diphtheria tetanus pertussis vaccine


Summary: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.

Top Publications

  1. Tregnaghi M, Lopez P, Rocha C, Rivera L, David M, Ruttimann R, et al. A new DTPw-HB/Hib combination vaccine for primary and booster vaccination of infants in Latin America. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2006;19:179-88 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that the new DTPw-HB/Hib pentavalent combination vaccine provides an efficient and reliable way of implementing WHO recommendations for controlling hepatitis B and Hib infections on a worldwide basis. ..
  2. Hla K, Thein S, Aye A, Han H, Bock H, David M, et al. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity profiles of a novel pentavalent diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine: a randomized dose-ranging trial of the Hib tetanus-conjugate content. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;25:706-12 pubmed
    ..5 microg of polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) conjugated to tetanus toxoid (trials Hib-052/064)...
  3. Gatchalian S, Reyes M, Bermal N, Chandrasekaran V, Han H, Bock H, et al. A new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine: immune memory after primary vaccination and booster dosing in the second year of life. Hum Vaccin. 2008;4:60-6 pubmed
    ..Combined DTPw-HBV and DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccines using new vaccine antigen sources will promote continued supply of combined DTPw-based vaccines to global mass vaccination campaigns. ..
  4. Saari T. Immunization of preterm and low birth weight infants. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases. Pediatrics. 2003;112:193-8 pubmed
    ..Although the immunogenicity of some childhood vaccines may be decreased in the smallest PT infants, antibody concentrations achieved usually are protective. ..
  5. Omeñaca F, Garcia Sicilia J, Garcia Corbeira P, Boceta R, Torres V. Antipolyribosyl ribitol phosphate response of premature infants to primary and booster vaccination with a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated polio virus/Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine. Pediatrics. 2007;119:e179-85 pubmed
    ..Immunologic response decreased with decreased gestational age and birth weight. ..
  6. Aaby P, Jensen H, Gomes J, Fernandes M, Lisse I. The introduction of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine and child mortality in rural Guinea-Bissau: an observational study. Int J Epidemiol. 2004;33:374-80 pubmed
    ..Since the pattern was inversed for BCG, the effect is unlikely to be due to higher-risk children having received vaccination. The role of DTP in high mortality areas needs to be clarified. ..
  7. Prymula R, David M, Lefevre I, Kohl I, Stefkovicová M. The immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a new DTPw-HBV vaccine as a primary and booster vaccination course in healthy infants. Hum Vaccin. 2007;3:121-6 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, within the framework of this study the immunogenicity and safety profiles of GSK Biologicals' new DTPw-HBV vaccine when used for primary and booster vaccination were acceptable. ..
  8. Gatchalian S, Reyes M, Bernal N, Lefevre I, David M, Han H, et al. A new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine is immunogenic and safe when administered according to the EPI (Expanded Programme for Immunization) schedule and following hepatitis B vaccination at birth. Hum Vaccin. 2005;1:198-203 pubmed
    ..A birth dose of HBV is important to maximize protection against hepatitis B in endemic regions where the EPI schedule is in place. ..
  9. Marshall G, Happe L, Lunacsek O, Szymanski M, Woods C, Zahn M, et al. Use of combination vaccines is associated with improved coverage rates. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26:496-500 pubmed
    ..Use of combination vaccines in this Medicaid population was associated with improved coverage rates. Additional studies are warranted, including those examining private sector populations and outcomes such as timeliness and cost. ..

More Information


  1. Ortega Barria E, Kanra G, Leroux G, Bravo L, Safary A, Lefevre I. The immunogenicity and reactogenicity of DTPw-HBV/Hib 2.5 combination vaccine: results from four phase III multicenter trials across three continents. Vaccine. 2007;25:8432-40 pubmed
    ..5 was also similar to that of the reference vaccine regimen. These results confirm the previously established immunogenicity and safety of reduced dose PRP conjugated vaccine regimens. ..
  2. Aaby P, Jensen H, Samb B, Cisse B, Sodemann M, Jakobsen M, et al. Differences in female-male mortality after high-titre measles vaccine and association with subsequent vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and inactivated poliovirus: reanalysis of West African studies. Lancet. 2003;361:2183-8 pubmed
    ..81) for those who received DTP or IPV after HTMV, and 0.96 (0.69-1.34) for those who did not (p=0.006). A change in sequence of vaccinations, rather than HTMV itself, may have been the cause of increased female mortality in these trials. ..
  3. Aristegui J, Usonis V, Coovadia H, Riedemann S, Win K, Gatchalian S, et al. Facilitating the WHO expanded program of immunization: the clinical profile of a combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine. Int J Infect Dis. 2003;7:143-51 pubmed
    ..This should facilitate widespread coverage of hepatitis B and Hib vaccinations and their rapid incorporation into the EPI. ..
