malaria vaccines


Summary: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.

Top Publications

  1. Reyes Sandoval A, Wyllie D, Bauza K, Milicic A, Forbes E, Rollier C, et al. CD8+ T effector memory cells protect against liver-stage malaria. J Immunol. 2011;187:1347-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we identify persistent CD8 T(EM) populations as essential for vaccine-induced pre-erythrocytic protection against malaria, a finding that has important implications for vaccine design. ..
  2. de Cassan S, Forbes E, Douglas A, Milicic A, Singh B, Gupta P, et al. The requirement for potent adjuvants to enhance the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of protein vaccines can be overcome by prior immunization with a recombinant adenovirus. J Immunol. 2011;187:2602-16 pubmed publisher
  3. Ma C, Wang L, Webster D, Campbell A, Coppel R. Production, characterisation and immunogenicity of a plant-made Plasmodium antigen--the 19 kDa C-terminal fragment of Plasmodium yoelii merozoite surface protein 1. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;94:151-61 pubmed publisher
  4. Epstein J, Tewari K, Lyke K, Sim B, Billingsley P, Laurens M, et al. Live attenuated malaria vaccine designed to protect through hepatic CD8? T cell immunity. Science. 2011;334:475-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that intravenous administration of this vaccine will lead to the prevention of infection with Pf malaria. ..
  5. Bélard S, Issifou S, Hounkpatin A, Schaumburg F, Ngoa U, Esen M, et al. A randomized controlled phase Ib trial of the malaria vaccine candidate GMZ2 in African children. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22525 pubmed publisher
    ..This result confirms previous findings in naïve and malaria-exposed adults and supports further clinical development of GMZ2. NCT00703066. ..
  6. Wenger E, Eckhoff P. A mathematical model of the impact of present and future malaria vaccines. Malar J. 2013;12:126 pubmed publisher
    ..The impact of potential malaria vaccines is presented utilizing the EMOD model, a comprehensive model of the vector life cycle coupled to a detailed ..
  7. de Cassan S, Draper S. Recent advances in antibody-inducing poxviral and adenoviral vectored vaccine delivery platforms for difficult disease targets. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2013;12:365-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies in this area are needed to guide the rational design of antibody-inducing subunit vaccine strategies...
  8. Anders R. The case for a subunit vaccine against malaria. Trends Parasitol. 2011;27:330-4 pubmed publisher
  9. Carey J, Pearson F, Vrdoljak A, McGrath M, Crean A, Walsh P, et al. Microneedle array design determines the induction of protective memory CD8+ T cell responses induced by a recombinant live malaria vaccine in mice. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22442 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Mishra S, Rai U, Shiratsuchi T, Li X, Vanloubbeeck Y, Cohen J, et al. Identification of non-CSP antigens bearing CD8 epitopes in mice immunized with irradiated sporozoites. Vaccine. 2011;29:7335-42 pubmed publisher
    ..When mice were immunized with recombinant adenoviruses expressing selected non-CSP antigens, the animals were not protected against challenge with P. yoelii sporozoites although large numbers of CD8(+) specific T cells were generated. ..
  2. Tetteh K, Conway D. A polyvalent hybrid protein elicits antibodies against the diverse allelic types of block 2 in Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1. Vaccine. 2011;29:7811-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This encourages further development and evaluation of the full MSP1 block 2 polyvalent hybrid protein as a candidate blood-stage component of a malaria vaccine. ..
  3. Laurens M, Duncan C, Epstein J, Hill A, Komisar J, Lyke K, et al. A consultation on the optimization of controlled human malaria infection by mosquito bite for evaluation of candidate malaria vaccines. Vaccine. 2012;30:5302-4 pubmed publisher
    Early clinical investigations of candidate malaria vaccines and antimalarial medications increasingly employ an established model of controlled human malaria infection (CHMI)...
  4. Doud M, Koksal A, Mi L, Song G, Lu C, Springer T. Unexpected fold in the circumsporozoite protein target of malaria vaccines. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:7817-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Elucidation of a unique structure of a domain within CS enables rational design of next-generation subunit vaccines and functional and medicinal chemical investigation of the conserved hydrophobic pocket. ..
