marker vaccines


Summary: Vaccines used in conjunction with diagnostic tests to differentiate vaccinated animals from carrier animals. Marker vaccines can be either a subunit or a gene-deleted vaccine.

Top Publications

  1. van Oirschot J. Vaccinology of classical swine fever: from lab to field. Vet Microbiol. 2003;96:367-84 pubmed
    ..The question is whether the time is ripe to seriously consider global eradication of classical swine fever virus. ..
  2. Beer M, Reimann I, Hoffmann B, Depner K. Novel marker vaccines against classical swine fever. Vaccine. 2007;25:5665-70 pubmed
    ..J Virol 1993;67(9):5435-42]. However, these subunit E2 marker vaccines are less efficient and more than one parenteral application is necessary...
  3. Vannie P, Capua I, Le Potier M, MacKay D, Muylkens B, Parida S, et al. Marker vaccines and the impact of their use on diagnosis and prophylactic measures. Rev Sci Tech. 2007;26:351-72 pubmed
    ..This article examines the recent development of specific marker vaccines and examines the impact of their use on the diagnosis and prevention of major infectious diseases...
  4. Jadhao S, Lee C, Sylte M, Suarez D. Comparative efficacy of North American and antigenically matched reverse genetics derived H5N9 DIVA marker vaccines against highly pathogenic Asian H5N1 avian influenza viruses in chickens. Vaccine. 2009;27:6247-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates the value of using a vaccine containing antigenically matched H5 hemagglutinin for control of HP H5N1 avian influenza in poultry and the potential utility of a heterologous neuraminidase as a DIVA marker. ..
  5. Grubman M. Development of novel strategies to control foot-and-mouth disease: marker vaccines and antivirals. Biologicals. 2005;33:227-34 pubmed
    ..By rapidly limiting virus replication and spread this strategy may reduce the number of animals that need to be slaughtered during an outbreak. ..
  6. Luo Y, Li L, Austermann Busch S, Dong M, Xu J, Shao L, et al. Enhanced expression of the Erns protein of classical swine fever virus in yeast and its application in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibody differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals. J Virol Methods. 2015;222:22-7 pubmed publisher
    ..4%) compared with PrioCHECK CSFV E(rns) (59.6%). Taken together, the yE(rns)-based iELISA is specific and sensitive, representing a promising DIVA test for E2-based marker vaccines against CSF.
  7. Pannhorst K, Fröhlich A, Staubach C, Meyer D, Blome S, Becher P. Evaluation of an Erns-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to distinguish Classical swine fever virus-infected pigs from pigs vaccinated with CP7_E2alf. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2015;27:449-60 pubmed publisher
    ..To combat CSF outbreaks and to maintain trade, new marker vaccines were developed that allow differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA principle)...
  8. Wu C, Liao C, Chi J, Chien M, Huang C. Growth properties and vaccine efficacy of recombinant pseudorabies virus defective in glycoprotein E and thymidine kinase genes. J Biotechnol. 2016;229:58-64 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Marker vaccines were widely used in PR prevention and eradication programs...
  9. Blome S, Moß C, Reimann I, König P, Beer M. Classical swine fever vaccines-State-of-the-art. Vet Microbiol. 2017;206:10-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the first generation of E2 subunit marker vaccines shows constraints in efficacy, application, and production...

More Information


  1. Siedler B, Roloff B, de Sá G, Neis A, Conceição F, Hartwig D, et al. Secretory expression of bovine herpesvirus type 1/5 glycoprotein E in Pichia pastoris for the differential diagnosis of vaccinated or infected cattle. Protein Expr Purif. 2017;130:21-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The DIVA (Differentiation of Infected from Vaccinated Animals) strategy, using marker vaccines based on gE-negative BoHV strains, allows the identification of vaccinated or infected animals in ..