  4. Lim S, Stein D, Charrow A, Murray C. Tracking progress towards universal childhood immunisation and the impact of global initiatives: a systematic analysis of three-dose diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis immunisation coverage. Lancet. 2008;372:2031-46 pubmed publisher
    ..There is an urgent need for independent and contestable monitoring of health indicators in an era of global initiatives that are target-oriented and disburse funds based on performance. ..
  5. Ndiritu M, Cowgill K, Ismail A, Chiphatsi S, Kamau T, Fegan G, et al. Immunization coverage and risk factors for failure to immunize within the Expanded Programme on Immunization in Kenya after introduction of new Haemophilus influenzae type b and hepatitis b virus antigens. BMC Public Health. 2006;6:132 pubmed
    ..We estimated immunization coverage before and after introduction, timeliness of vaccination and risk factors for failure to immunize in Kilifi district, Kenya...
  6. Espinoza F, Tregnaghi M, Gentile A, Abarca K, Casellas J, Collard A, et al. Primary and booster vaccination in Latin American children with a DTPw-HBV/Hib combination: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:297 pubmed publisher
    ..Results confirm the suitability of this new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine comprising antigens from a new source and a reduced PRP content for inclusion into routine childhood vaccination programs. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00332566. ..
  7. Breiman R, Streatfield P, Phelan M, Shifa N, Rashid M, Yunus M. Effect of infant immunisation on childhood mortality in rural Bangladesh: analysis of health and demographic surveillance data. Lancet. 2004;364:2204-11 pubmed
    ..Our findings show the value of population-based health surveillance systems. ..
  8. Murray C, Shengelia B, Gupta N, Moussavi S, Tandon A, Thieren M. Validity of reported vaccination coverage in 45 countries. Lancet. 2003;362:1022-7 pubmed
    ..Strategies for measurement of the coverage of all health interventions should be grounded in careful assessments of the validity of data derived from various sources. ..
  9. Huebner R, Nicol M, Mothupi R, Kayhty H, Mbelle N, Khomo E, et al. Dose response of CRM197 and tetanus toxoid-conjugated Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines. Vaccine. 2004;23:802-6 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that doses of these vaccines of > or =1.25 microg may be sufficient to stimulate an immune response that offers both short and longer term protection from invasive Hib disease. ..
  10. Tamm E, Veronese A, Contorni M, Meriste S, Nacci P, Viviani S. Double-blind study comparing the immunogenicity of a licensed DTwPHib-CRM197 conjugate vaccine (Quattvaxem) with three investigational, liquid formulations using lower doses of Hib-CRM197 conjugate. Vaccine. 2005;23:1715-9 pubmed
    ..Although the formulations with 2.5 and 1.25 microg of CRM197-Hib elicited lower levels of anti-PRP GMTs, they were immunogenic and are possible candidates for further development. ..
  11. Anand S, Barnighausen T. Health workers and vaccination coverage in developing countries: an econometric analysis. Lancet. 2007;369:1277-85 pubmed
    ..After controlling for other determinants, the level of income does not contribute to improved immunisation coverage. Health workers can be a major constraining factor on vaccination coverage in developing countries. ..
  12. Santos J, Martin A, De Leon T, Rivera L, Gaitán M, del Rio C, et al. DTPw-HB and Hib primary and booster vaccination: combined versus separate administration to Latin American children. Vaccine. 2002;20:1887-93 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the combination of DTPw-HB and Hib vaccines provides an effective means for increasing vaccine coverage in childhood vaccination programmes. ..
  13. Sen S, Cloete Y, Hassan K, Buss P. Adverse events following vaccination in premature infants. Acta Paediatr. 2001;90:916-20 pubmed
    ..These babies should therefore be monitored postvaccination. Further prospective studies are needed to clarify whether delaying vaccination offers protection against these adverse events. ..
  14. Chen R, Hardy I, Rhodes P, Tyshchenko D, Moiseeva A, Marievsky V. Ukraine, 1992: first assessment of diphtheria vaccine effectiveness during the recent resurgence of diphtheria in the Former Soviet Union. J Infect Dis. 2000;181 Suppl 1:S178-83 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that initial priority for scarce resources for controlling this outbreak should be placed on vaccination of persons susceptible to diphtheria (e.g., adults) rather than revaccination of children. ..
  15. Mastrantonio P, Spigaglia P, van Oirschot H, van der Heide H, Heuvelman K, Stefanelli P, et al. Antigenic variants in Bordetella pertussis strains isolated from vaccinated and unvaccinated children. Microbiology. 1999;145 ( Pt 8):2069-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Prn2 strains showed a greater variety of fingerprint types compared to Prn3, suggesting that Prn3 has emerged more recently. The results are discussed in the light of vaccine-driven evolution...
