diphtheria tetanus vaccine


Summary: A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.

Top Publications

  1. Halperin S, Sweet L, Baxendale D, Neatby A, Rykers P, Smith B, et al. How soon after a prior tetanus-diphtheria vaccination can one give adult formulation tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine?. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;25:195-200 pubmed
    ..Although there is a slight increase in injection site events with decreasing interval since a previous immunization, Tdap can be safely administered at intervals of > or = 18 months since a previous TD/Td vaccine. ..
  2. Trollfors B, Taranger J, Lagergard T, Sundh V. Reduced immunogenicity of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids when combined with pertussis toxoid. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24:85-6 pubmed
    ..15 versus 0.10 IU/mL, P < 0.0001; tetanus toxoid 0.38 versus 0.18 IU/mL, P < 0.0001). Pertussis toxoid causes a small but significant reduction of the immunogenicity of diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid. ..
  3. Lee G, Lebaron C, Murphy T, Lett S, Schauer S, Lieu T. Pertussis in adolescents and adults: should we vaccinate?. Pediatrics. 2005;115:1675-84 pubmed
    ..Routine pertussis vaccination of adolescents results in net health benefits and may be relatively cost-effective. ..
  4. Puumalainen T, Zeta Capeding M, Kayhty H, Lucero M, Auranen K, Leroy O, et al. Antibody response to an eleven valent diphtheria- and tetanus-conjugated pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Filipino infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002;21:309-14 pubmed
    ..The GMCs against most pneumococcal serotypes were substantially higher than described with the same or other pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in other populations. ..
  5. Chen R, Hardy I, Rhodes P, Tyshchenko D, Moiseeva A, Marievsky V. Ukraine, 1992: first assessment of diphtheria vaccine effectiveness during the recent resurgence of diphtheria in the Former Soviet Union. J Infect Dis. 2000;181 Suppl 1:S178-83 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that initial priority for scarce resources for controlling this outbreak should be placed on vaccination of persons susceptible to diphtheria (e.g., adults) rather than revaccination of children. ..
  6. Wilson T, Fishbein D, Ellis P, Edlavitch S. The impact of a school entry law on adolescent immunization rates. J Adolesc Health. 2005;37:511-6 pubmed
    ..Results suggested that laws did not appear to completely overcome disparities. For school mandates to be more effective, additional efforts, presumably on enforcement, especially in areas with lower socioeconomic indicators, are needed. ..
  7. Ramsay M, Joce R, Whalley J. Adverse events after school leavers received combined tetanus and low dose diphtheria vaccine. Commun Dis Rep CDR Rev. 1997;7:R65-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that, in the absence of a supply of low dose diphtheria vaccine, offering Td vaccine to children with a history of additional tetanus booster is an acceptable policy. ..
  8. Bartels I, Jüngert J, Lugauer S, Stehr K, Heininger U. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a single dose of a diphtheria--tetanus--acellular pertussis component vaccine (DTaP) compared to a diphtheria--tetanus toxoid (Td) and a diphtheria toxoid vaccine (d) in adults. Vaccine. 2001;19:3137-45 pubmed
  9. Gardner P. Issues related to the decennial tetanus-diphtheria toxoid booster recommendations in adults. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2001;15:143-53, ix-x pubmed
    ..Careful risk/benefit studies are necessary to evaluate its effectiveness and priority...

More Information


  1. Lagergard T, Trollfors B, Claesson B, Karlberg J, Taranger J. Determination of neutralizing antibodies and specific immunoglobulin isotype levels in infants after vaccination against diphtheria. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1992;11:341-5 pubmed
    ..The decline of the antibody titers indicates a need for further studies to establish the duration of protection. ..
  2. Zeng H, He Y, Yu Y, Zhang J, Zeng X, Gong F, et al. Resveratrol improves prostate fibrosis during progression of urinary dysfunction in chronic prostatitis by mast cell suppression. Mol Med Rep. 2018;17:918-924 pubmed publisher
    ..Resveratrol may improve fibrosis via the suppression of MC activation and TGF??/Wnt/??catenin pathway activities. ..
