inactivated vaccines


Summary: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.

Top Publications

  1. Li Y, Stirling C, Denyer M, Hamblin P, Hutchings G, Takamatsu H, et al. Dramatic improvement in FMD DNA vaccine efficacy and cross-serotype antibody induction in pigs following a protein boost. Vaccine. 2008;26:2647-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Most remarkably, a significant level of cross-serotype reactivity was observed against A, C and Asia1 in the virus neutralisation and ELISA tests. This prime-boost strategy fully protected pigs from a heterologous challenge. ..
  2. Goji N, Nolan C, Hill H, Wolff M, Noah D, Williams T, et al. Immune responses of healthy subjects to a single dose of intramuscular inactivated influenza A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) vaccine after priming with an antigenic variant. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:635-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that priming can result in immune responses to a single dose of an antigenically variant strain of H5N1 influenza virus and could be a useful strategy for pandemic control. identifier: NCT00240903. ..
  3. Mapletoft J, Oumouna M, Kovacs Nolan J, Latimer L, Mutwiri G, Babiuk L, et al. Intranasal immunization of mice with a formalin-inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus vaccine co-formulated with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and polyphosphazenes results in enhanced protection. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:250-60 pubmed
    ..Co-formulation of CpG ODN and PP is a promising new vaccine platform technology that may have applications in mucosal immunization in humans. ..
  4. Pappas C, Matsuoka Y, Swayne D, Donis R. Development and evaluation of an Influenza virus subtype H7N2 vaccine candidate for pandemic preparedness. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2007;14:1425-32 pubmed
    ..These studies indicate that H7N2-PR8 is immunogenic, safe, and protective in animal models; these are the essential attributes to qualify for phase I human clinical trials as a prepandemic vaccine. ..
  5. Ferguson M, Johnes S, Li L, Heath A, Barrett A. Effect of genomic variation in the challenge virus on the neutralization titres of recipients of inactivated JE vaccines--report of a collaborative study on PRNT50 assays for Japanese encephalitis virus (JE) antibodies. Biologicals. 2008;36:111-6 pubmed
  6. Belongia E, Kieke B, Donahue J, Greenlee R, Balish A, Foust A, et al. Effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccines varied substantially with antigenic match from the 2004-2005 season to the 2006-2007 season. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:159-67 pubmed publisher
    ..VE estimates that used data from test-negative control subjects were consistently higher than those that used data from traditional control subjects. ..
  7. Beran J, Wertzova V, Honegr K, Kaliskova E, Havlickova M, Havlik J, et al. Challenge of conducting a placebo-controlled randomized efficacy study for influenza vaccine in a season with low attack rate and a mismatched vaccine B strain: a concrete example. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:2 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical trial registery: NCT00197223. ..
  8. Huang M, Huang C, Lin S, Chen J, Ku C, Chou A, et al. Enhancement of potent antibody and T-cell responses by a single-dose, novel nanoemulsion-formulated pandemic influenza vaccine. Microbes Infect. 2009;11:654-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that PELC can be used for effective single-dose immunization and could thus play an important role in influenza pandemic preparedness. ..
  9. Bungener L, Geeraedts F, ter Veer W, Medema J, Wilschut J, Huckriede A. Alum boosts TH2-type antibody responses to whole-inactivated virus influenza vaccine in mice but does not confer superior protection. Vaccine. 2008;26:2350-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Major difference between these groups of mice was the type of immune response induced, TH2 instead of TH1, indicating that a TH1 response plays a major role in viral clearance. ..

More Information


  1. Jadhao S, Achenbach J, Swayne D, Donis R, Cox N, Matsuoka Y. Development of Eurasian H7N7/PR8 high growth reassortant virus for clinical evaluation as an inactivated pandemic influenza vaccine. Vaccine. 2008;26:1742-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The vaccine candidate virus satisfied the agricultural safety requirements for chickens, proved safe in mice, and has entered in phase-I human clinical trial in the United States. ..