  2. Tignon M, De Baere M, Hanon J, Goolaerts A, Houtain J, Delooz L, et al. Characterization of three commercial ELISA kits for detection of BOHV-1 gE specific antibodies in serum and milk samples and applicability of bulk milk for determination of herd status. J Virol Methods. 2017;245:66-72 pubmed publisher
    Vaccination of animals with gE-deleted vaccine strains (gE- marker vaccines) and differential detection of vaccinated vs infected animals with antibody ELISA targeting the gE or the gB proteins have been proved to be useful tools in ..
  3. Freuling C, Müller T, Mettenleiter T. Vaccines against pseudorabies virus (PrV). Vet Microbiol. 2017;206:3-9 pubmed publisher
    ..e. the serological differentiation of vaccinated from field-virus infected animals by the use of marker vaccines and respective companion diagnostic tests...
  4. Khairy W, Qian K, Shao H, Ye J, Qin A. Identification of two conserved B-cell epitopes in the gp90 of reticuloendothelial virus using peptide microarray. Vet Microbiol. 2017;211:107-111 pubmed publisher
    ..neutralization, so detailed analysis of REV-gp90 epitopes is important for the development of epitope based marker vaccines and diagnostic tools for REV infections...
  5. Xia S, Xiang G, Lei J, Du M, Wang Y, Zhou M, et al. Efficacy of the marker vaccine rAdV-SFV-E2 against classical swine fever in the presence of maternally derived antibodies to rAdV-SFV-E2 or C-strain. Vet Microbiol. 2016;196:50-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to eradicate CSF, many marker vaccines that allow differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) have been developed...
  6. Makoschey B, Beer M. A live bovine herpesvirus-1 marker vaccine is not shed after intramuscular vaccination. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2007;120:480-2 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it is recommended to apply the tested BHV-1 marker live vaccine by the IM route in situations where it is undesirable that the vaccine virus is excreted. ..
  7. Moormann R. [Vaccination against foot and mouth disease: a biotechnical approach?]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2001;126:785-7 pubmed
    ..Much research is still necessary but important in this is that the European Union supports these developments. ..
  8. Blome S, Meindl Böhmer A, Loeffen W, Thuer B, Moennig V. Assessment of classical swine fever diagnostics and vaccine performance. Rev Sci Tech. 2006;25:1025-38 pubmed
    ..Evaluation data on diagnostic tests were kindly provided by National Reference Laboratories for CSF in various European countries. ..
  9. Schudel A. Vaccines and OIE listed diseases. Rev Sci Tech. 2007;26:523-5 pubmed
  10. Goris N, De Clercq K. Quality assurance/quality control of foot and mouth disease solid phase competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay--Part II. Quality control: comparison of two charting methods to monitor assay performance. Rev Sci Tech. 2005;24:1005-16 pubmed
    ..Both chart types are equally sensitive to shifts, but the EWMA method seems to provide the best balance between false rejection and false acceptance. ..
  11. Voigt H, Wienhold D, Marquardt C, Muschko K, Pfaff E, Buettner M. Immunity against NS3 protein of classical swine fever virus does not protect against lethal challenge infection. Viral Immunol. 2007;20:487-94 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, intervention immunizations using marker vaccines are one possibility to deal with reintroduced CSFV...
  12. Barkema H, Bartels C, van Wuijckhuise L, Hesselink J, Holzhauer M, Weber M, et al. [Outbreak of bovine virus diarrhea on Dutch dairy farms induced by a bovine herpesvirus 1 marker vaccine contaminated with bovine virus diarrhea virus type 2]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2001;126:158-65 pubmed
    ..Improvement of controls to prevent contamination before and during vaccine production, and improvement of the monitoring of side-effects is necessary...
  13. Pensaert M, Labarque G, Favoreel H, Nauwynck H. Aujeszky's disease vaccination and differentiation of vaccinated from infected pigs. Dev Biol (Basel). 2004;119:243-54 pubmed
    ..In ADV-free regions with dense swine populations at risk, it is advisable not to stop the vaccination too soon, particularly when the infection status in neighbouring countries or trade partners is not equally good. ..
