subunit vaccines


Summary: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.

Top Publications

  1. Du L, He Y, Jiang S, Zheng B. Development of subunit vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome. Drugs Today (Barc). 2008;44:63-73 pubmed publisher
    ..After comparing current vaccine categories against SARS, this article will demonstrate the advantages of subunit vaccines, describe the current situation of developing subunit vaccines, and point out the possibility for further ..
  2. Black M, Trent A, Tirrell M, Olive C. Advances in the design and delivery of peptide subunit vaccines with a focus on toll-like receptor agonists. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2010;9:157-73 pubmed publisher
    ..A survey of recent approaches to developing peptide antigen delivery systems is given, many of which incorporate Toll-like receptor agonists into the design. ..
  3. Kaminski R, Oaks E. Inactivated and subunit vaccines to prevent shigellosis. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2009;8:1693-704 pubmed publisher
    ..Outlined here is an overview of multiple nonliving vaccine technologies, highlighting their current status and recent advances in testing. In addition, gaps in the knowledge base regarding immune mechanisms of protection are explored...
  4. Shen H, Zhou J, Huang Z, Guo J, Xing G, He J, et al. Protective immunity against porcine circovirus 2 by vaccination with ORF2-based DNA and subunit vaccines in mice. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:1857-65 pubmed publisher
    ..An open reading frame 2 plasmid (pORF2) and the capsid protein (Cap) of PCV2 were used as DNA and subunit vaccines, respectively...
  5. Kanduc D. "Self-nonself" peptides in the design of vaccines. Curr Pharm Des. 2009;15:3283-9 pubmed
    ..Biologically, the low-similarity hypothesis further supports sequence uniqueness as the molecular signature of "nonselfness" in the currently ongoing self/non-self debate. ..
  6. Rigano M, Manna C, Giulini A, Vitale A, Cardi T. Plants as biofactories for the production of subunit vaccines against bio-security-related bacteria and viruses. Vaccine. 2009;27:3463-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrated that the plant-based approach is feasible for manufacturing recombinant vaccines against bio-terror agents that could be mass-produced at reasonable cost. ..
  7. Chen S, Van Regenmortel M, Pellequer J. Structure-activity relationships in peptide-antibody complexes: implications for epitope prediction and development of synthetic peptide vaccines. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16:953-64 pubmed
  8. Agger E, Cassidy J, Brady J, Korsholm K, Vingsbo Lundberg C, Andersen P. Adjuvant modulation of the cytokine balance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis subunit vaccines; immunity, pathology and protection. Immunology. 2008;124:175-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We designed a panel of Ag85B-ESAT-6 subunit vaccines based on adjuvants with different Th1/Th2-promoting activities and studied cellular responses, bacterial ..
  9. Hebert A, Talarico S, Yang D, Durmaz R, Marrs C, Zhang L, et al. DNA polymorphisms in the pepA and PPE18 genes among clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: implications for vaccine efficacy. Infect Immun. 2007;75:5798-805 pubmed
    ..Thus, immunity induced by Mtb72F may not recognize a proportion of M. tuberculosis clinical strains. ..

More Information


  1. Nielsen M, Pinto V, Resende M, Dahlbäck M, Ditlev S, Theander T, et al. Induction of adhesion-inhibitory antibodies against placental Plasmodium falciparum parasites by using single domains of VAR2CSA. Infect Immun. 2009;77:2482-7 pubmed publisher
    ..As the inhibition was not limited to homologous parasite strains, it seems feasible to base a protective malaria vaccine on a single VAR2CSA DBL domain. ..
  2. Slingluff C, Petroni G, Chianese Bullock K, Smolkin M, Hibbitts S, Murphy C, et al. Immunologic and clinical outcomes of a randomized phase II trial of two multipeptide vaccines for melanoma in the adjuvant setting. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:6386-95 pubmed
    ..These data support continued investigation of complex multipeptide vaccines for melanoma. ..
  3. Klade C, Wedemeyer H, Berg T, Hinrichsen H, Cholewinska G, Zeuzem S, et al. Therapeutic vaccination of chronic hepatitis C nonresponder patients with the peptide vaccine IC41. Gastroenterology. 2008;134:1385-95 pubmed publisher
    ..However, changes in HCV RNA occurred only in single patients. Because strongest T-cell responses were associated with HCV RNA decline, further studies with optimized vaccine regimens and combination therapies have been initiated. ..