  2. Xiao W, Du L, Liang C, Guan J, Jiang S, Lustigman S, et al. Evaluation of recombinant Onchocerca volvulus activation associated protein-1 (ASP-1) as a potent Th1-biased adjuvant with a panel of protein or peptide-based antigens and commercial inactivated vaccines. Vaccine. 2008;26:5022-9 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV peptide (HIV-p), recombinant HIV gp41 (rgp41) and HBV HBsAg, as well as three commercially available inactivated vaccines against haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), Influenza and Rabies...
  3. Freer G, Matteucci D, Mazzetti P, Tarabella F, Catalucci V, Ricci E, et al. Evaluation of feline monocyte-derived dendritic cells loaded with internally inactivated virus as a vaccine against feline immunodeficiency virus. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15:452-9 pubmed publisher
  4. Hu A, Weng T, Tseng Y, Chen Y, Wu C, Hsiao S, et al. Microcarrier-based MDCK cell culture system for the production of influenza H5N1 vaccines. Vaccine. 2008;26:5736-40 pubmed publisher
  5. Schmidt Ott R, Schwarz T, Haase R, Sander H, Walther U, Fourneau M, et al. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a trivalent influenza split vaccine in previously unvaccinated children aged 6-9 and 10-13 years. Vaccine. 2007;26:32-40 pubmed
  6. Geeraedts F, Bungener L, Pool J, ter Veer W, Wilschut J, Huckriede A. Whole inactivated virus influenza vaccine is superior to subunit vaccine in inducing immune responses and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by DCs. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2008;2:41-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that vaccination with WIV in contrast to VS or SU results in the desired Th1 response presumably by induction of type I interferon and other proinflammatory cytokines. ..
  7. Eschbaumer M, Hoffmann B, König P, Teifke J, Gethmann J, Conraths F, et al. Efficacy of three inactivated vaccines against bluetongue virus serotype 8 in sheep. Vaccine. 2009;27:4169-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Only one vaccinated animal was very weakly positive in the real-time RT-PCR at day 10 after challenge infection, and one seronegative sheep in one of the vaccine groups was not protected. ..
  8. Adakal H, Stachurski F, Konkobo M, Zoungrana S, Meyer D, Pinarello V, et al. Efficiency of inactivated vaccines against heartwater in Burkina Faso: impact of Ehrlichia ruminantium genetic diversity. Vaccine. 2010;28:4573-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Map1 genotyping of strains detected in brains from control sheep showed that genotype distribution varied according to time and study areas, which could explain the difference in efficacy of the vaccine...
  9. Ohmit S, Victor J, Teich E, Truscon R, Rotthoff J, Newton D, et al. Prevention of symptomatic seasonal influenza in 2005-2006 by inactivated and live attenuated vaccines. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:312-7 pubmed publisher
    ..we continued our trial, examining the absolute and relative efficacies of the live attenuated and inactivated vaccines in preventing laboratory-confirmed symptomatic influenza...
  10. Kai Y, Chi S. Efficacies of inactivated vaccines against betanodavirus in grouper larvae (Epinephelus coioides) by bath immunization. Vaccine. 2008;26:1450-7 pubmed publisher
    ..1-0.2% formalin-inactivated vaccines (39-43)...
  11. Leroux Roels I, Vets E, Freese R, Seiberling M, Weber F, Salamand C, et al. Seasonal influenza vaccine delivered by intradermal microinjection: A randomised controlled safety and immunogenicity trial in adults. Vaccine. 2008;26:6614-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Intradermal TIV induced non-inferior humoral immune responses against all three strains and superior responses against both A strains (H1N1, H3N2) compared with the control. Both vaccines were well tolerated. ..
  12. Delrue I, Delputte P, Nauwynck H. Assessing the functionality of viral entry-associated domains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus during inactivation procedures, a potential tool to optimize inactivated vaccines. Vet Res. 2009;40:62 pubmed publisher
    ..Although PRRSV incubation at 37 degrees C can completely inactivate PRRSV with preservation of entry-associated domains, this method is not recommended for vaccine development, since the mechanism is yet unknown. ..