  14. Uttenthal A, Le Potier M, Romero L, De Mia G, Floegel Niesmann G. Classical swine fever (CSF) marker vaccine. Trial I. Challenge studies in weaner pigs. Vet Microbiol. 2001;83:85-106 pubmed
    Two commercial marker vaccines against classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and companion diagnostic tests were examined in 160 conventional pigs...
  15. Dong X, Chen Y, Wu Y, Chen Y. Candidate multi-peptide-vaccine against classical swine fever virus induced potent immunity with serological marker. Vaccine. 2005;23:3630-3 pubmed
    ..This property permits MPV-immunized pigs to be easily differentiated from infected ones with simple serological method. Therefore, this new MPV is suitable to act as a candidate marker vaccine against CSFV. ..
  16. Henderson L. Overview of marker vaccine and differential diagnostic test technology. Biologicals. 2005;33:203-9 pubmed
    ..These new approaches, when applied to the development of marker vaccines and companion diagnostic test kits hold tremendous potential for developing improved tools for eradication ..
  17. Dewulf J, Laevens H, Koenen F, Mintiens K, de Kruif A. An E2 sub-unit marker vaccine does not prevent horizontal or vertical transmission of classical swine fever virus. Vaccine. 2001;20:86-91 pubmed
  18. Muylkens B, Meurens F, Schynts F, de Fays K, Pourchet A, Thiry J, et al. Biological characterization of bovine herpesvirus 1 recombinants possessing the vaccine glycoprotein E negative phenotype. Vet Microbiol. 2006;113:283-91 pubmed
    ..of this process, related to herpesvirus evolution, have to be assessed in the context of large use of live marker vaccines based on glycoprotein E (gE) gene deletion...
  19. Kalhoro N, Veits J, Rautenschlein S, Zimmer G. A recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus replicon vaccine protects chickens from highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H7N1). Vaccine. 2009;27:1174-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that VSV replicons have the potential to be developed to high-quality vaccines for protection of poultry against different subtypes of avian influenza viruses. ..
  20. Foley P, Hill R. Regulatory considerations for marker vaccines and diagnostic tests in the U.S. Biologicals. 2005;33:253-6 pubmed
    b>Marker vaccines and diagnostic tests can prove to be invaluable in disease eradication and control programs, as was found in the pseudorabies (Aujeszky's Disease) virus eradication program in the U.S...
  21. van Drunen Littel van den Hurk S. Rationale and perspectives on the success of vaccination against bovine herpesvirus-1. Vet Microbiol. 2006;113:275-82 pubmed
    Several characteristics of BHV-1 have contributed to the successful development of both conventional and marker vaccines. BHV-1 is a stable virus, which grows to high titers in vitro, has a limited host range and causes acute viremic ..
  22. Dewulf J, Koenen F, Ribbens S, Haegeman A, Laevens H, de Kruif A. Evaluation of the epidemiological importance of classical swine fever infected, E2 sub-unit marker vaccinated animals with RT-nPCR positive blood samples. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2005;52:367-71 pubmed
    ..The conclusion is that in vaccinated pigs that are positive in RT-nPCR but negative in VI, the level of circulating virus is probably not high enough for horizontal transmission, whereas vertical transmission of the virus is possible. ..
  23. Makoschey B, Zehle H, Bussacchini M, Valla G, Palfi V, Foldi J. Efficacy of a live bovine herpesvirus type 1 marker vaccine under field conditions in three countries. Vet Rec. 2007;161:295-8 pubmed
    ..Given the starting conditions and the long duration of the studies, reactivation events and virus circulation would have been more likely to have occurred if the herds had not been vaccinated. ..
  24. Bouma A. Determination of the effectiveness of Pseudorabies marker vaccines in experiments and field trials. Biologicals. 2005;33:241-5 pubmed
    ..Glycoprotein E (gE) negative marker vaccines against Pseudorabies virus (PRV) infections in pigs have been evaluated this way in experiments and field ..
