protozoan vaccines


Summary: Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.

Top Publications

  1. Nishikawa Y, Zhang H, Ikehara Y, Kojima N, Xuan X, Yokoyama N. Immunization with oligomannose-coated liposome-entrapped dense granule protein 7 protects dams and offspring from Neospora caninum infection in mice. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:792-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, oligomannose-coated liposome-entrapped NcGRA7 can be used as a new type of effective vaccine to control neosporosis. ..
  2. Aparicio Burgos J, Ochoa García L, Zepeda Escobar J, Gupta S, Dhiman M, Martínez J, et al. Testing the efficacy of a multi-component DNA-prime/DNA-boost vaccine against Trypanosoma cruzi infection in dogs. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1050 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results demonstrated that TcVac1 provided a partial resistance to T. cruzi infection and Chagas disease, and provide an impetus to improve the vaccination strategy against Chagas disease. ..
  3. Salgado Jiménez B, Arce Fonseca M, Baylon Pacheco L, Talamas Rohana P, Rosales Encina J. Differential immune response in mice immunized with the A, R or C domain from TcSP protein of Trypanosoma cruzi or with the coding DNAs. Parasite Immunol. 2013;35:32-41 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA-based immunization with DNA coding for the repeats domain of TcSP is a good candidate for the development of a vaccine against experimental T. cruzi infection. ..
  4. Carvalho J, Rodgers J, Atouguia J, Prazeres D, Monteiro G. DNA vaccines: a rational design against parasitic diseases. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2010;9:175-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Partial and full protective immunity have been reported following DNA vaccination against the most significant parasitic diseases in the world...
  5. Magez S, Caljon G, Tran T, Stijlemans B, Radwanska M. Current status of vaccination against African trypanosomiasis. Parasitology. 2010;137:2017-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper reviews past and current attempts to design both anti-trypanosome vaccines, as well as vaccines directed towards the inhibition of infection-associated pathology. ..
  6. Moire N, Dion S, Lebrun M, Dubremetz J, Dimier Poisson I. Mic1-3KO tachyzoite a live attenuated vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis derived from a type I strain shows features of type II strain. Exp Parasitol. 2009;123:111-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that the deleted strain derived from a type I strain behaves like type II strain in outbred mice in terms of virulence, dissemination in mouse tissue and persistence in brain...
  7. Bai Y, He S, Zhao G, Chen L, Shi N, Zhou H, et al. Toxoplasma gondii: bioinformatics analysis, cloning and expression of a novel protein TgIMP1. Exp Parasitol. 2012;132:458-64 pubmed publisher
    ..1-TgIMP1 was transfected into cells of HFF, and then identified by RT-PCR. The results showed that the eukaryotic expression plasmid pBudCE4.1-TgIMP1 was constructed and was transfected to the HFF cells successfully. ..
  8. de Alencar B, Persechini P, Haolla F, de Oliveira G, Silverio J, Lannes Vieira J, et al. Perforin and gamma interferon expression are required for CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell-dependent protective immunity against a human parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, elicited by heterologous plasmid DNA prime-recombinant adenovirus 5 boost vaccination. Infect Immun. 2009;77:4383-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study thus demonstrated a role for perforin and IFN-gamma in a number of T-cell-mediated effector functions and in the antiparasitic immunity generated by a heterologous plasmid DNA prime-adenovirus boost vaccination strategy. ..
  9. Jongert E, Roberts C, Gargano N, Forster Waldl E, Förster Wald E, Petersen E. Vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii: challenges and opportunities. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009;104:252-66 pubmed
    ..Endpoints like maternal-foetal transmission and prevention of eye disease are important in addition to the traditional endpoint of survival or reduction in numbers of brain cysts after challenge. ..

More Information


  1. Parodi C, Padilla A, Basombrío M. Protective immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009;104 Suppl 1:288-94 pubmed
    ..Additionally, animal models in which protection was achieved without immunopathological consequences are discussed. ..
  2. Geriletu -, Xu L, Xurihua -, Li X. Vaccination of chickens with DNA vaccine expressing Eimeria tenella MZ5-7 against coccidiosis. Vet Parasitol. 2011;177:6-12 pubmed publisher
    ..0-MZ group and all the three control groups. In short, MZ5-7 was an effective candidate antigen for vaccine and co-expression of cytokine with antigen was an alternative method to enhance the immunity DNA vaccine...