  16. Aaby P, Samb B, Simondon F, Seck A, Knudsen K, Whittle H. Non-specific beneficial effect of measles immunisation: analysis of mortality studies from developing countries. BMJ. 1995;311:481-5 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that standard titre measles vaccine may confer a beneficial effect against mortality which is unrelated to the specific protection against measles disease. ..
  17. Simondon F, Preziosi M, Pinchinat S, Yam A, Chabirand L, Wassilak S, et al. Randomised study of the possible adjuvant effect of BCG vaccine on the immunogenicity of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine in Senegalese infants. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1999;18:23-9 pubmed
    ..0001). These results suggest that BCG and DTaP vaccines can be given simultaneously without interference or enhancement and that more optimal immunogenicity is achieved with an extended than with an accelerated schedule. ..
  18. Chunsuttiwat S, Biggs B, Maynard J, Thammapormpilas P, O Prasertsawat M. Comparative evaluation of a combined DTP-HB vaccine in the EPI in Chiangrai Province, Thailand. Vaccine. 2002;21:188-93 pubmed
  19. Zimmerman R, Nowalk M, Mieczkowski T, Mainzer H, Jewell I, Raymund M. The vaccines for children program. Policies, satisfaction, and vaccine delivery. Am J Prev Med. 2001;21:243-9 pubmed
    ..The VFC appears to increase the numbers of poor and uninsured children who receive necessary childhood immunizations within their medical homes. Providers are generally satisfied with the program. ..
  20. Karki S, McIntyre P, Newall A, MacIntyre C, Banks E, Liu B. Risk factors for pertussis hospitalizations in Australians aged 45 years and over: A population based nested case-control study. Vaccine. 2015;33:5647-5653 pubmed publisher
    ..11-5.06)). The risk of pertussis hospitalization is substantially higher in ≥65 years old. A booster dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine could be readily integrated into routine vaccination for this age group. ..
  21. Zetterstrom R. Flawed reports of immunization complications: consequences for child health. Acta Paediatr. 2004;93:1140-3 pubmed
    ..Due to the important role of TV and newspapers in giving information about health promotion, these media should also be willing to correct false information. ..
  22. da Cunha S. No epidemiological evidence for infant vaccinations to cause allergic disease [Vaccine 2004;22:3375-85]. Vaccine. 2005;23:3875 pubmed
  23. Gzyl A, Gniadek G, Augustynowicz E, Rabczenko D, Husejnow B, Zawadka M, et al. [Increase in the incidence of pertussis and quality of whole-cell pertussis component of the DTP vaccine produced in Poland. Part II. Consistency of control and production]. Przegl Epidemiol. 2004;58:641-8 pubmed
    ..Obtained results showed high consistency of the production and control tests confirming relevant quality of country-produced DTP vaccine. ..
  24. Schmitt H, Steul K, Borkowski A, Ceddia F, Ypma E, Knuf M. Two versus three doses of a meningococcal C conjugate vaccine concomitantly administered with a hexavalent DTaP-IPV-HBV/Hib vaccine in healthy infants. Vaccine. 2008;26:2242-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Reactogenicity was similar in each group. MenC conjugate vaccine given concomitantly with DTaP-IPV-HBV/Hib to healthy infants in the first year of life using a two-dose schedule is as safe and immunogenic as a three-dose regimen. ..
  25. Southern J, Crowley Luke A, Borrow R, Andrews N, Miller E. Immunogenicity of one, two or three doses of a meningococcal C conjugate vaccine conjugated to tetanus toxoid, given as a three-dose primary vaccination course in UK infants at 2, 3 and 4 months of age with acellular pertussis-containing DTP/Hib vacc. Vaccine. 2006;24:215-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that a reduced number of doses of MCC-TT would be adequate in infancy if given concomitantly with an acellular pertussis-containing vaccine. ..
  26. Wu S, Sun S, Li J, Hu P, Chien C. Acute fulminant myocarditis after diphtheria, polio, and tetanus vaccination. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 2006;14:e111-2 pubmed
    ..The patient survived the extracorporeal support, but poor ventricular contractility recurred 2 months later and she died while waiting for heart transplantation. ..
  27. Aaby P, Jensen H, Walraven G. Age-specific changes in the female-male mortality ratio related to the pattern of vaccinations: an observational study from rural Gambia. Vaccine. 2006;24:4701-8 pubmed
    ..BCG and MV as last vaccination was associated with a low female-male MR, whereas DTP as last vaccination was associated with a high female-male MR. These trends are consistent with observations from other African countries. ..
  28. Robbins J, Schneerson R, Keith J, Shiloach J, Miller M, Trollors B. The rise in pertussis cases urges replacement of chemically-inactivated with genetically-inactivated toxoid for DTP. Vaccine. 2007;25:2811-6 pubmed
    ..Manufacturers have declined to produce the genetically-inactivated PTx because of the expense required to change to the improved vaccine and not because of scientific issues. ..