  5. Biswas S, Spencer A, Forbes E, Gilbert S, Holder A, Hill A, et al. Recombinant viral-vectored vaccines expressing Plasmodium chabaudi AS apical membrane antigen 1: mechanisms of vaccine-induced blood-stage protection. J Immunol. 2012;188:5041-53 pubmed publisher
  6. Moon J, Suh H, Li A, Ockenhouse C, Yadava A, Irvine D. Enhancing humoral responses to a malaria antigen with nanoparticle vaccines that expand Tfh cells and promote germinal center induction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:1080-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, NP vaccines may be a promising strategy to enhance the durability, breadth, and potency of humoral immunity by enhancing key elements of the B-cell response. ..
  7. Richards J, Arumugam T, Reiling L, Healer J, Hodder A, Fowkes F, et al. Identification and prioritization of merozoite antigens as targets of protective human immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria for vaccine and biomarker development. J Immunol. 2013;191:795-809 pubmed publisher
    The development of effective malaria vaccines and immune biomarkers of malaria is a high priority for malaria control and elimination...
  8. Mwangoka G, Ogutu B, Msambichaka B, Mzee T, Salim N, Kafuruki S, et al. Experience and challenges from clinical trials with malaria vaccines in Africa. Malar J. 2013;12:86 pubmed publisher
    b>Malaria vaccines are considered amongst the most important modalities for potential elimination of malaria disease and transmission...
  9. Tse S, Radtke A, Zavala F. Induction and maintenance of protective CD8+ T cells against malaria liver stages: implications for vaccine development. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2011;106 Suppl 1:172-8 pubmed
  10. Mourão L, Morais C, Bueno L, Jimenez M, Soares I, Fontes C, et al. Naturally acquired antibodies to Plasmodium vivax blood-stage vaccine candidates (PvMSP-1?? and PvMSP-3???????? and their relationship with hematological features in malaria patients from the Brazilian Amazon. Microbes Infect. 2012;14:730-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results confirm the high immunogenicity of the conserved C terminus of PvMSP-1 and points to the considerable immunogenicity of polymorphic PvMSP-3???????? during natural infection...
  11. Kusi K, Faber B, van der Eijk M, Thomas A, Kocken C, Remarque E. Immunization with different PfAMA1 alleles in sequence induces clonal imprint humoral responses that are similar to responses induced by the same alleles as a vaccine cocktail in rabbits. Malar J. 2011;10:40 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may have implications for the current understanding of the natural acquisition of clinical immunity to malaria as well as for rational vaccine design. ..
  12. Greenwood B, Targett G. Malaria vaccines and the new malaria agenda. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17:1600-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It is likely vaccines that are effective enough to block transmission, and thus contribute to increasing drives towards malaria elimination, will need to contain antigens from different stages of the parasite's life cycle. ..
  13. Cheng Y, Wang Y, Ito D, Kong D, Ha K, Chen J, et al. The Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 1 paralog is a novel erythrocyte-binding ligand of P. vivax. Infect Immun. 2013;81:1585-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide further evidence that the PvMSP1P might be an essential parasite adhesion molecule in the P. vivax merozoite and is a potential vaccine candidate against P. vivax. ..
  14. Palacpac N, Arisue N, Tougan T, Ishii K, Horii T. Plasmodium falciparum serine repeat antigen 5 (SE36) as a malaria vaccine candidate. Vaccine. 2011;29:5837-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The current understanding of SERA5 will be presented, particularly in relation to its path towards clinical development. The review highlights lessons learned and sorts out issues upon which further research efforts are needed. ..
  15. Han E, Wang Y, Lim C, Cho J, Chai J. Genetic diversity of the malaria vaccine candidate merozoite surface protein 1 gene of Plasmodium vivax field isolates in Republic of Korea. Parasitol Res. 2011;109:1571-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that allelic diversity of Pvmsp-1 increased in several variable regions, including the N- and C-terminals, after reemergence of P. vivax parasites in the Republic of Korea. ..
  16. Capone S, D Alise A, Ammendola V, Colloca S, Cortese R, Nicosia A, et al. Development of chimpanzee adenoviruses as vaccine vectors: challenges and successes emerging from clinical trials. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2013;12:379-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Here the authors review the recent findings of this novel class of adenovirus vectors and compare their properties to other clinical stage vaccine vectors derived from poxvirus, alphavirus and human adenovirus. ..