  4. Durando P, Fenoglio D, Boschini A, Ansaldi F, Icardi G, Sticchi L, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of two influenza virus subunit vaccines, with or without MF59 adjuvant, administered to human immunodeficiency virus type 1-seropositive and -seronegative adults. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15:253-9 pubmed
    ..both the safety and tolerability and the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses for two influenza virus subunit vaccines, one with MF59 adjuvant (Fluad) and one without an adjuvant (Agrippal), in healthy and in human ..
  5. Huisman W, Schrauwen E, Pas S, van Amerongen G, Rimmelzwaan G, Osterhaus A. Evaluation of ISCOM-adjuvanted subunit vaccines containing recombinant feline immunodeficiency virus Rev, OrfA and envelope protein in cats. Vaccine. 2008;26:2553-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, subunit vaccines containing recombinant FIV accessory proteins Rev and OrfA were evaluated in cats...
  6. Webb R, Smith T, Wright P, Brown J, Smith L. Production of catalytically inactive BoNT/A1 holoprotein and comparison with BoNT/A1 subunit vaccines against toxin subtypes A1, A2, and A3. Vaccine. 2009;27:4490-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Differences in protective immunity diminished after multiple vaccinations with either ciBoNT/A1 HP or BoNT/A1 H(c), and the survival rates were more comparable at the toxin levels used to challenge...
  7. de Boer S, Kortekaas J, Antonis A, Kant J, van Oploo J, Rottier P, et al. Rift Valley fever virus subunit vaccines confer complete protection against a lethal virus challenge. Vaccine. 2010;28:2330-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, absence of the nucleocapsid protein in either vaccine candidate facilitates the differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals using a commercial recombinant nucleocapsid protein-based indirect ELISA. ..
  8. Zeng R, Zhang Z, Mei X, Gong W, Wei L. Protective effect of a RSV subunit vaccine candidate G1F/M2 was enhanced by a HSP70-Like protein in mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;377:495-499 pubmed publisher
    ..We have engineered a subunit vaccine candidate G1F/M2. A major problem in developing subunit vaccines is their limited immunogenicity...
  9. Chianese Bullock K, Irvin W, Petroni G, Murphy C, Smolkin M, Olson W, et al. A multipeptide vaccine is safe and elicits T-cell responses in participants with advanced stage ovarian cancer. J Immunother. 2008;31:420-30 pubmed publisher
  10. Doherty T, Dietrich J, Billeskov R. Tuberculosis subunit vaccines: from basic science to clinical testing. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2007;7:1539-49 pubmed
    ..The selection of antigens on which new subunit vaccines are based represent the first fulfillment of the promise of proteomics and genomics, and the delivery systems ..
  11. Meyers A, Chakauya E, Shephard E, Tanzer F, Maclean J, Lynch A, et al. Expression of HIV-1 antigens in plants as potential subunit vaccines. BMC Biotechnol. 2008;8:53 pubmed publisher
    ..The p17/p24 protein effectively boosted T cell and humoral responses in mice primed by the DNA vaccine pTHGagC, showing that this plant-produced protein has potential for use as a vaccine. ..
  12. Davila J, Zhang L, Marrs C, Durmaz R, Yang Z. Assessment of the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis esxA, esxH, and fbpB genes among clinical isolates and its implication for the future immunization by new tuberculosis subunit vaccines Ag85B-ESAT-6 and Ag85B-TB10.4. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2010;2010:208371 pubmed publisher
    ..than the widely used Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has led to the development of two novel fusion protein subunit vaccines: Ag85B-ESAT-6 and Ag85B-TB10.4...
  13. Fischer N, Infante E, Ishikawa T, Blanchette C, Bourne N, Hoeprich P, et al. Conjugation to nickel-chelating nanolipoprotein particles increases the potency and efficacy of subunit vaccines to prevent West Nile encephalitis. Bioconjug Chem. 2010;21:1018-22 pubmed publisher
  14. Du L, Zhao G, He Y, Guo Y, Zheng B, Jiang S, et al. Receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV spike protein induces long-term protective immunity in an animal model. Vaccine. 2007;25:2832-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our findings suggest that RBD, which can induce protective antibodies to SARS-CoV, may be further developed as a safe and effective SARS subunit vaccine. ..