  3. Vasconcelos J, Bruna Romero O, Araújo A, Dominguez M, Ersching J, de Alencar B, et al. Pathogen-induced proapoptotic phenotype and high CD95 (Fas) expression accompany a suboptimal CD8+ T-cell response: reversal by adenoviral vaccine. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002699 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that a suboptimal CD8(+) T-cell response is associated with an upregulation of CD95 expression and a proapoptotic phenotype. Both can be blocked by adenoviral vaccination...
  4. Ramey K, Eko F, Thompson W, Armah H, Igietseme J, Stiles J. Immunolocalization and challenge studies using a recombinant Vibrio cholerae ghost expressing Trypanosoma brucei Ca(2+) ATPase (TBCA2) antigen. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;81:407-15 pubmed
    ..Thus, immunization of mice produced robust parasite-specific antibodies but failed to protect mice against parasite challenge. ..
  5. Takayama E, Ono T, Carnero E, Umemoto S, Yamaguchi Y, Kanayama A, et al. Quantitative and qualitative features of heterologous virus-vector-induced antigen-specific CD8+ T cells against Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Int J Parasitol. 2010;40:1549-61 pubmed publisher
  6. Innes E, Bartley P, Rocchi M, Benavidas Silvan J, Burrells A, Hotchkiss E, et al. Developing vaccines to control protozoan parasites in ruminants: dead or alive?. Vet Parasitol. 2011;180:155-63 pubmed publisher
  7. Marugán Hernández V, Ortega Mora L, Aguado Martínez A, Jimenez Ruiz E, Alvarez Garcia G. Transgenic Neospora caninum strains constitutively expressing the bradyzoite NcSAG4 protein proved to be safe and conferred significant levels of protection against vertical transmission when used as live vaccines in mice. Vaccine. 2011;29:7867-74 pubmed publisher
  8. Debache K, Kropf C, Schütz C, Harwood L, Käuper P, Monney T, et al. Vaccination of mice with chitosan nanogel-associated recombinant NcPDI against challenge infection with Neospora caninum tachyzoites. Parasite Immunol. 2011;33:81-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, this did not necessarily relate to the protection. ..
  9. Debache K, Guionaud C, Alaeddine F, Hemphill A. Intraperitoneal and intra-nasal vaccination of mice with three distinct recombinant Neospora caninum antigens results in differential effects with regard to protection against experimental challenge with Neospora caninum tachyzoites. Parasitology. 2010;137:229-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In the case of recNcPDI, the intra-nasal route provides a platform to generate a highly protective immune response. ..
  10. Rodríguez Morales O, Pérez Leyva M, Ballinas Verdugo M, Carrillo Sánchez S, Rosales Encina J, Alejandre Aguilar R, et al. Plasmid DNA immunization with Trypanosoma cruzi genes induces cardiac and clinical protection against Chagas disease in the canine model. Vet Res. 2012;43:79 pubmed publisher
  11. Rojo Montejo S, Collantes Fernandez E, Regidor Cerrillo J, Rodriguez Bertos A, Prenafeta A, Gomez Bautista M, et al. Influence of adjuvant and antigen dose on protection induced by an inactivated whole vaccine against Neospora caninum infection in mice. Vet Parasitol. 2011;175:220-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that efficacy can significantly vary depending on the adjuvant, the dose of antigen and the phase of N. caninum infection in which the vaccine is tested. ..
  12. Jang S, Lillehoj H, Lee S, Lee K, Park M, Cha S, et al. Eimeria maxima recombinant Gam82 gametocyte antigen vaccine protects against coccidiosis and augments humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Vaccine. 2010;28:2980-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that the Gam82 recombinant protein protects against E. maxima and augments humoral and cell-mediated immunity. ..
  13. Rojo Montejo S, Collantes Fernandez E, Rodríguez Marcos S, Pérez Zaballos F, López Pérez I, Prenafeta A, et al. Comparative efficacy of immunization with inactivated whole tachyzoites versus a tachyzoite-bradyzoite mixture against neosporosis in mice. Parasitology. 2011;138:1372-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study demonstrates the critical role of stage-specific antigens and adjuvants on the development of effective inactivated vaccines for the prevention of N. caninum infection. ..