  17. White M, Bejon P, Olotu A, Griffin J, Riley E, Kester K, et al. The relationship between RTS,S vaccine-induced antibodies, CD4? T cell responses and protection against Plasmodium falciparum infection. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61395 pubmed publisher
    ..falciparum infection, a small number of parasites (often the progeny of a single surviving sporozoite) are responsible for breakthrough blood-stage infections. ..
  18. Guilbride D, Guilbride P, Gawlinski P. Malaria's deadly secret: a skin stage. Trends Parasitol. 2012;28:142-50 pubmed publisher
  19. Ndungu F, Mwacharo J, Kimani D, Kai O, Moris P, Jongert E, et al. A statistical interaction between circumsporozoite protein-specific T cell and antibody responses and risk of clinical malaria episodes following vaccination with RTS,S/AS01E. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52870 pubmed publisher
    ..002). Vaccination strategies that combine potent cellular and antibody responses may enhance protection against malaria. ..
  20. Sirima S, Cousens S, Druilhe P. Protection against malaria by MSP3 candidate vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:1062-4 pubmed publisher
  21. Agnandji S, Fendel R, Mestré M, Janssens M, Vekemans J, Held J, et al. Induction of Plasmodium falciparum-specific CD4+ T cells and memory B cells in Gabonese children vaccinated with RTS,S/AS01(E) and RTS,S/AS02(D). PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18559 pubmed publisher
    ..falciparum CS protein. NCT00307021. ..
  22. Shimp R, Rowe C, Reiter K, Chen B, Nguyen V, Aebig J, et al. Development of a Pfs25-EPA malaria transmission blocking vaccine as a chemically conjugated nanoparticle. Vaccine. 2013;31:2954-62 pubmed publisher
    ..A phase 1 human trial using the Pfs25-EPA/Alhydrogel(®) formulation is ongoing in the United States. ..
  23. Teixeira L, Tararam C, Lasaro M, Camacho A, Ersching J, Leal M, et al. Immunogenicity of a prime-boost vaccine containing the circumsporozoite proteins of Plasmodium vivax in rodents. Infect Immun. 2014;82:793-807 pubmed publisher
    ..The vaccine formulations described in this work should be useful for the further development of an anti-P. vivax vaccine. ..
  24. Sinden R, Carter R, Drakeley C, Leroy D. The biology of sexual development of Plasmodium: the design and implementation of transmission-blocking strategies. Malar J. 2012;11:70 pubmed publisher
  25. Schwartz L, Brown G, Genton B, Moorthy V. A review of malaria vaccine clinical projects based on the WHO rainbow table. Malar J. 2012;11:11 pubmed publisher
    ..Field trials of several research malaria vaccines have also confirmed that it is possible to impact the host-parasite relationship through vaccine-induced ..
  26. Regules J, Cummings J, Ockenhouse C. The RTS,S vaccine candidate for malaria. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2011;10:589-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research to optimize and improve vaccine efficacy is ongoing. ..
  27. Lumsden J, Schwenk R, Rein L, Moris P, Janssens M, Ofori Anyinam O, et al. Protective immunity induced with the RTS,S/AS vaccine is associated with IL-2 and TNF-? producing effector and central memory CD4 T cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20775 pubmed publisher
    ..We have, therefore, demonstrated that in addition to TNF-?, IL-2 is also a significant contributing factor to RTS,S/AS vaccine induced immunity and that both T(E/EM) and T(CM) cells are major producers of IL-2. ..
  28. Biswas S, Dicks M, Long C, Remarque E, Siani L, Colloca S, et al. Transgene optimization, immunogenicity and in vitro efficacy of viral vectored vaccines expressing two alleles of Plasmodium falciparum AMA1. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20977 pubmed publisher
    ..falciparum in vitro. These data support the further clinical development of these vaccine candidates in Phase I/IIa clinical trials. ..
