)-associated reactogenicity associated ..
  46. MacDonald Fyall J, Xing D, Corbel M, Baillie S, Parton R, Coote J. Adjuvanticity of native and detoxified adenylate cyclase toxin of Bordetella pertussis towards co-administered antigens. Vaccine. 2004;22:4270-81 pubmed
    ..pertussis, but a statistically significant increase in protection was seen after intranasal challenge with B. parapertussis. ..
  47. Simondon F. Systematic review of the effects of pertussis vaccines in children. Vaccine. 2004;22:2965 pubmed
  48. Sheu G, Wo Y, Yao S, Chou F, Hsu T, Ju C, et al. Characteristics and potency of an acellular pertussis vaccine composed of pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, and pertactin. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2001;34:243-51 pubmed
    ..More importantly, in intracerebral challenge assay in mouse, this vaccine also provided a better protection than DTaP(J). ..
  49. Pichichero M, Casey J. Acellular pertussis vaccines for adolescents. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24:S117-26 pubmed
    ..Tdap vaccines appear safe and immunogenic. The economic impact of pertussis provides a cost-benefit justification for widespread use of Tdap vaccine boosting in adolescents. ..
  50. Knezevic I, Baca Estrada M, Xing D, Lei D. WHO Working Group meeting on standardization of acellular pertussis vaccines: Potency assay Beijing, China, 7-9 November 2007. Vaccine. 2008;26:3960-8 pubmed publisher
  51. Edmunds W, Brisson M, Melegaro A, Gay N. The potential cost-effectiveness of acellular pertussis booster vaccination in England and Wales. Vaccine. 2002;20:1316-30 pubmed
    ..Significant uncertainty remains regarding the epidemiology of pertussis and the impact of booster doses. Nevertheless, the introduction of acellular boosters, particularly at 4 years, has the potential to be cost-effective in the UK. ..
  52. Tatti K, Slade B, Patel M, Messonnier N, Jackson T, Kirkland K, et al. Real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of Bordetella pertussis DNA in acellular pertussis vaccines. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27:73-4 pubmed
    ..pertussis DNA by real-time PCR. ..
  53. Iskedjian M, De Serres G, Einarson T, Walker J. Economic impact of the introduction of an acellular pertussis vaccine in Canada: a 6-year analysis. Vaccine. 2010;28:714-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The Monte Carlo simulation confirmed the robustness of these results. Pertussis vaccination with AcE was cost-saving from the societal perspective and cost-effective from the Ministry of Health perspective. ..
  54. Blume S, Zanders M. Vaccine independence, local competences and globalisation: lessons from the history of pertussis vaccines. Soc Sci Med. 2006;63:1825-35 pubmed
    ..Results of our analysis from the Netherlands suggest, first, that the pressure to conform has become greater, and second, that the taken-for-granted globalism of today's vaccine system is in need of critical examination. ..
  55. Bonmarin I, Bouraoui L, Guiso N, Levy Bruhl D. [Pertussis: data collection and vaccinal strategy]. Med Mal Infect. 2009;39:271-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It highlights the difficulty to implement new vaccine strategies and the importance of data collection, stressing the need for a better consideration of hospital practitioners involved in public healthcare surveillance. ..
  56. Chan W, Maharjan R, Reeves P, Sintchenko V, Gilbert G, Lan R. Rapid and accurate typing of Bordetella pertussis targeting genes encoding acellular vaccine antigens using real time PCR and High Resolution Melt analysis. J Microbiol Methods. 2009;77:326-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These rapid methods are suitable for large-scale studies of vaccine-driven evolution of Bordetella pertussis. ..
  57. Bettinger J, Halperin S, De Serres G, Scheifele D, Tam T. The effect of changing from whole-cell to acellular pertussis vaccine on the epidemiology of hospitalized children with pertussis in Canada. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26:31-5 pubmed
    ..Improved control strategies are needed to reduce infections among infants too young for pertussis vaccination. ..
  58. Geier D, Geier M. An evaluation of serious neurological disorders following immunization: a comparison of whole-cell pertussis and acellular pertussis vaccines. Brain Dev. 2004;26:296-300 pubmed
    ..Controls were employed to evaluate potential biases in VAERS. Evaluations as to whether whole-cell and acellular vaccines were administered to populations of similar age and sex were undertaken because these factors might ..
  59. Freed G, Cowan A, Clark S, Santoli J, Bradley J. Use of a new combined vaccine in pediatric practices. Pediatrics. 2006;118:e251-7 pubmed
    ..Also, the role of the availability of a given vaccine through the Vaccines for Children program is important in its adoption into practice. ..