  14. Gigley J, Fox B, Bzik D. Cell-mediated immunity to Toxoplasma gondii develops primarily by local Th1 host immune responses in the absence of parasite replication. J Immunol. 2009;182:1069-78 pubmed
    ..These findings offer new insight into immunological mechanisms and local host responses to a non-replicating type I parasite infection associated with development of long-lasting immunity to Toxoplasma gondii. ..
  15. Carabarin Lima A, González Vázquez M, Rodríguez Morales O, Baylón Pacheco L, Rosales Encina J, Reyes López P, et al. Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) in Mexico: an update. Acta Trop. 2013;127:126-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We hope that this review sensitizes the relevant authorities and that the appropriate measures to reduce the risk of infection by T. cruzi are undertaken to provide the Mexican people a better quality of life...
  16. Zhang N, Chen J, Wang M, Petersen E, Zhu X. Vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii: new developments and perspectives. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2013;12:1287-99 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii. Future studies of T. gondii vaccines should include as many CTL epitopes as the live attenuated vaccines. ..
  17. Hiszczynska Sawicka E, Oledzka G, Holec Gasior L, Li H, Xu J, Sedcole R, et al. Evaluation of immune responses in sheep induced by DNA immunization with genes encoding GRA1, GRA4, GRA6 and GRA7 antigens of Toxoplasma gondii. Vet Parasitol. 2011;177:281-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate that the intramuscular injection of sheep with a DNA liposome formulated plasmid coding for GRA proteins is an effective system that induces a significant immune response against T. gondii. ..
  18. Song X, Xu L, Yan R, Huang X, Shah M, Li X. The optimal immunization procedure of DNA vaccine pcDNA-TA4-IL-2 of Eimeria tenella and its cross-immunity to Eimeria necatrix and Eimeria acervulina. Vet Parasitol. 2009;159:30-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Storage time and temperature had little effect on the immunizing efficacy of the vaccine. The vaccine could provide partial cross-protection against the challenge with E. necatrix and E. acervulina, but not with E. maxima. ..
  19. Zou J, Huang X, Yin G, Ding Y, Liu X, Wang H, et al. Evaluation of Toxoplasma gondii as a live vaccine vector in susceptible and resistant hosts. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:168 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that T. gondii can be used as an effective vaccine vector and future research should focus on exploring avirulent no cyst-forming strains of T. gondii as a live vaccine vector in animals. ..
  20. Grover H, Blanchard N, Gonzalez F, Chan S, Robey E, Shastri N. The Toxoplasma gondii peptide AS15 elicits CD4 T cells that can control parasite burden. Infect Immun. 2012;80:3279-88 pubmed publisher
  21. Weber F, Jackson J, Sobecki B, Choromanski L, Olsen M, Meinert T, et al. On the efficacy and safety of vaccination with live tachyzoites of Neospora caninum for prevention of neospora-associated fetal loss in cattle. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013;20:99-105 pubmed publisher
  22. Liu Q, Shang L, Jin H, Wei F, Zhu X, Gao H. The protective effect of a Toxoplasma gondii SAG1 plasmid DNA vaccine in mice is enhanced with IL-18. Res Vet Sci. 2010;89:93-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, codelivery of the IL-18-secreting plasmid potentiates the induction and maintenance of the type 1 helper T-cell immune response and may be a potent strategy for enhancing the protective efficacy of vaccines against T. gondii...
  23. Garcia J. Vaccination concepts against Toxoplasma gondii. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2009;8:215-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review some aspects concerning vaccination against T. gondii. ..
  24. Innes E, Bartley P, Maley S, Katzer F, Buxton D. Veterinary vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009;104:246-51 pubmed
    ..In this paper we will discuss some of the history, challenges and progress in the development of veterinary vaccines against T. gondii. ..
  25. Machado A, Caetano B, Barbosa R, Salgado A, Rabelo R, Garcia C, et al. Prime and boost immunization with influenza and adenovirus encoding the Toxoplasma gondii surface antigen 2 (SAG2) induces strong protective immunity. Vaccine. 2010;28:3247-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the potential use of recombinant influenza vectors harboring the dicistronic segments in the development of vaccines against infectious diseases. ..
  26. Sun X, Zou J, A A E, Yan W, Liu X, Suo X, et al. DNA vaccination with a gene encoding Toxoplasma gondii GRA6 induces partial protection against toxoplasmosis in BALB/c mice. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:213 pubmed publisher
    ..Our result supports the concept that the acquired immune response is MHC restricted. This study has a major implication for vaccine designs using a single antigen in a population with diverse MHC class I alleles. ..