  13. Wäckerlin R, Eschbaumer M, König P, Hoffmann B, Beer M. Evaluation of humoral response and protective efficacy of three inactivated vaccines against bluetongue virus serotype 8 one year after vaccination of sheep and cattle. Vaccine. 2010;28:4348-55 pubmed publisher
    The long-term efficacy of three commercially available inactivated vaccines against bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) (BLUEVAC) 8, Zulvac 8, and BTVPUR AlSap 8) was evaluated in a seroprevalence study and challenge experiments...
  14. Geeraedts F, Goutagny N, Hornung V, Severa M, de Haan A, Pool J, et al. Superior immunogenicity of inactivated whole virus H5N1 influenza vaccine is primarily controlled by Toll-like receptor signalling. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000138 pubmed publisher
  15. Fine D, Jenkins E, Martin S, Glass P, Parker M, Grimm B. A multisystem approach for development and evaluation of inactivated vaccines for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). J Virol Methods. 2010;163:424-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The combination of in vitro and in vivo assays provides a practical approach to optimize manufacturing process parameters for development of other inactivated viral vaccines. ..
  16. Garmise R, Staats H, Hickey A. Novel dry powder preparations of whole inactivated influenza virus for nasal vaccination. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2007;8:E81 pubmed publisher
    ..It was concluded that enhanced serum and mucosal antibody responses were elicited by a dry powder nasal vaccine, specifically, administered in the presence of sodium alginate. ..
  17. Holland D, Booy R, De Looze F, Eizenberg P, McDonald J, Karrasch J, et al. Intradermal influenza vaccine administered using a new microinjection system produces superior immunogenicity in elderly adults: a randomized controlled trial. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:650-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This was done using an easy-to-use, reliable microinjection system. This superior response is expected to enhance annual protection against influenza in this vulnerable population. registry number: NCT00296829. ..
  18. Hagenaars N, Mastrobattista E, Glansbeek H, Heldens J, van den Bosch H, Schijns V, et al. Head-to-head comparison of four nonadjuvanted inactivated cell culture-derived influenza vaccines: effect of composition, spatial organization and immunization route on the immunogenicity in a murine challenge model. Vaccine. 2008;26:6555-63 pubmed publisher
  19. Zeman A, Holmes T, Stamatis S, Tu W, He X, Bouvier N, et al. Humoral and cellular immune responses in children given annual immunization with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26:107-15 pubmed
  20. Rose G, Cooper C. Fluarix, inactivated split-virus influenza vaccine. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2006;6:301-10 pubmed
    ..Other directions to explore in an effort to secure future vaccine supply are considered. ..
  21. Moghaddam A, Olszewska W, Wang B, Tregoning J, Helson R, Sattentau Q, et al. A potential molecular mechanism for hypersensitivity caused by formalin-inactivated vaccines. Nat Med. 2006;12:905-7 pubmed
  22. Lu X, Edwards L, Desheva J, Nguyen D, Rekstin A, Stephenson I, et al. Cross-protective immunity in mice induced by live-attenuated or inactivated vaccines against highly pathogenic influenza A (H5N1) viruses. Vaccine. 2006;24:6588-93 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrated that vaccination of mice with H5 IIV or LAIV induced a high degree of cross-protection from illness and death following lethal challenges with a heterologous H5N1 virus. ..
  23. He X, Holmes T, Zhang C, Mahmood K, Kemble G, Lewis D, et al. Cellular immune responses in children and adults receiving inactivated or live attenuated influenza vaccines. J Virol. 2006;80:11756-66 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our findings identify age, type of vaccine, and prevaccination levels of immune reactivity to influenza A virus as factors significantly associated with the magnitude of cellular immune responses to influenza vaccines. ..