  60. Hallander H, Gustafsson L, Ljungman M, Storsaeter J. Pertussis antitoxin decay after vaccination with DTPa. Response to a first booster dose 3 1/2-6 1/2 years after the third vaccine dose. Vaccine. 2005;23:5359-64 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that a pre-school booster might be considered at 6 years of age or earlier. ..
  61. Lacombe K, Yam A, Simondon K, Pinchinat S, Simondon F. Risk factors for acellular and whole-cell pertussis vaccine failure in Senegalese children. Vaccine. 2004;23:623-8 pubmed
    ..However, they do not explain the shorter duration of protection provided by the acellular vaccine compared to the whole-cell vaccine which persist after controlling and thus might be related to the nature of the vaccine. ..
  62. McIntyre P, Turnbull F, Egan A, Burgess M, Wolter J, Schuerman L. High levels of antibody in adults three years after vaccination with a reduced antigen content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine. Vaccine. 2004;23:380-5 pubmed
    ..Adult-formulated dTpa vaccines could replace Td for routine booster vaccination of older individuals. ..
  63. Girard D. The distribution over time of costs and social net benefits for pertussis immunization programs. Int J Health Care Finance Econ. 2010;10:1-27 pubmed publisher
  64. Plosker G. Combined, reduced-antigen content tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Boostrix): a review of its use as a single-dose booster immunization in individuals aged 10-64 years in the US. BioDrugs. 2009;23:253-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, as a single-dose booster vaccine, Boostrix provides a useful option to reduce pertussis morbidity and maintain the standard of care for tetanus and diphtheria protection in individuals aged 10-64 years. ..
  65. Kuno Sakai H, Kimura M. Safety and efficacy of acellular pertussis vaccine in Japan, evaluated by 23 years of its use for routine immunization. Pediatr Int. 2004;46:650-5 pubmed
    ..With the use of acellular pertussis vaccine which has been accepted by the public, pertussis has been well controlled in Japan. ..
  66. Edelman K, He Q, Makinen J, Haanpera M, Tran Minh N, Schuerman L, et al. Pertussis-specific cell-mediated and humoral immunity in adolescents 3 years after booster immunization with acellular pertussis vaccine. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39:179-85 pubmed
    ..pertussis infection. ..
  67. Ross B, Czajkowski L, Vandenberg K, Camuglia S, Woods J, Agius C, et al. Characterization of two outer membrane protein antigens of Porphyromonas gingivalis that are protective in a murine lesion model. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2004;19:6-15 pubmed
    ..gingivalis murine lesion model and may be considered as potential vaccine candidates for further testing in models of human periodontal disease. ..
  68. Le Saux N, Barrowman N, Moore D, Whiting S, Scheifele D, Halperin S. Decrease in hospital admissions for febrile seizures and reports of hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes presenting to hospital emergency departments since switching to acellular pertussis vaccine in Canada: a report from IMPACT. Pediatrics. 2003;112:e348 pubmed
    ..Active surveillance systems are important for detecting trends in uncommon adverse events after routine immunizations. ..
  69. Canthaboo C, Xing D, Wei X, Corbel M. Investigation of role of nitric oxide in protection from Bordetella pertussis respiratory challenge. Infect Immun. 2002;70:679-84 pubmed
    ..iNOS-deficient mice also developed a less effective protective response than wild-type mice after the same immunization with WCV. This suggests that NO plays an important role in effecting protection against B. pertussis challenge. ..
  70. Isaka M, Yasuda Y, Taniguchi T, Kozuka S, Matano K, Maeyama J, et al. Mucosal and systemic antibody responses against an acellular pertussis vaccine in mice after intranasal co-administration with recombinant cholera toxin B subunit as an adjuvant. Vaccine. 2003;21:1165-73 pubmed
  71. Wu T, Bi J, Huang Y, Zhang Y, Sun L, Sun C, et al. [Effect of solution environment on the purification of pertussis toxin]. Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2008;24:1279-84 pubmed
    ..The results highlight the potential application of urea in the acellular pertussis vaccine (APV) manufacture procedure. ..
  72. Xing D, Corbel M, Dobbelaer R, Knezevic I. WHO working group on standardisation and control of acellular pertussis vaccines--report of a meeting held on 16-17 March 2006, St. Albans, United Kingdom. Vaccine. 2007;25:2749-57 pubmed
    ..Post-marketing surveillance was recognised as an important part of overall vaccine evaluation and a unique opportunity to understand vaccine performance in the population and to establish a link with quality control. ..