  27. Yang G, Wang C, Hao F, Zhao D, Zhang Y, Li Y. Studies on construction of a recombinant Eimeria tenella SO7 gene expressing Escherichia coli and its protective efficacy against homologous infection. Parasitol Int. 2010;59:517-23 pubmed publisher
    ..coli that expresses the SO7 gene is able to effectively stimulate host protective immunity as evidenced by the induction of development of both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against homologous challenge in chickens. ..
  28. Giddings O, Eickhoff C, Sullivan N, Hoft D. Intranasal vaccinations with the trans-sialidase antigen plus CpG Adjuvant induce mucosal immunity protective against conjunctival Trypanosoma cruzi challenges. Infect Immun. 2010;78:1333-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We also provide the first direct evidence that mucosal antibodies induced by intranasal TS vaccination can inhibit parasite invasion. ..
  29. Zhou H, Min J, Zhao Q, Gu Q, Cong H, Li Y, et al. Protective immune response against Toxoplasma gondii elicited by a recombinant DNA vaccine with a novel genetic adjuvant. Vaccine. 2012;30:1800-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the adjuvant pSPreS2 formulated with DNA vaccine induced a Th1 type of immune response and therefore might be a novel genetic adjuvant to DNA vaccine for further investigation...
  30. Yuan Z, Zhang X, Lin R, Petersen E, He S, Yu M, et al. Protective effect against toxoplasmosis in mice induced by DNA immunization with gene encoding Toxoplasma gondii ROP18. Vaccine. 2011;29:6614-9 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Our results show for the first time, that a ROP18 vaccine construct can enhance the T. gondii-specific CTL. Th1 responses and increased survival suggested that ROP18 is a promising vaccine candidate against infection with T. gondii. ..
  31. Falcon J, Freyre A. Toxoplasma gondii: prototype immunization of lambs against formation of muscle and brain cysts. Vet Parasitol. 2009;166:15-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding suggests the possibility of creating a vaccine for lambs that could diminish or abolish lamb and mutton as sources of human infection with T. gondii, and which could also prevent toxoplasmosis abortion in sheep. ..
  32. Cui X, Lei T, Yang D, Hao P, Li B, Liu Q. Toxoplasma gondii immune mapped protein-1 (TgIMP1) is a novel vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis. Vaccine. 2012;30:2282-7 pubmed publisher
    ..8 ± 6 days) prolonged survival time compared with control mice, which died within 7 days of challenge infection. These results suggest that IMP1 is a promising vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis. ..
  33. Chen J, Huang S, Li Z, Yuan Z, Zhou D, Petersen E, et al. Protective immunity induced by a DNA vaccine expressing eIF4A of Toxoplasma gondii against acute toxoplasmosis in mice. Vaccine. 2013;31:1734-9 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii infection in mice. ..
  34. Qu D, Han J, Du A. Enhancement of protective immune response to recombinant Toxoplasma gondii ROP18 antigen by ginsenoside Re. Exp Parasitol. 2013;135:234-9 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii, and that Re is a promising vaccine adjuvant against toxoplasmosis, deserves further evaluation and development...
  35. Eickhoff C, Giddings O, Yoshida N, Hoft D. Immune responses to gp82 provide protection against mucosal Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2010;105:687-91 pubmed
    ..More importantly, these CpG-gp82-immunized mice were significantly protected from a biologically relevant oral parasite challenge. ..
  36. Song H, Yan R, Xu L, Song X, Shah M, Zhu H, et al. Efficacy of DNA vaccines carrying Eimeria acervulina lactate dehydrogenase antigen gene against coccidiosis. Exp Parasitol. 2010;126:224-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The results provided the first proof that DNA vaccine carrying E. acervulina LDH antigen gene induced protective immunity against homologous infection and its effect could be enhanced by co-expression of chicken IL-2 or IFN-gamma...
  37. Tan F, Hu X, Luo F, Pan C, Chen X. Induction of protective Th1 immune responses in mice by vaccination with recombinant Toxoplasma gondii nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase-II. Vaccine. 2011;29:2742-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, rTgNTPase-II elicits a strong specific Th1 immune response providing partial protection against both T. gondii acute and chronic infection. ..