  24. Lin J, Zhang J, Dong X, Fang H, Chen J, Su N, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated adjuvanted whole-virion influenza A (H5N1) vaccine: a phase I randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2006;368:991-7 pubmed
    ..The use of a whole virion vaccine could be more adaptable to the antigen-sparing strategy recommended by WHO for protection against an influenza pandemic. ..
  25. Stephenson I, Zambon M, Rudin A, Colegate A, Podda A, Bugarini R, et al. Phase I evaluation of intranasal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine with nontoxigenic Escherichia coli enterotoxin and novel biovector as mucosal adjuvants, using adult volunteers. J Virol. 2006;80:4962-70 pubmed
    ..The addition of the biovector to the vaccine given with 30 microg LTK63 enhanced mucosal IgA responses to A/Duck/Singapore (H5N3) (P=0.0491) and B/Guandong (P=0.0028) but not to A/Panama (H3N2). All vaccines were well tolerated. ..
  26. Desheva J, Lu X, Rekstin A, Rudenko L, Swayne D, Cox N, et al. Characterization of an influenza A H5N2 reassortant as a candidate for live-attenuated and inactivated vaccines against highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses with pandemic potential. Vaccine. 2006;24:6859-66 pubmed
    ..suggest a new strategy of using classical genetic reassortment between a high-growth ca H2N2 strain and antigenically related non-pathogenic avian viruses to prepare live-attenuated and inactivated vaccines for influenza pandemic.
  27. Kistner O, Howard M, Spruth M, Wodal W, Brühl P, Gerencer M, et al. Cell culture (Vero) derived whole virus (H5N1) vaccine based on wild-type virus strain induces cross-protective immune responses. Vaccine. 2007;25:6028-36 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that cell culture-grown whole virus vaccines, based on the wild-type virus, allow the rapid high yield production of a candidate pandemic vaccine. ..
  28. Heckler R, Baillot A, Engelmann H, Neumeier E, Windorfer A. Cross-protection against homologous drift variants of influenza A and B after vaccination with split vaccine. Intervirology. 2007;50:58-62 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate that in situations where drift variants emerge too late to be included in the influenza vaccine formulation, the cross-protection conferred must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. ..
  29. Philippa J, Baas C, Beyer W, Bestebroer T, Fouchier R, Smith D, et al. Vaccination against highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in zoos using an adjuvanted inactivated H5N2 vaccine. Vaccine. 2007;25:3800-8 pubmed
  30. Ohmit S, Victor J, Rotthoff J, Teich E, Truscon R, Baum L, et al. Prevention of antigenically drifted influenza by inactivated and live attenuated vaccines. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:2513-22 pubmed
    ..The live attenuated vaccine also prevented influenza illnesses but was less efficacious. ( number, NCT00133523.) ..
  31. Treanor J, Campbell J, Zangwill K, Rowe T, Wolff M. Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated subvirion influenza A (H5N1) vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:1343-51 pubmed
    ..A conventional subvirion H5 influenza vaccine may be effective in preventing influenza A (H5N1) disease in humans. ( number, NCT00115986.). ..
  32. Mullbacher A, Lobigs M, Alsharifi M, Regner M. Cytotoxic T-cell immunity as a target for influenza vaccines. Lancet Infect Dis. 2006;6:255-6 pubmed
  33. Dennis C. Flu-vaccine makers toil to boost supply. Nature. 2006;440:1099 pubmed
  34. Halperin S, Smith B, Clarke K, Treanor J, Mabrouk T, Germain M. Phase I, randomized, controlled trial to study the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a nasal, inactivated trivalent influenza virus vaccine in healthy adults. Hum Vaccin. 2005;1:37-42 pubmed
    ..We conclude that this trivalent, split virion, inactivated nasal influenza vaccine formulated with lipid/polysaccharide molecule carriers is well tolerated and modestly immunogenic in healthy adults. ..