  25. Brahmakshatriya V, Lupiani B, Reddy S. Characterization and evaluation of avian influenza NS1 mutant virus as a potential live and killed DIVA (differentiating between infected and vaccinated animals) vaccine for chickens. Vaccine. 2010;28:2388-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest the stability of candidate NS1 mutant avian influenza vaccines for chickens should be thoroughly tested, as NS1 mutant viruses have the ability to revert to virulence. ..
  26. Antonis A, van Oirschot J, van Es M, Bruschke C. [Vaccination of calves with contaminated batches of bovine herpes virus 1 vaccines did not result in infection with bovine virus diarrhea virus]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2001;126:208-11 pubmed
    ..Thus vaccination of calves with vaccines from BHV1 marker vaccine batches contaminated with BVDV type 1 did not result in BVDV infections. ..
  27. Rogan D, Babiuk L. Novel vaccines from biotechnology. Rev Sci Tech. 2005;24:159-74 pubmed
  28. Kim D, Kaiser T, Horlen K, Keith M, Taylor L, Jolie R, et al. Insertion and deletion in a non-essential region of the nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus: effects on virulence and immunogenicity. Virus Genes. 2009;38:118-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The results from this study show that nsp2 is an important target for the development of marker vaccines and for virus attenuation.
  29. Bruschke C, Kamp E, Boersma W, Stockhofe Zurwieden N, Bouma A. [The effect of a high dose bovine herpes virus 1 marker vaccine in pregnant heifers: virological, bacteriological, immunological, and pathological findings]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2001;126:211-7 pubmed
    ..No concurrent infections were detected and there were no indications of immunosuppression after vaccination. No relationship between the BHV1 vaccination and wasting disease in cattle was detected. ..
  30. Meijer G, Bouma A, Verhoeff J. [Possibilities for further research of chronic wasting in dairy cows]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2001;126:223-5 pubmed
    ..However, due to the waning of the phenomenon, the availability of data and controls will be limiting. ..
  31. van Oirschot J. [Biotechnology for the benefit of vaccination against viral diseases: a review]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2002;127:7-16 pubmed
    ..Future research should he aimed at developing vaccines that approach the ideal as closely as possible and which are directed against diseases not yet controlled by vaccination and against newly emerging diseases. ..
  32. Schmitt B. Differential diagnostic test technology: sensitivity and specificity, an OIE validation perspective. Biologicals. 2005;33:211-3 pubmed
    Companion differential diagnostic technology is extremely useful when utilized with marker vaccines for disease control and eradication...
  33. Pastoret P. The place of marker vaccines in control and eradication of animal diseases--aspects of comparative interest. Dev Biol (Basel). 2005;121:181-8 pubmed
    ..The solution may come from the use of marker vaccines associated with companion diagnostic tests to make a distinction between infected and immunised animals by ..
  34. Capua I, Cattoli G, Marangon S. DIVA--a vaccination strategy enabling the detection of field exposure to avian influenza. Dev Biol (Basel). 2004;119:229-33 pubmed
    ..1 and 95.7, respectively. The results of the present investigation suggest that the "DIVA" control strategy may represent a tool to support the eradication of avian influenza infections in poultry. ..
  35. Bartels C, Barkema H, Beiboer M, Bouma A, Stegeman J. [Comparison of performance of dairy herds that were or were not vaccinated with a bovine herpes virus 1 marker vaccine in 1998]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2001;126:191-7 pubmed
    ..The sensitivity of the tests was very high, so with a high level of probability even very small differences in indices between groups would have been detected. ..
  36. Pastoret P, Jones P. Veterinary vaccines for animal and public health. Dev Biol (Basel). 2004;119:15-29 pubmed
    ..Examples will be given of foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, and herpesvirus infections of livestock such as pseudorabies or infectious bovine rhinotracheitis where carrier state or latency remain an issue after vaccination. ..
  37. Alvarez M, Bielsa J, Santos L, Makoschey B. Compatibility of a live infectious bovine rhinotraheitis (IBR) marker vaccine and an inactivated bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccine. Vaccine. 2007;25:6613-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the two vaccines can be applied at the same day for the first or second dose of the BVD basic vaccination and then at the booster vaccinations (third dose onwards). ..