  15. Nesburn A, Bettahi I, Zhang X, Zhu X, Chamberlain W, Afifi R, et al. Topical/mucosal delivery of sub-unit vaccines that stimulate the ocular mucosal immune system. Ocul Surf. 2006;4:178-87 pubmed
    ..The future challenges and issues related to the ocular mucosal delivery of molecularly defined sub-unit vaccines are discussed. ..
  16. Doytchinova I, Flower D. VaxiJen: a server for prediction of protective antigens, tumour antigens and subunit vaccines. BMC Bioinformatics. 2007;8:4 pubmed
    ..The server can be used on its own or in combination with alignment-based prediction methods. It is freely-available online at the URL: ..
  17. Zhang Q, Xue X, Qu L, Pan W. Construction and evaluation of a multistage combination vaccine against malaria. Vaccine. 2007;25:2112-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the recombinant antigens are potential candidates for multistage combination vaccines against malarial parasite. ..
  18. Doytchinova I, Flower D. Identifying candidate subunit vaccines using an alignment-independent method based on principal amino acid properties. Vaccine. 2007;25:856-66 pubmed
    ..The prediction accuracy is 83% for the cross-validation and 80% for the external test set. Our approach is accurate and robust, and provides a potent tool for the in silico discovery of medically relevant subunit vaccines.
  19. van Diemen P, Dziva F, Abu Median A, Wallis T, van den Bosch H, Dougan G, et al. Subunit vaccines based on intimin and Efa-1 polypeptides induce humoral immunity in cattle but do not protect against intestinal colonisation by enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 or O26:H-. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2007;116:47-58 pubmed
    ..roles in intestinal colonisation of cattle by EHEC and are thus attractive candidates for the development of subunit vaccines. Immunisation of calves with the cell-binding domain of intimin subtypes beta or gamma via the intramuscular ..
  20. Olive C. Progress in M-protein-based subunit vaccines to prevent rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. Curr Opin Mol Ther. 2007;9:25-34 pubmed
    ..The development of subunit vaccine approaches targeting the M protein using various vaccine delivery technologies is the focus of this review. ..
  21. Purcell A, McCluskey J, Rossjohn J. More than one reason to rethink the use of peptides in vaccine design. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2007;6:404-14 pubmed
    ..We discuss the potential of peptide-based vaccines for the treatment of chronic viral diseases and cancer, and review recent developments in the field of peptide-based vaccines. ..
  22. Moutschen M, Leonard P, Sokal E, Smets F, Haumont M, Mazzu P, et al. Phase I/II studies to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant gp350 Epstein-Barr virus vaccine in healthy adults. Vaccine. 2007;25:4697-705 pubmed
    ..The gp350 vaccine formulations were immunogenic and induced gp350-specific antibody responses (including neutralising antibodies). ..
  23. Murthy A, Chambers J, Meier P, Zhong G, Arulanandam B. Intranasal vaccination with a secreted chlamydial protein enhances resolution of genital Chlamydia muridarum infection, protects against oviduct pathology, and is highly dependent upon endogenous gamma interferon production. Infect Immun. 2007;75:666-76 pubmed
    ..Together, these results demonstrate that secreted chlamydial antigens may be novel vaccine candidates to induce protective immunity. ..
  24. Bennekov T, Dietrich J, Rosenkrands I, Stryhn A, Doherty T, Andersen P. Alteration of epitope recognition pattern in Ag85B and ESAT-6 has a profound influence on vaccine-induced protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Eur J Immunol. 2006;36:3346-55 pubmed
  25. Levitz S. Aspergillus vaccines: Hardly worth studying or worthy of hard study?. Med Mycol. 2017;55:103-108 pubmed
    ..Advances in proteomics and glycomics have facilitated identification of candidate antigens for use in subunit vaccines. Novel adjuvants and delivery systems are becoming available that can skew vaccine responses toward those ..