  35. Sasaki S, Jaimes M, Holmes T, Dekker C, Mahmood K, Kemble G, et al. Comparison of the influenza virus-specific effector and memory B-cell responses to immunization of children and adults with live attenuated or inactivated influenza virus vaccines. J Virol. 2007;81:215-28 pubmed
  36. Ninomiya A, Imai M, Tashiro M, Odagiri T. Inactivated influenza H5N1 whole-virus vaccine with aluminum adjuvant induces homologous and heterologous protective immunities against lethal challenge with highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses in a mouse model. Vaccine. 2007;25:3554-60 pubmed
    ..Our study suggests that rgHK213/03 vaccine is still useful as a backup vaccine for recent H5N1 viruses and that if rgVNJP1203/04 vaccine is employed, more vaccine antigen would be necessary to induce sufficient immunity. ..
  37. Bertelsen M, Klausen J, Holm E, Grøndahl C, Jørgensen P. Serological response to vaccination against avian influenza in zoo-birds using an inactivated H5N9 vaccine. Vaccine. 2007;25:4345-9 pubmed
  38. Ishikawa T, Takasaki T, Kurane I, Nukuzuma S, Kondo T, Konishi E. Co-immunization with West Nile DNA and inactivated vaccines provides synergistic increases in their immunogenicities in mice. Microbes Infect. 2007;9:1089-95 pubmed
    ..1 microg induced a titer of 1:40 at a 90% plaque reduction 6 or 9 weeks after immunization. Both IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies were induced in mice by co-immunization with the DNA and protein vaccines. ..
  39. Middleton D, Bingham J, Selleck P, Lowther S, Gleeson L, Lehrbach P, et al. Efficacy of inactivated vaccines against H5N1 avian influenza infection in ducks. Virology. 2007;359:66-71 pubmed
    ..While both vaccines protected against morbidity, the monovalent vaccine provided effective protection, with no evidence of shedding of the challenge virus and no serological response to the H5N1 challenge virus. ..
  40. Lierz M, Hafez H, Klopfleisch R, Lüschow D, Prusas C, Teifke J, et al. Protection and virus shedding of falcons vaccinated against highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1). Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1667-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Vaccination could protect these valuable birds and, through reduced virus shedding, reduce risk for transmission to other avian species and humans...
  41. Du N, Li W, Li Y, Liu S, Sui Y, Qu Z, et al. Generation and evaluation of the trivalent inactivated reassortant vaccine using human, avian, and swine influenza A viruses. Vaccine. 2008;26:2912-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This kind of multivalent inactivated reassortant influenza vaccine maybe enlightens the pandemic influenza preparedness as the emergency measure. ..
  42. Riitho V, Walters A, Somavarapu S, Lamp B, Rümenapf T, Krey T, et al. Design and evaluation of the immunogenicity and efficacy of a biomimetic particulate formulation of viral antigens. Sci Rep. 2017;7:13743 pubmed publisher
    Subunit viral vaccines are typically not as efficient as live attenuated or inactivated vaccines at inducing protective immune responses...
  43. Guo Z, Wang H, Yang T, Wang X, Lu D, Li Y, et al. Priming with a DNA vaccine and boosting with an inactivated vaccine enhance the immune response against infectious bronchitis virus. J Virol Methods. 2010;167:84-9 pubmed publisher
    The methods of repeated immunization with inactivated vaccines have been used widely to increase antibody protection against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV)...
  44. Ehrenfeld E, Modlin J, Chumakov K. Future of polio vaccines. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2009;8:899-905 pubmed publisher
    ..Combination products containing inactivated poliovirus vaccine and other protective antigens should become part of routine childhood immunizations around the world. ..
  45. Enserink M. Animal disease. Exotic disease of farm animals tests Europe's responses. Science. 2008;319:710-1 pubmed publisher
  46. Zangwill K, Treanor J, Campbell J, Noah D, Ryea J. Evaluation of the safety and immunogenicity of a booster (third) dose of inactivated subvirion H5N1 influenza vaccine in humans. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:580-3 pubmed publisher
    ..5-mug-dose groups had a MN GMT > or =1:40, respectively. Five months later, MN GMTs were significantly greater than those after the second dose. ( Clinical identifier NCT00240968 .). ..