  38. Debache K, Alaeddine F, Guionaud C, Monney T, Muller J, Strohbusch M, et al. Vaccination with recombinant NcROP2 combined with recombinant NcMIC1 and NcMIC3 reduces cerebral infection and vertical transmission in mice experimentally infected with Neospora caninum tachyzoites. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:1373-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, a mixture of recombinant antigens representing important secretory micronemal and rhoptry proteins leads to a significant protection against vertical transmission of N. caninum in mice. ..
  39. Ma D, Ma C, Pan L, Li G, Yang J, Hong J, et al. Vaccination of chickens with DNA vaccine encoding Eimeria acervulina 3-1E and chicken IL-15 offers protection against homologous challenge. Exp Parasitol. 2011;127:208-14 pubmed publisher
  40. Huson L, Authie E, Boulangé A, Goldring J, Coetzer T. Modulation of the immunogenicity of the Trypanosoma congolense cysteine protease, congopain, through complexation with alpha(2)-macroglobulin. Vet Res. 2009;40:52 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach improves the effectiveness of the antigen as an anti-disease vaccine candidate for African trypanosomosis. ..
  41. Meng M, He S, Zhao G, Bai Y, Zhou H, Cong H, et al. Evaluation of protective immune responses induced by DNA vaccines encoding Toxoplasma gondii surface antigen 1 (SAG1) and 14-3-3 protein in BALB/c mice. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:273 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also showed multi-gene vaccine significantly enhanced immune responses and protective efficacy and was superior to the single-gene vaccine. ..
  42. Dziadek B, Gatkowska J, Brzostek A, Dziadek J, Dzitko K, Dlugonska H. Toxoplasma gondii: the immunogenic and protective efficacy of recombinant ROP2 and ROP4 rhoptry proteins in murine experimental toxoplasmosis. Exp Parasitol. 2009;123:81-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that, similar to ROP2, rhoptry protein ROP4 could be a very good candidate for future anti-T. gondii multicomponent vaccine based on the recombinant forms of different parasite proteins. ..
  43. McDonald V, Shirley M. Past and future: vaccination against Eimeria. Parasitology. 2009;136:1477-89 pubmed publisher
    ..As much work still remains to be done before the development of recombinant vaccines becomes a reality, it is likely that reliance upon live, attenuated vaccines will increase in years to come. ..
  44. Monney T, Rütti D, Schorer M, Debache K, Grandgirard D, Leib S, et al. RecNcMIC3-1-R is a microneme- and rhoptry-based chimeric antigen that protects against acute neosporosis and limits cerebral parasite load in the mouse model for Neospora caninum infection. Vaccine. 2011;29:6967-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that recNcMIC3-1-R is an interesting chimeric vaccine candidate and should be followed up in subsequent studies in a fetal infection model...
  45. Duan X, Yonemitsu Y, Chou B, Yoshida K, Tanaka S, Hasegawa M, et al. Efficient protective immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi infection after nasal vaccination with recombinant Sendai virus vector expressing amastigote surface protein-2. Vaccine. 2009;27:6154-9 pubmed publisher
    ..cruzi are interesting candidates for the development of a new mode of recombinant viral vaccine against Chagas' disease. ..
  46. Jordan K, Hunter C. Regulation of CD8+ T cell responses to infection with parasitic protozoa. Exp Parasitol. 2010;126:318-25 pubmed publisher
  47. Seitzer U, Ahmed J. Tropical theileriosis: cytotoxic T lymphocyte response to vaccination. Vaccine. 2008;26 Suppl 6:G24-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Any strain-specificity induced by immunisation is likely to be manifested by CTL. Besides CTLs, CD4+ T-cells also play an important role in protective immunity to T. annulata infection...
  48. Vázquez Chagoyán J, Gupta S, Garg N. Vaccine development against Trypanosoma cruzi and Chagas disease. Adv Parasitol. 2011;75:121-46 pubmed publisher
    ..cruzi in experimental animals. This review summarizes the research efforts in vaccine development against Chagas disease during the past decade. ..
  49. Freeman J, Kappmeyer L, Ueti M, McElwain T, Baszler T, Echaide I, et al. A Babesia bovis gene syntenic to Theileria parva p67 is expressed in blood and tick stage parasites. Vet Parasitol. 2010;173:211-8 pubmed publisher
    ..While not identifiable through amino acid or nucleotide sequence similarity, the conserved gene order within this locus in multiple piroplasms may suggest a critical function adapted for each species' unique host and life-cycle...