  38. Goris N, De Clercq K. Quality assurance/quality control of foot and mouth disease solid phase competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay--Part I. Quality assurance: development of secondary and working standards. Rev Sci Tech. 2005;24:995-1004 pubmed
    ..The procedure outlined in this manuscript can easily be extrapolated to similar serological assays and should lead to further international harmonisation of assays and test results. ..
  39. Quintana J, Segales J, Calsamiglia M, Domingo M. Detection of porcine circovirus type 1 in commercial pig vaccines using polymerase chain reaction. Vet J. 2006;171:570-3 pubmed
    ..The study has also indicated the need for optimising the sensitivity of PCR methods for PCV genome detection in vaccine products. ..
  40. Ackermann M, Engels M. Pro and contra IBR-eradication. Vet Microbiol. 2006;113:293-302 pubmed
    ..Collaborative actions to gather viral strains from as many countries as possible for inclusion into a newly created clustering library would be most advantageous...
  41. Ziegler U, Kaden V. [Vaccination of weaner pigs against classical swine fever with the subunit vaccine "Porcilis Pesti": influence of different immunization plans on excretion and transmission of challenge virus]. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2002;115:267-73 pubmed
    ..The results of transmission of CSFV are discussed in relation to a potential use of subunit marker vaccines in CSF control.
  42. Ganges L, Barrera M, Núñez J, Blanco I, Frías M, Rodriguez F, et al. A DNA vaccine expressing the E2 protein of classical swine fever virus elicits T cell responses that can prime for rapid antibody production and confer total protection upon viral challenge. Vaccine. 2005;23:3741-52 pubmed
    ..The observation that CSFV antibodies could only be detected in protected animals after viral challenge opens the possibility of exploring the potential of the DNA vaccine approach used to develop marker vaccines against CSF.
  43. Uttenthal A, Parida S, Rasmussen T, Paton D, Haas B, Dundon W. Strategies for differentiating infection in vaccinated animals (DIVA) for foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever and avian influenza. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2010;9:73-87 pubmed publisher
    ..of only limited outbreaks, the use of Differentiation of Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA) or marker vaccines allows for vaccination while still retaining the possibility of serological surveillance for the presence of ..
  44. de Kruif A. [Did vaccination with an infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) marker vaccine on thirteen cattle farms give rise to chronic wasting among dairy cattle?]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2001;126:166-73 pubmed
  45. Chénard G, Selman P, Dekker A. Cedivac-FMD can be used according to a marker vaccine principle. Vet Microbiol. 2008;128:65-71 pubmed
    ..FMD-exposed animals can be detected in a vaccinated group within 7-14 days. Because Cedivac-FMD does not induce NSP antibodies, the principle of 'marker vaccine' applies. ..
  46. Edwards S. OIE standards for vaccines and future trends. Rev Sci Tech. 2007;26:373-8 pubmed
  47. Truyen U, Wilhelm S, Genzow M, Schagemann G. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): a ring test performed in Germany to assess RT-PCR detection methods. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2006;53:68-74 pubmed
    ..82% correctly tested samples and the two laboratories that analysed the differentiation package II showed only one correct result. The ring test showed that the majority of incorrect diagnoses were false-negative results. ..
  48. Fuchs W, Veits J, Mettenleiter T. [Recombinant viruses of poultry as vector vaccines against fowl plague]. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2006;119:160-6 pubmed
    ..This problem might be overcome by the use of genetically engineered marker vaccines which contain only the protective influenza virus hemagglutinin...
  49. Castillo Olivares J, Wieringa R, Bakonyi T, de Vries A, Davis Poynter N, Rottier P. Generation of a candidate live marker vaccine for equine arteritis virus by deletion of the major virus neutralization domain. J Virol. 2003;77:8470-80 pubmed
    ..EAV-G(L)Delta or similar mutants are therefore attractive marker vaccine candidates, enabling serological discrimination between vaccinated and wild-type virus-infected animals...