  47. Huber V, Kleimeyer L, McCullers J. Live, attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vehicles are strong inducers of immunity toward influenza B virus. Vaccine. 2008;26:5381-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results differ from generally accepted influenza A virus vaccine models, and argue that strategies for control of influenza B virus should be considered separately from those for influenza A virus. ..
  48. Whelan A, Wright D, Chambers M, Singh M, Hewinson R, Vordermeier H. Evidence for enhanced central memory priming by live Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine in comparison with killed BCG formulations. Vaccine. 2008;26:166-73 pubmed
    ..Measurement of central memory responses induced by TB vaccine candidates in cattle may provide a useful correlate of protection and warrants further investigation in challenge experiments. ..
  49. Doherty P, Kelso A. Toward a broadly protective influenza vaccine. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:3273-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These peptides could be used to add a CD8+ T cell component to current antibody-focused vaccine strategies with a view to reducing the impact of infection with novel influenza A viruses. ..
  50. McCullers J. Evolution, benefits, and shortcomings of vaccine management. J Manag Care Pharm. 2007;13:S2-6 pubmed
    ..More recently, a variety of adjuvant strategies have been developed to improve the immunogenicity of inactivated vaccines, and genetic engineering has been employed to increase the safety, reduce the reactogenicity, and improve ..
  51. Hwang S, Shin J, Ku K, Kim H, Cho S, Seo S. Protection of pregnant mice, fetuses and neonates from lethality of H5N1 influenza viruses by maternal vaccination. Vaccine. 2010;28:2957-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that maternal vaccination may be critical for protecting pregnant animals, their fetuses, and their infant mice from lethal infections of H5N1 influenza viruses. ..
  52. Chen J, Zhang F, Fang F, Chang H, Chen Z. Vaccination with hemagglutinin or neuraminidase DNA protects BALB/c mice against influenza virus infection in presence of maternal antibody. BMC Infect Dis. 2007;7:118 pubmed
    ..If mothers are immunized with inactivated vaccine, NA DNA vaccine for the offspring shall be effective; and if mothers are immunized with HA (NA) DNA, NA (HA) DNA for the offspring shall be effective. ..
  53. Mingala C, Konnai S, Venturina F, Onuma M, Ohashi K. Quantification of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) cytokine expression in response to inactivated foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine. Res Vet Sci. 2009;87:213-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This assessment of the cytokine expressions is vital for the study of water buffalo disease progression and concurring protective immune responses...
  54. Whitlock G, Lukaszewski R, Judy B, Paessler S, Torres A, Estes D. Host immunity in the protective response to vaccination with heat-killed Burkholderia mallei. BMC Immunol. 2008;9:55 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed initial cell, cytokine and complement depletion studies to investigate the possible role of these effectors in response to vaccination with heat-killed Burkholderia mallei in a susceptible BALB/c mouse model of infection...
  55. Leong M, Babbitt W, Vyas G. A hollow-fiber bioreactor for expanding HIV-1 in human lymphocytes used in preparing an inactivated vaccine candidate. Biologicals. 2007;35:227-33 pubmed
    ..0g/L glucose produced the highest p24 yield; however, CD8D-CS, 20-30% FBS and 80 IU/mL IL-2 within 5kDa cartridges and 2.0 g/L glucose in the circulating medium was more cost-effective for synthesis of virion p24. ..
  56. Fiore A, Uyeki T, Broder K, Finelli L, Euler G, Singleton J, et al. Prevention and control of influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2010. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010;59:1-62 pubmed
    ..Vaccination and health-care providers should be alert to announcements of recommendation updates and should check the CDC influenza website periodically for additional information. ..