  3. Cassidy W, Jones G, Williams K, Deforest A, Forghani B, Virella G, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of concomitant versus nonconcomitant administration of hepatitis B, tetanus-diphtheria, and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines in healthy eleven- to twelve-year-olds. J Adolesc Health. 2005;36:187-92 pubmed
    ..Concomitant HB, Td, and MMR vaccination in 11-12-year-olds is as safe and immunogenic as nonconcomitant vaccination. ..
  4. Dittmann S, Wharton M, Vitek C, Ciotti M, Galazka A, Guichard S, et al. Successful control of epidemic diphtheria in the states of the Former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: lessons learned. J Infect Dis. 2000;181 Suppl 1:S10-22 pubmed
    ..Continued investment in improved vaccines, control strategies, training, and laboratory techniques is needed. ..
  5. Raberg L, Stjernman M. Natural selection on immune responsiveness in blue tits Parus caeruleus. Evolution. 2003;57:1670-8 pubmed
  6. Somani J, Lonial S, Rosenthal H, Resnick S, Kakhniashvili I, Waller E. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of subcutaneous administration of GM-CSF as a vaccine adjuvant: effect on cellular and humoral immune responses. Vaccine. 2002;21:221-30 pubmed
    ..Recipients of GM-CSF did not develop significantly higher numbers of TT responsive T-cells after vaccination compared to recipients who received placebo. ..
  7. Ellis J. 2 diseases + 1 shot = 10 years of protection. Home Healthc Nurse. 2003;21:497 pubmed
  8. Bayas J, Vilella A, Bertran M, Vidal J, Batalla J, Asenjo M, et al. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the adult tetanus-diphtheria vaccine. How many doses are necessary?. Epidemiol Infect. 2001;127:451-60 pubmed
    ..These results confirm the need for vaccination schedules adapted to the characteristics of each population age-group. ..
  9. Neguţ E, Durbaca S, Usein C, Geamal S, Patru C, Carlan D, et al. Investigation of the results obtained following repeated boosters with Di-Te vaccine in HIV positive children. Roum Arch Microbiol Immunol. 2000;59:5-17 pubmed
    ..The efficacy of their administration (vaccinal coverage degree, level of secreted antitoxins, the persistency of the immune response) and their influence upon the subsequent evolution of HIV infection are investigated. ..
  10. Fukuda T, Iwaki M, Komiya T, Arakawa Y, Takahashi M. Attempt to curtail the observation period of mice in the tetanus vaccine potency tests. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2004;57:257-9 pubmed
    ..No significant difference was found (P = 0.05), indicating that the observation period could be curtailed from 7 days to 4 days without impairing the assessment of the vaccine's potency. ..
  11. Rønne T, Valentelis R, Tarum S, Griskevica A, Wachmann C, Aggerbeck H, et al. Immune response to diphtheria booster vaccine in the Baltic states. J Infect Dis. 2000;181 Suppl 1:S213-9 pubmed
    ..There was not a significantly different antibody response among persons receiving the three different doses. Age and the level of prevaccination immunity had a modifying effect on the response to vaccination; however, sex did not. ..
  12. Murhekar M, Bitragunta S, Hutin Y, Ckakravarty A, Sharma H, Gupte M. Immunization coverage and immunity to diphtheria and tetanus among children in Hyderabad, India. J Infect. 2009;58:191-6 pubmed publisher
    ..It is necessary to improve booster coverage especially among Muslims. Vaccinating school children at school entry and periodic boosters thereafter will increase immunity among children. ..
  13. Raberg L, Stjernman M, Hasselquist D. Immune responsiveness in adult blue tits: heritability and effects of nutritional status during ontogeny. Oecologia. 2003;136:360-4 pubmed
  14. Nilsson L, Kjellman N, Bjorksten B. Allergic disease at the age of 7 years after pertussis vaccination in infancy: results from the follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of 3 vaccines. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003;157:1184-9 pubmed
  15. Fitze P, Tschirren B, Gasparini J, Richner H. Carotenoid-based plumage colors and immune function: is there a trade-off for rare carotenoids?. Am Nat. 2007;169 Suppl 1:S137-44 pubmed publisher
  16. Berti F, Costantino P, Fragai M, Luchinat C. Water accessibility, aggregation, and motional features of polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines. Biophys J. 2004;86:3-9 pubmed
    ..The above findings are largely independent on the nature of the polysaccharide and thus provide a fairly general picture of the dynamic properties of glycoconjugate proteins. ..