  29. Butler N, Vaughan A, Harty J, Kappe S. Whole parasite vaccination approaches for prevention of malaria infection. Trends Immunol. 2012;33:247-54 pubmed publisher
  30. Arevalo Herrera M, Solarte Y, Marin C, Santos M, Castellanos J, Beier J, et al. Malaria transmission blocking immunity and sexual stage vaccines for interrupting malaria transmission in Latin America. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2011;106 Suppl 1:202-11 pubmed
    ..Here, we review the progress that has been achieved in TBI studies and the development of TBV and we highlight their potential usefulness in areas of low endemicity such as Latin America. ..
  31. Doi M, Tanabe K, Tachibana S, Hamai M, Tachibana M, Mita T, et al. Worldwide sequence conservation of transmission-blocking vaccine candidate Pvs230 in Plasmodium vivax. Vaccine. 2011;29:4308-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional and/or structural constraints may limit the level of polymorphism in pvs230. The observed limited polymorphism in pvs230 should ground for utilization of Pvs230 as an effective transmission-blocking vaccine. ..
  32. Asante K, Abdulla S, Agnandji S, Lyimo J, Vekemans J, Soulanoudjingar S, et al. Safety and efficacy of the RTS,S/AS01E candidate malaria vaccine given with expanded-programme-on-immunisation vaccines: 19 month follow-up of a randomised, open-label, phase 2 trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011;11:741-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The 0, 1, 2 month vaccine schedule has been selected for phase 3 candidate vaccine assessment. Program for Appropriate Technology in Health Malaria Vaccine Initiative; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals. ..
  33. McCarthy J, Marjason J, Elliott S, Fahey P, Bang G, Malkin E, et al. A phase 1 trial of MSP2-C1, a blood-stage malaria vaccine containing 2 isoforms of MSP2 formulated with Montanide® ISA 720. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24413 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in view of the reactogenicity of this formulation, further clinical development of MSP2-C1 will require formulation of MSP2 in an alternative adjuvant. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry 12607000552482. ..
  34. Baumann A, Magris M, Urbaez M, Vivas Martinez S, Durán R, Nieves T, et al. Naturally acquired immune responses to malaria vaccine candidate antigens MSP3 and GLURP in Guahibo and Piaroa indigenous communities of the Venezuelan Amazon. Malar J. 2012;11:46 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering the low incidence of P. falciparum, submicroscopical infections may explain the comparatively high anti-P. falciparum antibody concentrations. ..
  35. Bingham A, Gaspar F, Lancaster K, Conjera J, Collymore Y, Ba Nguz A. Community perceptions of malaria and vaccines in two districts of Mozambique. Malar J. 2012;11:394 pubmed publisher
    ..A communications strategy would need to build on existing immunization efforts and use trusted sources-including current government dissemination arrangements-to deliver health information. ..
  36. Williams A, Douglas A, Miura K, Illingworth J, Choudhary P, Murungi L, et al. Enhancing blockade of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte invasion: assessing combinations of antibodies against PfRH5 and other merozoite antigens. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002991 pubmed publisher
    ..falciparum antigens and should help to guide the rational development of future multi-antigen vaccines. ..
  37. Mahdi Abdel Hamid M, Remarque E, van Duivenvoorde L, van der Werff N, Walraven V, Faber B, et al. Vaccination with Plasmodium knowlesi AMA1 formulated in the novel adjuvant co-vaccine HT™ protects against blood-stage challenge in rhesus macaques. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20547 pubmed publisher
  38. Espinosa D, Yadava A, Angov E, Maurizio P, Ockenhouse C, Zavala F. Development of a chimeric Plasmodium berghei strain expressing the repeat region of the P. vivax circumsporozoite protein for in vivo evaluation of vaccine efficacy. Infect Immun. 2013;81:2882-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The chimeric parasites we developed represent a robust model for evaluating protective immune responses against P. vivax vaccines based on CSP. ..
  39. Duncan C, Hill A, Ellis R. Can growth inhibition assays (GIA) predict blood-stage malaria vaccine efficacy?. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2012;8:706-14 pubmed publisher
    ..More work is needed to establish the utility of GIA for blood-stage vaccine development. ..
  40. Fox C, Baldwin S, Vedvick T, Angov E, Reed S. Effects on immunogenicity by formulations of emulsion-based adjuvants for malaria vaccines. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:1633-40 pubmed
    New malaria vaccines are urgently needed to improve vaccine protective efficacy...