  73. Halperin S. The control of pertussis--2007 and beyond. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:110-3 pubmed
  74. DeNoel P, Godfroid F, Guiso N, Hallander H, Poolman J. Comparison of acellular pertussis vaccines-induced immunity against infection due to Bordetella pertussis variant isolates in a mouse model. Vaccine. 2005;23:5333-41 pubmed
    ..In this study, immunity induced by acellular vaccines against infection due to isolates expressing different pertactin types and fimbriae was monitored in a mouse ..
  75. Hallander H, Advani A, Donnelly D, Gustafsson L, Carlsson R. Shifts of Bordetella pertussis variants in Sweden from 1970 to 2003, during three periods marked by different vaccination programs. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:2856-65 pubmed
    ..e., the vaccination program so far has been effective against whooping cough, and there seems to be no impact on the effectiveness of the vaccination program from the bacterial polymorphism. ..
  76. Danek J, Czajka H, Jawor Bugajska M, Kruk W. [Vaccinations as a cause of children hospitalisation in Neuroinfection Department of the John Paul II Hospital in Cracow between 2002--2004]. Przegl Epidemiol. 2004;58 Suppl 1:117-22 pubmed
    ..However the most often to cause AEFI was vaccination DTP with full-cell pertussis component. ..
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    ..This observation may have implications for the timing of booster vaccinations in adults. ..
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    ..In view to their capacity to induce airways innate and protective immunity in the mouse model, OMVs obtained from B pertussis are candidates to be used to protect against pertussis. ..
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    ..This information has fostered the development of various vaccine candidates including acellular subunit, killed whole cell and live attenuated. This review summarizes the progress and promise of these various candidates...
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    ..Such knowledge of the IgG anti-PT decay kinetics is crucial for interpretation of serological data that will be used either for diagnosis or for epidemiological studies and surveillance of B. pertussis infections...
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    ..These factors may be relevant as immunization programs are expanded to include more adults generally. ..
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    ..A fifth dose of a DTPaPolio vaccine should be considered at 15-18 years of age. ..
  85. Patel S, Ortin M, Cohen B, Borrow R, Irving D, Sheldon J, et al. Revaccination of children after completion of standard chemotherapy for acute leukemia. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:635-42 pubmed
    ..Revaccination of children after standard chemotherapy is important, and protection can be achieved in the majority of these children using a simple schedule of 1 vaccine dose at 6 months after completion of leukemia therapy. ..
  86. Tsang R, Sill M, Martin I, Jamieson F. Genetic and antigenic analysis of Bordetella pertussis isolates recovered from clinical cases in Ontario, Canada, before and after the introduction of the acellular pertussis vaccine. Can J Microbiol. 2005;51:887-92 pubmed
    ..Further surveillance with clinical data and isolates collected periodically will be required to ensure that any genetic divergence that could affect vaccine efficacy will not be occurring. ..
  87. Kuno Sakai H, Kimura M, Watanabe H. Verification of components of acellular pertussis vaccines that have been distributed solely, been in routine use for the last two decades and contributed greatly to control of pertussis in Japan. Biologicals. 2004;32:29-35 pubmed
    ..The national monitoring system for adverse effects of routine immunization demonstrated low reactogenicity of DTaP in Japan. This resulted in high acceptance rates of DTaP and in virtual control of pertussis. ..
  88. Cyr T, Menzies A, Calver J, Whitehouse L. A quantitative analysis for the ADP-ribosylation activity of pertussis toxin: an enzymatic-HPLC coupled assay applicable to formulated whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccine products. Biologicals. 2001;29:81-95 pubmed
    ..advantage of being a universal method applicable to the assay of pertussis toxin in both whole cell and acellular vaccines as well as bulk and final formulated vaccine products...
  89. Vidor E, Plotkin S. Immunogenicity of a two-component (PT & FHA) acellular pertussis vaccine in various combinations. Hum Vaccin. 2008;4:328-40 pubmed
    ..The consistent immunogenicity of the DTaP(2Fr) vaccine is accompanied by effectiveness in controlling pertussis disease in the areas where it is used on a large scale with good vaccination coverage. ..
  90. Komatsu E, Yamaguchi F, Abe A, Weiss A, Watanabe M. Synergic effect of genotype changes in pertussis toxin and pertactin on adaptation to an acellular pertussis vaccine in the murine intranasal challenge model. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:807-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that an allele shift to the ptxA1 prn2 genotype may play a role in the emergence of pertussis in vaccinated populations...