  50. Roth J. Foot-and-Mouth disease 'vaccination-to-live': possibilities and constraints. Dev Biol (Basel). 2004;119:267-72 pubmed
    ..The most effective improvements will occur if all these strategies are used in combination. ..
  51. Dong X, Chen Y. Spying the neutralizing epitopes on E2 N-terminal by candidate epitope-vaccines against classical swine fever virus. Vaccine. 2006;24:4029-34 pubmed
    ..Moreover, these findings also indicate that epitope-vaccine is a potent candidate strategy for marker vaccine against classical swine fever virus (CSFV). ..
  52. Bartels C, Barkema H, Beiboer M, Bouma A, Stegeman J. [Management and herd performance of dairy herds with and without chronic wasting disease]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2001;126:198-207 pubmed
    ..There were no differences in farm management practices related to disease control and prevention. Additional studies are required with regard to the patho-physiology of chronic wasting cows. The role of herd size needs more study. ..
  53. Lemaire M, Schynts F, Meyer G, Georgin J, Baranowski E, Gabriel A, et al. Latency and reactivation of a glycoprotein E negative bovine herpesvirus type 1 vaccine: influence of virus load and effect of specific maternal antibodies. Vaccine. 2001;19:4795-804 pubmed
    ..Moreover, this study shows for the first time that the gE-negative vaccine, when used in passively immunised calves, can lead to seronegative vaccine virus carriers...
  54. Depner K, Bouma A, Koenen F, Klinkenberg D, Lange E, de Smit H, et al. Classical swine fever (CSF) marker vaccine. Trial II. Challenge study in pregnant sows. Vet Microbiol. 2001;83:107-20 pubmed
    The efficacy of two marker vaccines against classical swine fever (CSF) was tested in a large scale laboratory trial in several National Swine Fever Laboratories (NSFL) of the EU member states...
  55. Dewulf J, Laevens H, Koenen F, Mintiens K, de Kruif A. Efficacy of E2-sub-unit marker and C-strain vaccines in reducing horizontal transmission of classical swine fever virus in weaner pigs. Prev Vet Med. 2004;65:121-33 pubmed
    ..two types of vaccines against classical swine fever (CSF) virus are commercially available: E2 sub-unit marker vaccines and the conventional attenuated live C-strain vaccines...
  56. grosse Beilage E, Bätza H. [PRRSV-eradication: an option for pig herds in Germany?]. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2007;120:470-9 pubmed
    ..The lack of potent marker vaccines that reduce the virus spread significantly, combined with the lack of differentiating diagnostic tests for ..
  57. Sen A, Saravanan P, Balamurugan V, Rajak K, Sudhakar S, Bhanuprakash V, et al. Vaccines against peste des petits ruminants virus. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2010;9:785-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we discuss available potent PPR vaccines and the future possibility of developing new-generation vaccines against PPR...
  58. Fowler V, Knowles N, Paton D, Barnett P. Marker vaccine potential of a foot-and-mouth disease virus with a partial VP1 G-H loop deletion. Vaccine. 2010;28:3428-34 pubmed publisher
    ..If this could be substantiated there would be potential to develop FMD marker vaccines, characterised by the absence of this region...
  59. Koenig P, Hoffmann B, Depner K, Reimann I, Teifke J, Beer M. Detection of classical swine fever vaccine virus in blood and tissue samples of pigs vaccinated either with a conventional C-strain vaccine or a modified live marker vaccine. Vet Microbiol. 2007;120:343-51 pubmed
    ..v., while tonsil sampling provided appropriate material for long-term detection of both tested CSF vaccine viruses using real-time RT-PCR methods...
  60. Loeffen W. [Persistent infection with the classical swine fever virus in vaccinated animals: a risk factor?]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2008;133:482-4 pubmed
  61. Floegel Niesmann G. Classical swine fever (CSF) marker vaccine. Trial III. Evaluation of discriminatory ELISAs. Vet Microbiol. 2001;83:121-36 pubmed
    The objective of the marker vaccine trial was to test the two available CSF marker vaccines in scenarios which are likely to occur in the field and to evaluate the reliability of the discriminatory tests...