  17. Ilmonen P, Taarna T, Hasselquist D. Experimentally activated immune defence in female pied flycatchers results in reduced breeding success. Proc Biol Sci. 2000;267:665-70 pubmed
  18. Dinelli M, Fisberg M, de Moraes Pinto M. Tetanus and diphtheria immunity in adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2007;40:259-63 pubmed
    ..However, these data indicate that more emphasis should be placed on the tetanus-diphtheria booster in order to avoid a decay in antibody levels...
  19. Peyre M, Sesardic D, Merkle H, Gander B, Johansen P. An experimental divalent vaccine based on biodegradable microspheres induces protective immunity against tetanus and diphtheria. J Pharm Sci. 2003;92:957-66 pubmed
  20. Ciofi Degli Atti M, Salmaso S, Cotter B, Gallo G, Alfarone G, Pinto A, et al. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of adult versus paediatric diphtheria and tetanus booster dose at 6 years of age. Vaccine. 2001;20:74-9 pubmed
    ..001). The higher antibody response and the comparable reactogenicity indicate that DT should be used as booster at school-entry, particularly if additional booster doses during adolescence or adulthood are not administered. ..
  21. Stürchler M, Steffen R. [Vaccinations for overseas travelers--new evidence and recommendations]. Ther Umsch. 2001;58:362-6 pubmed
    ..Cholera vaccination is virtually never indicated. Several vaccines can be delivered at the same time. ..
  22. Volzke H, Kloker K, Kramer A, Guertler L, Doren M, Baumeister S, et al. Susceptibility to diphtheria in adults: prevalence and relationship to gender and social variables. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006;12:961-7 pubmed
    ..Women lacked seroprotection more often than men, which might be explained, in part, by gender-specific immune responses following vaccination. There is a need for information campaigns to improve public awareness of these problems. ..
  23. McIntyre P, Turnbull F, Egan A, Burgess M, Wolter J, Schuerman L. High levels of antibody in adults three years after vaccination with a reduced antigen content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine. Vaccine. 2004;23:380-5 pubmed
    ..Adult-formulated dTpa vaccines could replace Td for routine booster vaccination of older individuals. ..
  24. Pichichero M, Blatter M, Kennedy W, Hedrick J, Descamps D, Friedland L. Acellular pertussis vaccine booster combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids for adolescents. Pediatrics. 2006;117:1084-93 pubmed
    ..In adolescents, the studied Tdap was safe and immunogenic and induced pertussis antibodies that were higher than those associated with efficacy in infants. ..
  25. Sandora T, Pfoh E, Lee G. Adverse events after administration of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine to healthcare workers. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2009;30:389-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Systemic adverse events were more common among healthcare workers aged less than 30 years. These findings provide guidance for counseling of healthcare workers who receive Tdap vaccine. ..
  26. Murphy W, Funakoshi S, Fanslow W, Rager H, Taub D, Longo D. CD40 stimulation promotes human secondary immunoglobulin responses in HuPBL-SCID chimeras. Clin Immunol. 1999;90:22-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, CD40 stimulation promotes human secondary IgG responses in huPBL-SCID mice. These data demonstrate that CD40 stimulation is capable of promoting antigen-specific human B-cell responses in vivo. ..
  27. Tran Minh N, He Q, Ramalho A, Kaufhold A, Viljanen M, Arvilommi H, et al. Acellular vaccines containing reduced quantities of pertussis antigens as a booster in adolescents. Pediatrics. 1999;104:e70 pubmed
  28. Classen J. Cyclosporine induced autoimmunity in newborns prevented by early immunization. Autoimmunity. 1998;27:135-9 pubmed
    ..The results indicate early immunization can prevent CsA induced autoimmunity and provide further evidence that the effect of starting immunization in the first month should be compared to starting immunization after 2 months in humans. ..
  29. Usonis V, Bakasenas V, Morkunas B, Valentelis R, Ching P, Kreysler J. Diphtheria in Lithuania, 1986-1996. J Infect Dis. 2000;181 Suppl 1:S55-9 pubmed
    ..The first campaign achieved 69% coverage; the second achieved 48% coverage. ..