  57. Ozkul A, Demir B, Karaoglu T, Alkan F, Dincer E, Oncel T, et al. Maturation of immunoglobulin G avidity after inactive gE deleted bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) marker vaccination. Viral Immunol. 2008;21:3-11 pubmed publisher
    ..40 +/- 23.9, and it increased to 97 +/- 8.9 after the booster vaccination. The increase in AI for both groups after the second vaccinations was found to be significant (p < 0.001). ..
  58. Hamers C, Rehbein S, Hudelet P, Blanchet M, Lapostolle B, Cariou C, et al. Protective duration of immunity of an inactivated bluetongue (BTV) serotype 2 vaccine against a virulent BTV serotype 2 challenge in sheep. Vaccine. 2009;27:2789-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show that a single dose of the BTV-2 vaccine given to sheep induces a strong immunity which confers protection for at least one year. ..
  59. Vajo Z, Kosa L, Szilvasy I, Pauliny Z, Bartha K, Visontay I, et al. Yearly licensing studies from 1997 to 2007 of the inactivated whole virus seasonal influenza vaccine fluval--a useful approach to pandemic vaccine development even in less well developed countries?. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2008;2:221-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the method presented is safe, effective and may serve as a useful approach to seasonal and pandemic vaccine production even in less well-developed countries by means of technological transfer. ..
  60. Leiderman Y, Lessell S, Cestari D. Recurrent isolated sixth nerve palsy after consecutive annual influenza vaccinations in a child. J AAPOS. 2009;13:317-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The temporal relation to the immunizations supports but does not prove that the influenza immunization regimen was responsible. ..
  61. Timsit E, Le Dréan E, Maingourd C, Belloc C, Guatteo R, Bareille N, et al. Detection by real-time RT-PCR of a bovine respiratory syncytial virus vaccine in calves vaccinated intranasally. Vet Rec. 2009;165:230-3 pubmed
    ..Twelve of the calves were positive only before day 14 and three were positive after day 14. The nasal shedding of BRSV vaccine virus was very variable. ..
  62. Kumar D, Morris M, Kotton C, Fischer S, Michaels M, Allen U, et al. Guidance on novel influenza A/H1N1 in solid organ transplant recipients. Am J Transplant. 2010;10:18-25 pubmed publisher
    ..As new information emerges about novel H1N1, updates will be made to the electronic version of the document posted on the websites of the AST and TTS. ..
  63. Miyaki C, Quintilio W, Miyaji E, Botosso V, Kubrusly F, Santos F, et al. Production of H5N1 (NIBRG-14) inactivated whole virus and split virion influenza vaccines and analysis of immunogenicity in mice using different adjuvant formulations. Vaccine. 2010;28:2505-9 pubmed publisher
    ..75 microg HA and HAI titers were higher than those induced by the split virion vaccine. Moreover, the use of Al(OH)(3) with MPLA as an emulsion induced a further increase in HAI titers. ..
  64. Giunchetti R, Correa Oliveira R, Martins Filho O, Teixeira Carvalho A, Roatt B, de Oliveira Aguiar Soares R, et al. Immunogenicity of a killed Leishmania vaccine with saponin adjuvant in dogs. Vaccine. 2007;25:7674-86 pubmed
    ..chagasi soluble antigens, the candidate vaccine elicited an immune activation status potentially compatible with effective control of the etiological agent of CVL. ..
  65. Couch R. Seasonal inactivated influenza virus vaccines. Vaccine. 2008;26 Suppl 4:D5-9 pubmed publisher
  66. Mossad S. Larger dose of intradermal influenza vaccination may be more immunogenic in transplant recipients. Am J Transplant. 2008;8:1073; author reply 1074 pubmed publisher
  67. Kapczynski D, Perkins L, Sellers H. Mucosal vaccination with formalin-inactivated avian metapneumovirus subtype C does not protect turkeys following intranasal challenge. Avian Dis. 2008;52:28-33 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these results it is concluded that intranasal vaccination with inactivated aMPV does not induce protective immunity, reduce virus shedding, or result in decreased histopathologic lesions. ..