  50. Rojo Montejo S, Collantes Fernandez E, López Pérez I, Risco Castillo V, Prenafeta A, Ortega Mora L. Evaluation of the protection conferred by a naturally attenuated Neospora caninum isolate against congenital and cerebral neosporosis in mice. Vet Res. 2012;43:62 pubmed publisher
    ..These results evidence the safety and the efficient protection that was conferred by Nc-Spain 1?H against congenital neosporosis, even when the mice were immunised with low parasitic doses...
  51. Min J, Qu D, Li C, Song X, Zhao Q, Li X, et al. Enhancement of protective immune responses induced by Toxoplasma gondii dense granule antigen 7 (GRA7) against toxoplasmosis in mice using a prime-boost vaccination strategy. Vaccine. 2012;30:5631-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the DNA prime-protein boost vaccination based on GRA7 might be a promising regimen for further development of an effective vaccine against T. gondii. ..
  52. Reichel M, Ellis J. Neospora caninum--how close are we to development of an efficacious vaccine that prevents abortion in cattle?. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:1173-87 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we summarise the main outcomes on the economics of Neospora control and suggest that the current boom in the global dairy industry increases the specific need for a vaccine against N. caninum-associated abortion. ..
  53. Chuang S, Ko J, Chen C, Du J, Yang C. Induction of long-lasting protective immunity against Toxoplasma gondii in BALB/c mice by recombinant surface antigen 1 protein encapsulated in poly (lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles. Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:34 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii tachyzoite infection. Our study provides a valuable basis for developing long-lasting vaccines against T. gondii for future use in humans and animals. ..
  54. Henriquez F, Woods S, Cong H, McLeod R, Roberts C. Immunogenetics of Toxoplasma gondii informs vaccine design. Trends Parasitol. 2010;26:550-5 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii in conjunction with the development of predictive binding algorithms for MHC I peptides in humans now offers a new opportunity for vaccine development against this medically important pathogen. ..
  55. Wang P, Yuan Z, Petersen E, Li J, Zhang X, Li X, et al. Protective efficacy of a Toxoplasma gondii rhoptry protein 13 plasmid DNA vaccine in mice. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:1916-20 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii cyst infection and that it is a potential vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis, which provided the foundation for further development of effective vaccines against T. gondii. ..
  56. Quan J, Chu J, Ismail H, Zhou W, Jo E, Cha G, et al. Induction of protective immune responses by a multiantigenic DNA vaccine encoding GRA7 and ROP1 of Toxoplasma gondii. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:666-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the multiantigenic DNA antigen pGRA7-ROP1 was more effective in stimulating host protective immune responses than separately injected single antigens, and that IL-12 serves as a good DNA adjuvant. ..
  57. Huang X, Li J, Zhang G, Gong P, Yang J, Zhang X. Toxoplasma gondii: protective immunity against toxoplasmosis with recombinant actin depolymerizing factor protein in BALB/c mice. Exp Parasitol. 2012;130:218-22 pubmed publisher
    ..05), and the rate of reduction could reach to around 30%. These results suggest that rADF can generate protective immunity against T. gondii infection in BALB/c mice. ..
  58. Rodrigues M, de Alencar B, Claser C, Tzelepis F, Silveira E, Haolla F, et al. Swimming against the current: genetic vaccination against Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009;104 Suppl 1:281-7 pubmed
    ..cruzi could indeed be used for the purpose of vaccination. This hypothesis was confirmed in different mouse models, indicating a possible path for vaccine development. ..
  59. Silva M, Prazeres D, Lança A, Atouguia J, Monteiro G. Trans-sialidase from Trypanosoma brucei as a potential target for DNA vaccine development against African trypanosomiasis. Parasitol Res. 2009;105:1223-9 pubmed publisher
    ..brucei brucei parasites. These results demonstrate that a DNA vaccine coding for trans-sialidase from T. brucei is potentially useful in the prophylaxis of AT. ..
  60. Innes E, Bartley P, Buxton D, Katzer F. Ovine toxoplasmosis. Parasitology. 2009;136:1887-94 pubmed publisher
    ..A live vaccine, Toxovax is the only commercially available vaccine worldwide to protect against congenital toxoplasmosis. ..
  61. Kur J, Holec Gasior L, Hiszczynska Sawicka E. Current status of toxoplasmosis vaccine development. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2009;8:791-808 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent progress in knowledge of the protective immune response generated by T. gondii and the current status of development of a vaccine for toxoplasmosis are highlighted. ..