  30. Jain N, Stokley S, Cohn A. Receipt of tetanus-containing vaccinations among adolescents aged 13 to 17 years in the United States: National Immunization Survey-Teen 2007. Clin Ther. 2010;32:1468-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Adolescents not receiving Td or Tdap may face barriers to accessing health care. Research is needed to identify evidence-based strategies to improve vaccination coverage among adolescents. ..
  31. Lorick S, Fishbein D, Weintraub E, Wortley P, Lee G, Zhou F, et al. Uptake of meningococcal conjugate vaccine among adolescents in large managed care organizations, United States, 2005: demand, supply and seasonality. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:175 pubmed publisher
    ..The increase in summer-time vaccinations and vaccination of non-targeted adolescents coupled with supply limitations likely contributed to the reported shortages of MCV4 in 2005. ..
  32. Loggen H, Kreeftenberg J. In vitro induction of a diphtheria toxoid specific antibody response in human peripheral blood lymphocytes cultivated in the presence of diphtheria toxoid. J Biol Stand. 1989;17:311-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these results are promising for in vitro examination of the immunogenicity of diphtheria vaccines. The model will be validated for the routine control of diphtheria vaccine. ..
  33. Fryauff D, Cryz S, Widjaja H, Mouzin E, Church L, Sutamihardja M, et al. Humoral immune response to tetanus-diphtheria vaccine given during extended use of chloroquine or primaquine malaria chemoprophylaxis. J Infect Dis. 1998;177:1762-5 pubmed
    ..Anti-tetanus GMTs in placebo and chloroquine groups declined over 14 months to levels comparable to those of unvaccinated controls, but levels in the primaquine group remained significantly higher than in controls. ..
  34. Marcovistz R, Matos D, Georgini R, Sakauchi D. Potency control of diphtheria component in adsorbed vaccines by in vitro neutralization tests. Biologicals. 2002;30:105-12 pubmed
    ..An excellent correlation among in vitro tests and in vivo neutralization test was observed by Spearman's correlation coefficient. ..
  35. Lloyd J, Haber P, Mootrey G, Braun M, Rhodes P, Chen R. Adverse event reporting rates following tetanus-diphtheria and tetanus toxoid vaccinations: data from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 1991-1997. Vaccine. 2003;21:3746-50 pubmed
    ..While reporting rates are lower after TT than Td, rates of reported VAEs after both vaccines are low. ..
  36. Booy R, Haworth E, Ali K, Chapel H, Moxon E. Immunogenicity of routine vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b in Asian infants born in the United Kingdom. Arch Dis Child. 2005;90:589-91 pubmed
    ..High vaccine coverage should be encouraged to provide protection against the possibility of imported infection. ..
  37. Qian Y, Wei C, Eun Hyung Lee F, Campbell J, Halliley J, Lee J, et al. Elucidation of seventeen human peripheral blood B-cell subsets and quantification of the tetanus response using a density-based method for the automated identification of cell populations in multidimensional flow cytometry data. Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2010;78 Suppl 1:S69-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Novel populations identified by these computational approaches can serve as hypotheses for further experimental study. ..
  38. Elliott C, Farmer K. Immunization status of children under 7 years in the Vikas Nagar area, North India. Child Care Health Dev. 2006;32:415-21 pubmed
  39. Sonobe M, Trezena A, Guilhen F, Takano V, Fratelli F, Sakauchi D, et al. Determination of low tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin titers in sera by a toxin neutralization assay and a modified toxin-binding inhibition test. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2007;40:69-76 pubmed
    ..93, P < 0.0001) between the in vitro and the in vivo assays. The standardized method is appropriate for evaluating titers of neutralizing antibodies, thus permitting the in vitro control of serum antitoxin levels. ..
  40. Heron J, Golding J. Thimerosal exposure in infants and developmental disorders: a prospective cohort study in the United kingdom does not support a causal association. Pediatrics. 2004;114:577-83 pubmed
    ..01-1.23) compared with 8 results that still supported a beneficial effect. We could find no convincing evidence that early exposure to thimerosal had any deleterious effect on neurologic or psychological outcome. ..