  26. Tifrea D, Barta M, Pal S, Hefty P, de la Maza L. Computational modeling of TC0583 as a putative component of the Chlamydia muridarum V-type ATP synthase complex and assessment of its protective capabilities as a vaccine antigen. Microbes Infect. 2016;18:245-53 pubmed publisher
    Numerous Chlamydia trachomatis proteins have been identified as potential subunit vaccines, of which the major outer-membrane protein (MOMP) has, so far, proven the most efficacious...
  27. Karkada M, Weir G, Quinton T, Sammatur L, MacDonald L, Grant A, et al. A novel breast/ovarian cancer peptide vaccine platform that promotes specific type-1 but not Treg/Tr1-type responses. J Immunother. 2010;33:250-61 pubmed publisher
  28. Wang C, Liu L, Zhang Z, Yan Z, Yu C, Shao M, et al. Immunological and protective effects of Bordetella bronchiseptica subunit vaccines based on the recombinant N-terminal domain of dermonecrotic toxin. Int Immunopharmacol. 2015;28:952-9 pubmed publisher
    ..bronchiseptica infection. Our findings indicated that DNT-N has potential for development as an effective subunit vaccine to counteract the damage of B. bronchiseptica infection, especially when used conjointly with TPPPS. ..
  29. Kabanova A, Lilleri D. Analytic Vaccinology: Antibody-Driven Design of a Human Cytomegalovirus Subunit Vaccine. Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1403:167-86 pubmed publisher
    ..of the most relevant protective antigens has represented a considerable obstacle for the development of subunit vaccines against viral infections, including human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection...
  30. Saluja V, Amorij J, Kapteyn J, de Boer A, Frijlink H, Hinrichs W. A comparison between spray drying and spray freeze drying to produce an influenza subunit vaccine powder for inhalation. J Control Release. 2010;144:127-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that both optimized formulations are stable and have good inhalation characteristics. ..
  31. Chen Z, Wang X, Zhao N, Han L, Wang F, Li H, et al. Improving the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the EtMIC2 protein against Eimeria tenella infection through random mutagenesis. Vaccine. 2018;36:2435-2441 pubmed publisher
    ..Seven effective variant proteins were screened out and heterogeneously expressed in Escherichia coli as subunit vaccines. The protective efficacy of the variant proteins against E. tenella infections was then evaluated in chicken...
  32. Lo M, Nichol S, Spiropoulou C. Evaluation of luciferase and GFP-expressing Nipah viruses for rapid quantitative antiviral screening. Antiviral Res. 2014;106:53-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the development of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and soluble protein subunit vaccines have shown great promise, the paucity of effective antiviral drugs against NiV merits further exploration of ..
  33. Hoschler K, Gopal R, Andrews N, Saville M, Pepin S, Wood J, et al. Cross-neutralisation of antibodies elicited by an inactivated split-virion influenza A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (H5N1) vaccine in healthy adults against H5N1 clade 2 strains. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2007;1:199-206 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggests that use of reverse-genetic viruses in neutralisation assays may underestimate the extent of cross-protective antibody present following H5N1 vaccination. ..
  34. Moeller L, Taylor Vokes R, Fox S, Gan Q, Johnson L, Wang K. Wet-milling transgenic maize seed for fraction enrichment of recombinant subunit vaccine. Biotechnol Prog. 2010;26:458-65 pubmed publisher
  35. Royer D, Carr M, Chucair Elliott A, Halford W, Carr D. Impact of Type I Interferon on the Safety and Immunogenicity of an Experimental Live-Attenuated Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Vaccine in Mice. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the consistent failures of HSV subunit vaccines in clinical trials spanning the past 28 years, opposition to live-attenuated HSV vaccines predicated on ..
  36. Beltrán López J, Romero Maldonado A, Monreal Escalante E, Bañuelos Hernández B, Paz Maldonado L, Rosales Mendoza S. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplasts express an orally immunogenic protein targeting the p210 epitope implicated in atherosclerosis immunotherapies. Plant Cell Rep. 2016;35:1133-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering that Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an attractive host for the production and delivery of subunit vaccines, in this study a chimeric protein consisting of the B subunit of the cholera toxin and the p210 epitope from ..