  41. Engwerda C, Minigo G, Amante F, McCarthy J. Experimentally induced blood stage malaria infection as a tool for clinical research. Trends Parasitol. 2012;28:515-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of IBSM, and finish by describing some exciting new areas of research that have been made possible by this system. ..
  42. Swysen C, Vekemans J, Bruls M, Oyakhirome S, Drakeley C, Kremsner P, et al. Development of standardized laboratory methods and quality processes for a phase III study of the RTS, S/AS01 candidate malaria vaccine. Malar J. 2011;10:223 pubmed publisher
    ..It is expected these activities will culminate in healthcare benefits for the subjects and communities participating in these trials. NCT00866619. ..
  43. Muellenbeck M, Ueberheide B, Amulic B, Epp A, Fenyo D, Busse C, et al. Atypical and classical memory B cells produce Plasmodium falciparum neutralizing antibodies. J Exp Med. 2013;210:389-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the memory B cell response to natural Pf infection may be key to the development of a malaria vaccine that induces long-lived protection. ..
  44. Ogwang C, Afolabi M, Kimani D, Jagne Y, Sheehy S, Bliss C, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of heterologous prime-boost immunisation with Plasmodium falciparum malaria candidate vaccines, ChAd63 ME-TRAP and MVA ME-TRAP, in healthy Gambian and Kenyan adults. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57726 pubmed publisher
  45. Roestenberg M, O Hara G, Duncan C, Epstein J, Edwards N, Scholzen A, et al. Comparison of clinical and parasitological data from controlled human malaria infection trials. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38434 pubmed publisher Plasmodium falciparum-infected mosquitoes is an accepted tool to evaluate preliminary efficacy of malaria vaccines. To accommodate the demand of the malaria vaccine pipeline, controlled infections are carried out in an ..
  46. Forbes E, de Cassan S, Llewellyn D, Biswas S, Goodman A, Cottingham M, et al. T cell responses induced by adenoviral vectored vaccines can be adjuvanted by fusion of antigen to the oligomerization domain of C4b-binding protein. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44943 pubmed publisher
    ..The oligomerization domain of C4 bp can thus adjuvant T cell responses induced by AdHu5 vectors against selected antigens and its clinical utility as well as mechanism of action warrant further investigation. ..
  47. Agnandji S, Lell B, Fernandes J, Abossolo B, Methogo B, Kabwende A, et al. A phase 3 trial of RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine in African infants. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:2284-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Funded by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals and the PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative; RTS,S number, NCT00866619.). ..
  48. Hafalla J, Silvie O, Matuschewski K. Cell biology and immunology of malaria. Immunol Rev. 2011;240:297-316 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the molecular and immunological mechanisms of the crosstalk between the parasite and the host is a prerequisite for the rational discovery and development of a safe, affordable, and protective anti-malaria vaccine. ..
  49. Annoura T, Ploemen I, van Schaijk B, Sajid M, Vos M, van Gemert G, et al. Assessing the adequacy of attenuation of genetically modified malaria parasite vaccine candidates. Vaccine. 2012;30:2662-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we propose a minimal set of screening criteria to assess adequacy of sporozoite attenuation necessary before advancing into further clinical development and studies in humans...
  50. Thera M, Doumbo O, Coulibaly D, Laurens M, Ouattara A, Kone A, et al. A field trial to assess a blood-stage malaria vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:1004-13 pubmed publisher
    Blood-stage malaria vaccines are intended to prevent clinical disease. The malaria vaccine FMP2...
  51. Cowan G, Creasey A, Dhanasarnsombut K, Thomas A, Remarque E, Cavanagh D. A malaria vaccine based on the polymorphic block 2 region of MSP-1 that elicits a broad serotype-spanning immune response. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26616 pubmed publisher
    ..The target population for such a vaccine is young children and vulnerable adults, to accelerate the acquisition of a full range of malaria protective antibodies against this polymorphic parasite antigen. ..
  52. Douglas A, Williams A, Illingworth J, Kamuyu G, Biswas S, Goodman A, et al. The blood-stage malaria antigen PfRH5 is susceptible to vaccine-inducible cross-strain neutralizing antibody. Nat Commun. 2011;2:601 pubmed publisher
    ..falciparum is a degenerate process involving a series of parallel redundant pathways. ..