  41. Spach D. Immunizations for HIV-infected adults: indications, timing, and response. Top HIV Med. 2006;14:154-8 pubmed
    ..Spach, MD, at the 9th Annual Ryan White CARE Act Clinical Update in Washington, DC, in August 2006. The original presentation is available as a Webcast at www.iasusa.org. ..
  42. Golaz A, Hardy I, Glushkevich T, Areytchiuk E, Deforest A, Strebel P, et al. Evaluation of a single dose of diphtheria-tetanus toxoids among adults in Odessa, Ukraine, 1995: immunogenicity and adverse reactions. J Infect Dis. 2000;181 Suppl 1:S203-7 pubmed
  43. Theeten H, Rümke H, Hoppener F, Vilatimó R, Narejos S, Van Damme P, et al. Primary vaccination of adults with reduced antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis or dTpa-inactivated poliovirus vaccines compared to diphtheria-tetanus-toxoid vaccines. Curr Med Res Opin. 2007;23:2729-39 pubmed
    ..Combinations of dTpa or dTpa-IPV can be used to replace Td and provide booster vaccination against pertussis and polio simultaneously with diphtheria and tetanus, even in situations where the primary vaccination history is unknown. ..
  44. Ausiello C, Lande R, Urbani F, Di Carlo B, Stefanelli P, Salmaso S, et al. Cell-mediated immunity and antibody responses to Bordetella pertussis antigens in children with a history of pertussis infection and in recipients of an acellular pertussis vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2000;181:1989-95 pubmed
    ..Thus, years after disease or vaccination, CMI response to PT or circulating PT antibodies appears to be the main distinctive feature of pertussis-protected DTaP recipients or pertussis-affected DT recipients. ..
  45. Marlovits S, Stocker R, Efstratiou A, Broughton K, Kaider A, Vecsei V, et al. Effect on diphtheria immunity of combined tetanus and diphtheria booster vaccination in adults. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2000;19:506-13 pubmed
    ..61) had a significant influence on the revaccination effect. Systemic adverse reactions were rare, and local reactions of clinical significance were reported in only 1.9% of subjects. ..
  46. Turnbull F, Heath T, Jalaludin B, Burgess M, Ramalho A. A randomized trial of two acellular pertussis vaccines (dTpa and pa) and a licensed diphtheria-tetanus vaccine (Td) in adults. Vaccine. 2000;19:628-36 pubmed
    ..The dTpa vaccine was well tolerated and capable of eliciting an immune response against all the antigens in a broad spectrum of the adult population and could potentially replace Td for routine boosters in adults. ..
  47. Ugpo J, Lucero M, Williams G, Lechago M, Nillos L, Tallo V, et al. Reactogenicity and tolerability of a non-adjuvanted 11-valent diphtheria-tetanus toxoid pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Filipino children. Vaccine. 2009;27:2723-9 pubmed publisher
    ..7%) infants but only after the first dose of the vaccine (P=0.04). The number of reactions decreased in both groups with subsequent doses. The non-adjuvanted 11PCV vaccine was found to be well-tolerated among Filipino infants. ..
  48. Gall S. Maternal immunization. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2003;30:623-36 pubmed
    ..It is a great public health move to get excellent protection at a small cost. Because all recommended vaccines for use in pregnancy are safe, it makes good sense to bring patients up to date on vaccines. ..
  49. Southern J, Gelb D, Andrews N, Waight P, Morris R, Cartwright K, et al. Reactogenicity of meningococcal C conjugate vaccines when administered at the same time as, or a month prior to or after, tetanus and diphtheria booster vaccinations. Hum Vaccin. 2006;2:237-42 pubmed
    ..This single blind study was conducted to address safety concerns regarding coadministration of diphtheria/ tetanus (DT,Td) boosters and meningococcal C conjugate (MCC) vaccines containing diphtheria or tetanus conjugate proteins...
  50. Parkkali T, Kayhty H, Hovi T, Olander R, Roivainen M, Volin L, et al. A randomized study on donor immunization with tetanus-diphtheria, Haemophilus influenzae type b and inactivated poliovirus vaccines to improve the recipient responses to the same vaccines after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2007;39:179-88 pubmed
    ..Especially patients whose donors have low-specific antibody concentrations may benefit from donor vaccination with protein and conjugate vaccines. ..