  37. Sindoni D, La Fauci V, Squeri R, Cannavo G, Bacilieri S, Panatto D, et al. Comparison between a conventional subunit vaccine and the MF59-adjuvanted subunit influenza vaccine in the elderly: an evaluation of the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity. J Prev Med Hyg. 2009;50:121-6 pubmed
    ..this study was to evaluate and compare the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity for two seasonal influenza subunit vaccines, one with MF59 adjuvant (Fluad) and one without an adjuvant (Agrippal)...
  38. Venkateswarlu C, Arankalle V. Evaluation of the immunogenicity of a recombinant glycoprotein-based Chandipura vaccine in combination with commercially available DPT vaccine. Vaccine. 2010;28:1463-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, a combination vaccine seems feasible for use in a restricted area where the disease is endemic and should be subjected to additional studies required for future use in humans. ..
  39. Cadena A, Cushman T, ANDERSON C, Barsoumian H, Welsh J, Cortez M. Radiation and Anti-Cancer Vaccines: A Winning Combination. Vaccines (Basel). 2018;6: pubmed publisher
    ..looking to combining vaccine types such as toll-like receptors, viral components, dendritic-cell-based, and subunit vaccines with radiation...
  40. Marana M, Jørgensen L, Skov J, Chettri J, Holm Mattsson A, Dalsgaard I, et al. Subunit vaccine candidates against Aeromonas salmonicida in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0171944 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we tested the efficacy of experimental subunit vaccines against A. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout. We utilized in silico screening of the proteome of A...
  41. El Awady M, Tabll A, El Abd Y, Yousif H, Hegab M, Reda M, et al. Conserved peptides within the E2 region of Hepatitis C virus induce humoral and cellular responses in goats. Virol J. 2009;6:66 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that, besides E1 derived peptide p35 (a.a 315-323) described previously by this laboratory, E2 conserved peptides p37 and p38 represent essential components of a candidate peptide vaccine against HCV infection. ..
  42. Gupta N, Vedi S, Kunimoto D, Agrawal B, Kumar R. Novel lipopeptides of ESAT-6 induce strong protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Routes of immunization and TLR agonists critically impact vaccine's efficacy. Vaccine. 2016;34:5677-5688 pubmed publisher
    ..Peptide based subunit vaccines are attractive due to their safety and high specificity in eliciting immune responses, but small synthetic ..
  43. Luo Y, Ma X, Liu X, Lu X, Niu H, Yu H, et al. IL-28B down-regulates regulatory T cells but does not improve the protective immunity following tuberculosis subunit vaccine immunization. Int Immunol. 2016;28:77-85 pubmed publisher
    ..At last the immune responses were evaluated, and the mice primed with BCG and boosted by subunit vaccines were challenged with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv to evaluate the protective efficacy...
  44. Johannsen A, Genolet R, Legler D, Luther S, Luescher I. Definition of key variables for the induction of optimal NY-ESO-1-specific T cells in HLA transgene mice. J Immunol. 2010;185:3445-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide new opportunities for improving T cell cancer vaccines...
  45. Berecz B, Zelenyánszki H, Pólya S, Tamás Nyitrai C, Oszvald M. Plastid Molecular Pharming I. Production of Oral Vaccines via Plastid Transformation. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2017;17:1292-1315 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to the low cost of their cultivation, plants may represent viable alternative platforms for producing subunit vaccines. Genetic engineering of plastids is the innovation of the last three decades and has numerous benefits when ..
  46. Mothes Luksch N, Stumvoll S, Linhart B, Focke M, Krauth M, Hauswirth A, et al. Disruption of allergenic activity of the major grass pollen allergen Phl p 2 by reassembly as a mosaic protein. J Immunol. 2008;181:4864-73 pubmed
    ..The mosaic strategy is a general strategy for the reduction of allergenic activity of protein allergens and can be used to convert harmful allergens into safe vaccines. ..
  47. Qi Z, Zhou L, Zhang Q, Ren L, Dai R, Wu B, et al. Comparison of mouse, guinea pig and rabbit models for evaluation of plague subunit vaccine F1+rV270. Vaccine. 2010;28:1655-60 pubmed publisher
    ..colony-forming units (CFU) of virulent Yersinia pestis strain 141 was observed for mice immunized with the subunit vaccines and EV76 vaccine...