  53. Clark E, Silva C, Weiss G, Li S, Padilla C, Crompton P, et al. Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Peruvian Amazon, a region of low transmission, is associated with immunologic memory. Infect Immun. 2012;80:1583-92 pubmed publisher
    ..This evidence supports our hypothesis that effective antimalaria humoral immunity can develop in low-transmission regions. ..
  54. Leach A, Vekemans J, Lievens M, Ofori Anyinam O, Cahill C, Owusu Agyei S, et al. Design of a phase III multicenter trial to evaluate the efficacy of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine in children across diverse transmission settings in Africa. Malar J. 2011;10:224 pubmed publisher NCT00866619. ..
  55. Zeeshan M, Alam M, Vinayak S, Bora H, Tyagi R, Alam M, et al. Genetic variation in the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein in India and its relevance to RTS,S malaria vaccine. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43430 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this study provides an insight on the existing polymorphisms in the CSP in a parasite population from India that could potentially influence the efficacy of RTS,S vaccine in this region. ..
  56. Bergmann Leitner E, Duncan E, Mease R, Angov E. Impact of pre-existing MSP1(42)-allele specific immunity on potency of an erythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum vaccine. Malar J. 2012;11:315 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study was to model the effect of pre-existing immunity to MSP142 on the immunogenicity of blood-stage malaria vaccines based on alternative MSP1 alleles. Inbred and outbred mice were immunized with various recombinant P...
  57. Lousada Dietrich S, Jogdand P, Jepsen S, Pinto V, Ditlev S, Christiansen M, et al. A synthetic TLR4 agonist formulated in an emulsion enhances humoral and Type 1 cellular immune responses against GMZ2--a GLURP-MSP3 fusion protein malaria vaccine candidate. Vaccine. 2011;29:3284-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, GLA helps to elicit a vaccine-specific Type 1 antibody profile together with high levels of LLPC, both of which are thought to be essential for the development of long-term protective immunity against clinical malaria. ..
  58. Tamminga C, Sedegah M, Regis D, Chuang I, Epstein J, Spring M, et al. Adenovirus-5-vectored P. falciparum vaccine expressing CSP and AMA1. Part B: safety, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the CSP component. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25868 pubmed publisher
    ..The NMRC-MV-Ad-PfC vaccine expressing CSP was safe and well tolerated given as two doses, but did not provide sterile protection. NCT00392015. ..
  59. Tyagi R, Garg N, Sahu T. Vaccination Strategies against Malaria: novel carrier(s) more than a tour de force. J Control Release. 2012;162:242-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review we discussed various aspects that could be decisive in the formulation of efficient and stable carrier system(s) for the development of malaria vaccine. ..
  60. Portugal S, Pierce S, Crompton P. Young lives lost as B cells falter: what we are learning about antibody responses in malaria. J Immunol. 2013;190:3039-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest ways in which advances in immunology and genomics-based technology can further improve our understanding of the B cell response in malaria and perhaps illuminate new pathways to the development of effective vaccines...
  61. Olotu A, Fegan G, Wambua J, Nyangweso G, Awuondo K, Leach A, et al. Four-year efficacy of RTS,S/AS01E and its interaction with malaria exposure. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:1111-20 pubmed publisher
    ..8%. Efficacy declined over time and with increasing malaria exposure. (Funded by the PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative and Wellcome Trust; number, NCT00872963.). ..
  62. Seder R, Chang L, Enama M, Zephir K, Sarwar U, Gordon I, et al. Protection against malaria by intravenous immunization with a nonreplicating sporozoite vaccine. Science. 2013;341:1359-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that there is a dose-dependent immunological threshold for establishing high-level protection against malaria that can be achieved with IV administration of a vaccine that is safe and meets regulatory standards. ..
  63. Prajapati S, Joshi H, Dua V. Antigenic repertoire of Plasmodium vivax transmission-blocking vaccine candidates from the Indian subcontinent. Malar J. 2011;10:111 pubmed publisher
    ..The amino acid substitutions data generated in this study from different geographical regions of the Indian subcontinent could be helpful in designing a more effective anti-malarial transmission-blocking vaccine. ..