  51. Lee S, Kwak G, Nam C, Kim J, Hur J, Lee K, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of diphtheria-tetanus vaccine in pre-adolescent and adolescent South Koreans. Vaccine. 2009;27:3209-12 pubmed publisher
    ..006), these events resolved within 7 days. Our study shows Td vaccination at age 11-12 years to be immunogenic and tolerable. ..
  52. Mei H, Yoshida T, Sime W, Hiepe F, Thiele K, Manz R, et al. Blood-borne human plasma cells in steady state are derived from mucosal immune responses. Blood. 2009;113:2461-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Systemic vaccination does not impact on peripheral IgA(+) plasmablast numbers, indicating that mucosal and systemic humoral immune responses are regulated independent of each other. ..
  53. Salama M, Hady O, Ashour W, Mostafa A, El Alkamy S, El Sayed N, et al. A randomized controlled trial [corrected] administration of tetanus toxoid (TT) versus tetanus and reduced diphtheria (Td) in pregnant women. J Clin Immunol. 2009;29:524-31 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). From this results, we can conclude that the use of Td vaccine improves immunogenicity for both tetanus and diphtheria more than the use of TT vaccine alone and we can recommend to replace TT in immunization of pregnant women. ..
  54. Ek T, Mellander L, Abrahamsson J. Re-immunisations after childhood leukaemia. Eur J Haematol. 2005;75:175-6; author reply 179-80 pubmed
  55. Magdei M, Melnic A, Benes O, Bukova V, Chicu V, Sohotski V, et al. Epidemiology and control of diphtheria in the Republic of Moldova, 1946-1996. J Infect Dis. 2000;181 Suppl 1:S47-54 pubmed
  56. Gardner P, Pabbatireddy S. Vaccines for women age 50 and older. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:1990-5 pubmed
    ..In the meantime, fully implementing current vaccine recommendations, particularly those for influenza and pneumococcal vaccines, can save thousands of lives and prevent illnesses in persons > 50 years of age. ..
  57. McQuillan G, Kruszon Moran D, Deforest A, Chu S, Wharton M. Serologic immunity to diphtheria and tetanus in the United States. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136:660-6 pubmed
    ..In addition, although the recommended vaccine is a combination of tetanus and diphtheria, only 63% of adults with protective antibody to tetanus also had protective antibody to diphtheria. ..
  58. Palazzi D, Rench M, Edwards M, Baker C. Use of type V group B streptococcal conjugate vaccine in adults 65-85 years old. J Infect Dis. 2004;190:558-64 pubmed
    ..These results suggest the potential for prevention of invasive type V GBS infections in healthy elderly adults through immunization. ..
  59. Beyazova U, Güler E, Yucel A, Sahin F. Diphtheria immunity of different age groups in Turkey. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2002;55:52-4 pubmed
    ..Therefore, revaccination of adults with tetanus-diphtheria toxoids at every opportunity (military service, pregnancy, admittance to emergency room) should be considered as an immunization policy. ..
  60. Dagan R, Kayhty H, Wuorimaa T, Yaich M, Bailleux F, Zamir O, et al. Tolerability and immunogenicity of an eleven valent mixed carrier Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid or tetanus protein conjugate vaccine in Finnish and Israeli infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23:91-8 pubmed
    ..PncDT11 is safe and immunogenic in infants. The use of 11-valent pneumococcal vaccine would increase the serotype coverage beyond the currently available 7-valent vaccine. ..
  61. Sigurdardottir S, Ingolfsdottir G, Davidsdottir K, Gudnason T, Kjartansson S, Kristinsson K, et al. Immune response to octavalent diphtheria- and tetanus-conjugated pneumococcal vaccines is serotype- and carrier-specific: the choice for a mixed carrier vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002;21:548-54 pubmed
    ..Based on the results from this and similar trials, a mixed diphtheria and tetanus pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was designed to provide the optimal immune response to each serotype. ..
  62. Dunning A. A model for immunological correlates of protection. Stat Med. 2006;25:1485-97 pubmed
  63. Puumalainen T, Dagan R, Wuorimaa T, Zeta Capeding R, Lucero M, Ollgren J, et al. Greater antibody responses to an eleven valent mixed carrier diphtheria- or tetanus-conjugated pneumococcal vaccine in Filipino than in Finnish or Israeli infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003;22:141-9 pubmed
    ..This may be a result of several factors including the priming effect of tetanus toxoid given to pregnant women, early pneumococcal nasopharyngeal acquisition and genetic differences among populations. ..