  48. Tigno Aranjuez J, Lehmann P, Tary Lehmann M. Dissociated induction of cytotoxicity and DTH by CFA and CpG. J Immunother. 2009;32:389-98 pubmed publisher
    ..These data have implications for CD8 T cell subunit vaccine design in which cytotoxicity versus DTH plays a key role in host defense. ..
  49. Li Q, Gordon M, Chackerian B, Alamed J, Ugen K, Morgan D. Virus-like peptide vaccines against Abeta N-terminal or C-terminal domains reduce amyloid deposition in APP transgenic mice without addition of adjuvant. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2010;5:133-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that (a) C-terminal specific vaccines can effectively lower Abeta and (b) IgM antibodies against Abeta may be capable of lowering Abeta, possibly through action in the brain rather than the periphery. ..
  50. Zhang W, Du X, Zhao G, Jin H, Kang Y, Xiao C, et al. Levamisole is a potential facilitator for the activation of Th1 responses of the subunit HBV vaccination. Vaccine. 2009;27:4938-46 pubmed publisher
  51. Wen Y, Collier J. Supramolecular peptide vaccines: tuning adaptive immunity. Curr Opin Immunol. 2015;35:73-9 pubmed publisher
    ..For synthetic or subunit vaccines, stimulation of strong enough immune responses usually requires adjuvants, which can cause local inflammation ..
  52. Choudhury S, Kakkar V, Suman P, Chakrabarti K, Vrati S, Gupta S. Immunogenicity of zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 and spermatozoa YLP(12) peptides presented on Johnson grass mosaic virus-like particles. Vaccine. 2009;27:2948-53 pubmed publisher
    ..005). Significant curtailment of fertility was also observed in animals immunized with adjuvnated ZP3 and YLP(12) synthetic peptides. These results suggest that VLPs can be used to present gamete epitopes for immunocontraception. ..
  53. Schwendener R, Ludewig B, Cerny A, Engler O. Liposome-based vaccines. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;605:163-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that liposomal formulations of peptide or plasmid-DNA vaccines are highly effective at direct in vivo antigen loading and activation of DC leading to protective antiviral and anti-tumor immune responses. ..
  54. Lucchese G, Stufano A, Kanduc D. Proposing low-similarity peptide vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2010;2010:832341 pubmed publisher
  55. Busse A, Letsch A, Scheibenbogen C, Nonnenmacher A, Ochsenreither S, Thiel E, et al. Mutation or loss of Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1) are not major reasons for immune escape in patients with AML receiving WT1 peptide vaccination. J Transl Med. 2010;8:5 pubmed publisher
    ..Defects in antigen presentation caused by loss or mutation of WT1 or downregulation of HLA molecules are not the major basis for escape from the immune response induced by WT1 peptide vaccination. ..
  56. Li G, Mitra S, Wong A. The epidermal growth factor variant III peptide vaccine for treatment of malignant gliomas. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2010;21:87-93 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, the authors discuss the preclinical data that led to the human trials and the exciting preliminary data from the clinical trials. ..
  57. Van Damme P, Arnou R, Kafeja F, Fiquet A, Richard P, Thomas S, et al. Evaluation of non-inferiority of intradermal versus adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine using two serological techniques: a randomised comparative study. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:134 pubmed publisher
    ..Intradermal vaccination to target the immune properties of the skin appears to be an appropriate strategy to address the challenge of declining immune responses in the elderly. NCT00554333. ..
  58. Iwahashi M, Katsuda M, Nakamori M, Nakamura M, Naka T, Ojima T, et al. Vaccination with peptides derived from cancer-testis antigens in combination with CpG-7909 elicits strong specific CD8+ T cell response in patients with metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Sci. 2010;101:2510-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This vaccine protocol is therefore recommended to undergo further phase II trials. ..
  59. Zhou G, Ma Y, Jia P, Guan Q, Uzonna J, Peng Z. Enhancement of IL-10 bioactivity using an IL-10 peptide-based vaccine exacerbates Leishmania major infection and improves airway inflammation in mice. Vaccine. 2010;28:1838-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that the IL-10 vaccine enhances the bioactivity of IL-10 in vitro and in vivo, providing a potential therapeutic approach in diseases associated with insufficient IL-10 production. ..