  62. Wallach M, Ashash U, Michael A, Smith N. Field application of a subunit vaccine against an enteric protozoan disease. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3948 pubmed publisher
    ..Coccidiosis is a major global veterinary health problem in intensively reared chickens. It is caused by apicomplexan parasites of the genus Eimeria...
  63. Aguado Martínez A, Alvarez Garcia G, Fernandez Garcia A, Risco Castillo V, Marugán Hernández V, Ortega Mora L. Failure of a vaccine using immunogenic recombinant proteins rNcSAG4 and rNcGRA7 against neosporosis in mice. Vaccine. 2009;27:7331-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the study reveals some positive results on immune response and efficacy for both recombinant proteins; these results are being discussed in order to suggest new approaches with new chronic infection mouse models and adjuvants. ..
  64. Bethony J, Cole R, Guo X, Kamhawi S, Lightowlers M, Loukas A, et al. Vaccines to combat the neglected tropical diseases. Immunol Rev. 2011;239:237-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Also highlighted are the contributions being made by non-profit product development partnerships that are working to overcome some of the economic challenges in vaccine manufacture, clinical testing, and global access. ..
  65. Jang S, Lillehoj H, Lee S, Lee K, Lillehoj E, Bertrand F, et al. Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant enhances antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to profilin subunit antigen vaccination and promotes protection against Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella. Exp Parasitol. 2011;127:178-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that the recombinant profilin subunit vaccine, when given in combination with Montanide™ ISA 71 VG, augments protective immunity against E. acervulina and E. tenella. ..
  66. Gupta S, Garg N. Prophylactic efficacy of TcVac2 against Trypanosoma cruzi in mice. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e797 pubmed publisher
    ..cruzi infection, and consequently, prevented the evolution of chronic immunopathology associated with parasite persistence in chagasic hearts. ..
  67. Sánchez V, Pitkowski M, Fernández Cuppari A, Rodríguez F, Fenoy I, Frank F, et al. Combination of CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides with recombinant ROP2 or GRA4 proteins induces protective immunity against Toxoplasma gondii infection. Exp Parasitol. 2011;128:448-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that CpG-ODN is an important candidate adjuvant for use in potential multicomponent anti-T. gondii vaccines for animals and humans. ..
  68. Laguía Becher M, Martin V, Kraemer M, Corigliano M, Yacono M, Goldman A, et al. Effect of codon optimization and subcellular targeting on Toxoplasma gondii antigen SAG1 expression in tobacco leaves to use in subcutaneous and oral immunization in mice. BMC Biotechnol. 2010;10:52 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that this plant-produced protein has potential for use as vaccine and provides a potential means for protecting humans and animals against toxoplasmosis. ..
  69. Li S, Yang W, Lun Z, Ma L, Xi S, Chen Q, et al. Immunization with recombinant actin from Trypanosoma evansi induces protective immunity against T. evansi, T. equiperdum and T. b. brucei infection. Parasitol Res. 2009;104:429-35 pubmed publisher
    ..evansi, T. equiperdum, and T. b. brucei infection and may be useful in the development of a vaccine with other cytoskeletal proteins to prevent animal trypanosomiasis caused by these three trypanosome species...
  70. Liu Q, Singla L, Zhou H. Vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii: status, challenges and future directions. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2012;8:1305-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally suggestions are made on possible directions for future research on the development of vaccines against T. gondii. ..
  71. Rigato P, de Alencar B, de Vasconcelos J, Dominguez M, Araújo A, Machado A, et al. Heterologous plasmid DNA prime-recombinant human adenovirus 5 boost vaccination generates a stable pool of protective long-lived CD8(+) T effector memory cells specific for a human parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi. Infect Immun. 2011;79:2120-30 pubmed publisher
    ..From these results, we concluded that heterologous plasmid DNA prime-adenovirus boost vaccination generated a stable pool of functional protective long-lived CD8(+) T cells with an effector memory phenotype. ..
  72. Doroud D, Zahedifard F, Vatanara A, Taslimi Y, Vahabpour R, Torkashvand F, et al. C-terminal domain deletion enhances the protective activity of cpa/cpb loaded solid lipid nanoparticles against Leishmania major in BALB/c mice. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1236 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, undefined effect of cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (cSLN) as an adjuvant in enhancing the immune response toward leishmanial antigens led us to refocus our vaccine development projects...