  64. Adell C, Bayas J, Vilella A, Perales M, Vidal J, Bertran M, et al. [Post-transplantation vaccination of bone-marrow transplant recipients]. Med Clin (Barc). 2002;119:405-9 pubmed
    ..The acceptable response to vaccination justifies the development of specific programs. Given the special characteristics of this group of patients, vaccination programs must be simple and flexible. ..
  65. Capeding M, Puumalainen T, Gepanayao C, Kayhty H, Lucero M, Nohynek H. Safety and immunogenicity of three doses of an eleven-valent diphtheria toxoid and tetanus protein--conjugated pneumococcal vaccine in Filipino infants. BMC Infect Dis. 2003;3:17 pubmed
    ..4 microg/ml for type 4. The 11-PncTD vaccine is safe, well-tolerated and immunogenic. The effectiveness of the non-adjuvanted formulation of the vaccine in preventing pneumonia is currently being evaluated in the Philippines. ..
  66. Ridgway D, Wolff L, Deforest A. Immunization response varies with intensity of acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy. Am J Dis Child. 1991;145:887-91 pubmed
    ..These observations support the recommendation that children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia should be immunized against H influenzae B. ..
  67. Fernandes J, Wasserman S, Snider D. Stimulation of anti-polio and anti-HSV IgA pre-plasma cell response in blood following parenteral immunization with tetanus-diphtheria vaccine. Vaccine. 2010;28:1493-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a vaccine that generates a systemic recall response to tetanus also induces blood PPC secreting IgA and IgG antibody relevant to mucosal protection. ..
  68. Netterlid E, Mansson M, Hakansson A. Surveillance of vaccine safety: comparison of parental reports with routine surveillance and a clinical trial. Vaccine. 2009;27:2042-7 pubmed publisher
    ..0 (44-114) compared to passive surveillance. Active surveillance by parental reports is a useful complement to passive surveillance of childhood immunisations to generate hypotheses for evaluation in controlled studies. ..
  69. Lavigne M, Castro M, Mateo N, Deluchi S, Atzori C, Piudo L, et al. Whole-cell Bordetella pertussis vaccine component modulates the mouse immune response to an unrelated soluble antigen. Microbes Infect. 2002;4:815-20 pubmed
    ..pertussis as an in vitro stimulus. Results might indicate that these cells may not play a key role in protecting against B. pertussis when the host is vaccinated with DTPa. ..
  70. Souza Matos D, Marcovistz R, Cabello P, Georgini R, Sakauchi D, da Silva L. Immunogenicity test of tetanus component in adsorbed vaccines by toxin binding inhibition test. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2002;97:909-13 pubmed
    ..A substantial refinement and a reduction in use of animals can be achieved. ..
  71. Winsnes R, Sesardic D, Daas A, Rigsby P. A Vero cell method for potency testing of diphtheria vaccines. Dev Biol (Basel). 2002;111:141-8 pubmed
    ..20-200 IU/ml). The study also provided preliminary information that sera from the same guinea pigs may also be used for potency determination of both diphtheria and tetanus toxoid components of vaccines by ELISA. ..
  72. Bitragunta S, Murhekar M, Hutin Y, Penumur P, Gupte M. Persistence of diphtheria, Hyderabad, India, 2003-2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1144-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Vaccine was efficacious among those who received >/=4 doses. The proportion of the population receiving boosters was low, especially among Muslims. We recommend increasing booster dose coverage. ..
  73. Ibáñez Jiménez A, Pairet Jofre G, Prat González I, Sánchez Doblado M, Tauler Suñer M. [Randomized clinical trial on the effectiveness of a postal reminder to increase tetanus-diphtheria vaccination coverage in the young adult population]. Enferm Clin. 2007;17:171-6 pubmed
    ..Periodic reminders could help to ensure continuity in vaccination of the adult population. ..
  74. Ivashkova E, Petrov A, Votintseva M, Stoliarov I. [Immunological reactivity in children with central nervous system injuries immunized with ADS-M and measles vaccines]. Fiziol Cheloveka. 2007;33:54-7 pubmed
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