  60. Walker J, Ghosh S, Pagnon J, Colantoni C, Newbold A, Zeng W, et al. Totally synthetic peptide-based immunocontraceptive vaccines show activity in dogs of different breeds. Vaccine. 2007;25:7111-9 pubmed
    ..The results provide a strategy for development of an immunocontraceptive vaccine for use in multiple breeds of dogs. ..
  61. Berhanu A, Wilson R, Kirkwood Watts D, King D, Warren T, Lund S, et al. Vaccination of BALB/c mice with Escherichia coli-expressed vaccinia virus proteins A27L, B5R, and D8L protects mice from lethal vaccinia virus challenge. J Virol. 2008;82:3517-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that a subunit vaccine incorporating bacterially expressed IMV- and EEV-specific proteins can be effective in stimulating anti-vaccinia virus immune responses and providing protection against lethal virus challenge. ..
  62. Cho H, Celis E. Optimized peptide vaccines eliciting extensive CD8 T-cell responses with therapeutic antitumor effects. Cancer Res. 2009;69:9012-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that similar strategies would be applicable for the design of effective vaccination for conducting clinical studies in cancer patients. ..
  63. Leroux Roels I, Roman F, Forgus S, Maes C, De Boever F, Drame M, et al. Priming with AS03 A-adjuvanted H5N1 influenza vaccine improves the kinetics, magnitude and durability of the immune response after a heterologous booster vaccination: an open non-randomised extension of a double-blind randomised primary study. Vaccine. 2010;28:849-57 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, priming without adjuvant appears to inhibit the response to subsequent vaccination with a heterologous strain. These findings should guide the development of vaccines to combat the present influenza A/H1N1 pandemic. ..
  64. Bertholet S, Goto Y, Carter L, Bhatia A, Howard R, Carter D, et al. Optimized subunit vaccine protects against experimental leishmaniasis. Vaccine. 2009;27:7036-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This study establishes the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the improved Leish-110f subunit vaccine antigen adjuvanted with natural (MPL-SE) or synthetic (EM005) Toll-like receptor 4 agonists. ..
  65. He G, Wang T, Yang G, Fei Y, Zhang Z, Wang C, et al. Sequence analysis of Bs-Ag2 gene from Baylisascaris schroederi of giant panda and evaluation of the efficacy of a recombinant Bs-Ag2 antigen in mice. Vaccine. 2009;27:3007-11 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). Our data supported the use of Bs-Ag2 as a potential candidate for vaccination against B. schroederi infection...
  66. Baldwin S, Bertholet S, Kahn M, Zharkikh I, Ireton G, Vedvick T, et al. Intradermal immunization improves protective efficacy of a novel TB vaccine candidate. Vaccine. 2009;27:3063-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The ID83 subunit vaccines containing synthetic TLR4 or TLR9 agonists generated a T helper-1 immune response and protected mice against ..
  67. Wu K, Zhang X, Shi J, Li N, Li D, Luo M, et al. Immunization with a combination of three pneumococcal proteins confers additive and broad protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae Infections in Mice. Infect Immun. 2010;78:1276-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that system immunization with the combination of pneumococcal antigens could provide an additive and broad protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae in pneumonia and sepsis infection models. ..
  68. Chen S, Barankiewicz T, Yang Y, Goebel P, Liu F. IgE peptide-specific CTL inhibit IgE production: a transient IgE suppression model in wild-type and HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice. Cell Immunol. 2008;254:28-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these observations indicate that a CTL-based IgE peptide vaccine targeting IgE-secreting B/plasma cells may be safely employed as a therapeutic approach for suppressing IgE production. ..
  69. Mizrachi Nebenzahl Y, Bernstein A, Portnoi M, Shagan M, Rom S, Porgador A, et al. Streptococcus pneumoniae surface-exposed glutamyl tRNA synthetase, a putative adhesin, is able to induce a partially protective immune response in mice. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:945-53 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that GtS, an age-dependent S. pneumoniae antigen, is a surface-located adhesin that is capable of inducing a partially protective immune response against S. pneumoniae in mice. ..