  64. Schwenk R, Richie T. Protective immunity to pre-erythrocytic stage malaria. Trends Parasitol. 2011;27:306-14 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of these observations a set of research priorities are defined that are crucial for the development of a vaccine capable of inducing long-lasting and high-grade protection against malaria. ..
  65. Bijker E, Bastiaens G, Teirlinck A, van Gemert G, Graumans W, van de Vegte Bolmer M, et al. Protection against malaria after immunization by chloroquine prophylaxis and sporozoites is mediated by preerythrocytic immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:7862-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, evidence is presented for immune recognition of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes, suggesting memory responses unable to generate functional immunity. ..
  66. Bejon P, Cook J, Bergmann Leitner E, Olotu A, Lusingu J, Mwacharo J, et al. Effect of the pre-erythrocytic candidate malaria vaccine RTS,S/AS01E on blood stage immunity in young children. J Infect Dis. 2011;204:9-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, heterogeneous exposure led to confounded, positive associations between increasing antibody concentration and increasing risk of clinical malaria. ..
  67. Good M. A whole parasite vaccine to control the blood stages of Plasmodium: the case for lateral thinking. Trends Parasitol. 2011;27:335-40 pubmed publisher
    ..It is the view of the author that both vaccine paradigms should be pursued, but that success will come more quickly using the paranormal approach of exposing individuals to ultra-low doses of whole attenuated or killed parasites. ..
  68. Forbes E, Biswas S, Collins K, Gilbert S, Hill A, Draper S. Combining liver- and blood-stage malaria viral-vectored vaccines: investigating mechanisms of CD8+ T cell interference. J Immunol. 2011;187:3738-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These data have important implications for the development of a multistage or multicomponent viral vectored malaria vaccine for use in humans. ..
  69. Olotu A, Moris P, Mwacharo J, Vekemans J, Kimani D, Janssens M, et al. Circumsporozoite-specific T cell responses in children vaccinated with RTS,S/AS01E and protection against P falciparum clinical malaria. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25786 pubmed publisher
    ..The correlation between CS-specific TNF?(+) CD4(+) T cells and protection needs confirmation in other datasets. ..
  70. Arumugam T, Takeo S, Yamasaki T, Thonkukiatkul A, Miura K, Otsuki H, et al. Discovery of GAMA, a Plasmodium falciparum merozoite micronemal protein, as a novel blood-stage vaccine candidate antigen. Infect Immun. 2011;79:4523-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Since GAMA in P. falciparum is refractory to gene knockout attempts, it is essential to parasite invasion. Overall, our study indicates that GAMA is a novel blood-stage vaccine candidate antigen. ..
  71. Esen M, Mordmuller B, de Salazar P, Adegnika A, Agnandji S, Schaumburg F, et al. Reduced antibody responses against Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate antigens in the presence of Trichuris trichiura. Vaccine. 2012;30:7621-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore we assessed the influence of helminth infection on vaccine-induced immune responses in a phase I clinical trial of the malaria vaccine candidate GMZ2...
  72. Lievens M, Aponte J, Williamson J, Mmbando B, Mohamed A, Bejon P, et al. Statistical methodology for the evaluation of vaccine efficacy in a phase III multi-centre trial of the RTS, S/AS01 malaria vaccine in African children. Malar J. 2011;10:222 pubmed publisher
    ..The methodology selected to analyse the clinical trial must be scientifically sound, acceptable to regulatory authorities and meaningful to those responsible for malaria control and public health policy. ..
  73. Tachibana M, Sato C, Otsuki H, Sattabongkot J, Kaneko O, Torii M, et al. Plasmodium vivax gametocyte protein Pvs230 is a transmission-blocking vaccine candidate. Vaccine. 2012;30:1807-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results show that Pvs230 is a transmission-blocking vaccine candidate of P. vivax. ..
  74. Butler N, Schmidt N, Vaughan A, Aly A, Kappe S, Harty J. Superior antimalarial immunity after vaccination with late liver stage-arresting genetically attenuated parasites. Cell Host Microbe. 2011;9:451-62 pubmed publisher
    ..the potential utility of late liver stage-arresting GAP as broadly protective next-generation live-attenuated malaria vaccines and support their potential as a powerful model for identifying antigens to generate cross-stage protection.
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