  70. Colombetti S, Lévy F, Chapatte L. IL-7 adjuvant treatment enhances long-term tumor-antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell responses after immunization with recombinant lentivector. Blood. 2009;113:6629-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these data show that IL-7 adjuvant treatment can enhance long-term antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell responses. However, its efficacy depends on the expression of IL-7Ralpha at the surface of effector CD8+ T cells. ..
  71. Naylor P, Hernandez K, Nixon A, Brandwein H, Haas G, Wang C, et al. IRX-2 increases the T cell-specific immune response to protein/peptide vaccines. Vaccine. 2010;28:7054-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these studies, IRX-2 is a candidate for evaluation as a T cell adjuvant in a variety of preclinical vaccine delivery systems as well as in human clinical trials with cancer vaccine candidates. ..
  72. Keitel W, Groth N, Lattanzi M, Praus M, Hilbert A, Borkowski A, et al. Dose ranging of adjuvant and antigen in a cell culture H5N1 influenza vaccine: safety and immunogenicity of a phase 1/2 clinical trial. Vaccine. 2010;28:840-8 pubmed publisher
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    ..The results suggest that focusing of the antibody response against synthetic peptides can be improved by decreasing the antigenic complexity of the phage surface. ..
  74. Liu L, Zeng H, Luo P, Wu J, Chen H, Shi Y, et al. Cloning a truncated fragment (stx2a(1)) of the shiga-like toxin 2A (1) subunit of EHEC O157:H7: candidate immunogen for a subunit vaccine. Mol Biotechnol. 2009;43:8-14 pubmed publisher
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    ..We conclude that MAGE-A3.DP4 vaccination can produce CD4(+) T cells that may exert regulatory T-cell function in vivo. ..
  76. Yutani S, Komatsu N, Shichijo S, Yoshida K, Takedatsu H, Itou M, et al. Phase I clinical study of a peptide vaccination for hepatitis C virus-infected patients with different human leukocyte antigen-class I-A alleles. Cancer Sci. 2009;100:1935-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of its tolerability and higher rate of immune boosting, this protocol is recommended for a phase II study to investigate its clinical efficacy. ..
  77. Cline G, Wilt V, Diaz E, Edler R. Efficacy of immunising pigs against porcine circovirus type 2 at three or six weeks of age. Vet Rec. 2008;163:737-40 pubmed
    ..6 per cent and 3.1 per cent for the pigs vaccinated at three weeks and six weeks, respectively. The vaccinated pigs also had a significantly higher mean daily weight gain and a smaller load of humoral pcv-2 than the unvaccinated pigs. ..
  78. Mett V, Farrance C, Green B, Yusibov V. Plants as biofactories. Biologicals. 2008;36:354-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Vidadi Yusibov of Fraunhofer USA Center for Molecular Biotechnology at the IABS International Scientific Workshop on NEW CELLS FOR NEW VACCINES II that was held in Wilmington, Delaware on September 17-19, 2007. ..
  79. Mochimaru H, Nagai N, Hasegawa G, Kudo Saito C, Yaguchi T, Usui Y, et al. Suppression of choroidal neovascularization by dendritic cell vaccination targeting VEGFR2. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:4795-801 pubmed
    ..Results of the present study suggested the possibility of DC vaccination targeting VEGFR2 as a novel therapeutic strategy for CNV. ..
  80. Lewitus G, Cohen H, Schwartz M. Reducing post-traumatic anxiety by immunization. Brain Behav Immun. 2008;22:1108-14 pubmed publisher
  81. Sakhatskyy P, Wang S, Zhang C, Chou T, Kishko M, Lu S. Immunogenicity and protection efficacy of subunit-based smallpox vaccines using variola major antigens. Virology. 2008;371:98-107 pubmed
    ..Vaccinated mice were protected from intraperitoneal and intranasal challenges with VACV. These results suggest the feasibility of a subunit smallpox vaccine based on VARV antigen sequences to induce immunity against poxvirus infection. ..
  82. Zhu F, Zhou W, Pan H, Lu L, Gerez L, Nauta J, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of two subunit influenza vaccines in healthy children, adults and the elderly: a randomized controlled trial in China. Vaccine. 2008;26:4579-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Both vaccines were well tolerated and safe. In this trial, Influvac and Agrippal were immunogenic, safe and well tolerated in healthy children as well as in adults and elderly people. ..