  29. Farrington C. Control without separate controls: evaluation of vaccine safety using case-only methods. Vaccine. 2004;22:2064-70 pubmed
    ..It is argued that such methods, and in particular the self-controlled case series method, are powerful epidemiologic tools meriting the same attention as more traditional cohort and case-control methods. ..
  30. Meriste S, Lutsar I, Tamm E, Willems P. Safety and immunogenicity of a primary course and booster dose of a combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B and inactivated poliovirus vaccine. Scand J Infect Dis. 2006;38:350-6 pubmed
    ..Both vaccine regimens were well tolerated and immunogenic, however the combined administration has the advantage of being administered as a single injection. ..
  31. Cilleruelo M, de Ory F, Ruiz Contreras J, González González R, Mellado M, García Hortelano M, et al. Internationally adopted children: what vaccines should they receive?. Vaccine. 2008;26:5784-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Actions for vaccination have to be mainly implemented on the basis of the existence of the immunization card and of the country of origin. ..
  32. Pollard A. New combination vaccines still need a boost. Arch Dis Child. 2007;92:1-2 pubmed
  33. Freitas F, Sato H, Aranda C, Arantes B, Pacheco M, Waldman E. [Adverse events following diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus vaccinations and factors associated with severity]. Rev Saude Publica. 2007;41:1032-41 pubmed
    ..To analyze adverse events following vaccinations against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (AEFV-DPT) and to investigate factors associated with event severity...
  34. Zarei S, Jeddi Tehrani M, Akhondi M, Zeraati H, Pourheidari F, Ostadkarampour M, et al. Primary immunization with a triple diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis vaccine in Iranian infants: an analysis of antibody response. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2009;8:85-93 pubmed publisher
    ..A prospective vaccination study using the local DTwP vaccine in parallel to a WHO approved standard vaccine, could enable assessment of immunogenicity of the pertussis component. ..
  35. McIntosh A, McMahon J, Dibbens L, Iona X, Mulley J, Scheffer I, et al. Effects of vaccination on onset and outcome of Dravet syndrome: a retrospective study. Lancet Neurol. 2010;9:592-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, vaccination should not be withheld from children with SCN1A mutations because we found no evidence that vaccinations before or after disease onset affect outcome. ..
  36. Huang L, Chang L, Tang H, Bock H, Lu C, Huang F, et al. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine in healthy Taiwanese children and adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 2005;37:517 pubmed
    ..0-100%. There were no serious adverse events reported during the study period. The results of this study suggest that Boostrix may be safely and effectively administered as a booster dose to children previously primed with DTP vaccine. ..
  37. Thyr M, Sundholm A, Teeland L, Rahm V. Oral glucose as an analgesic to reduce infant distress following immunization at the age of 3, 5 and 12 months. Acta Paediatr. 2007;96:233-6 pubmed
    ..No correlations were found in the glucose group. Sweet solution can be used as a simple and safe method to reduce the distress following immunization in infants up to 12 months. ..
  38. Prinja S, Gupta M, Singh A, Kumar R. Effectiveness of planning and management interventions for improving age-appropriate immunization in rural India. Bull World Health Organ. 2010;88:97-103 pubmed publisher
    ..The Indian Government's intention to recruit village-based volunteers as part of a health sector reform aimed at decentralizing administration could help increase timely immunization. ..
  39. Benn C, Aaby P, Nielsen J, Binka F, Ross D. Does vitamin A supplementation interact with routine vaccinations? An analysis of the Ghana Vitamin A Supplementation Trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90:629-39 pubmed publisher
    ..60; 95% CI: 1.41, 4.80). The effect of VAS differed by vaccination status. This is potentially problematic because VAS is provided at vaccination contacts. ..
  40. Slack M, Thwaites R, Schapira D, Crowley Luke A, Southern J, Miller E, et al. Hib IgG persistence following early booster dose. Arch Dis Child. 2005;90:329 pubmed
  41. Gasparini J, Bize P, Piault R, Wakamatsu K, Blount J, Ducrest A, et al. Strength and cost of an induced immune response are associated with a heritable melanin-based colour trait in female tawny owls. J Anim Ecol. 2009;78:608-16 pubmed publisher
  42. Wirsing von Konig C, Campins Marti M, Finn A, Guiso N, Mertsola J, Liese J. Pertussis immunization in the global pertussis initiative European region: recommended strategies and implementation considerations. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24:S87-92 pubmed
    ..Actions to overcome these issues are crucial to the implementation of new or improved immunization strategies to combat pertussis in Europe. ..
  43. Kilpi T, Silfverdal S, Nilsson L, Syrjänen R, Belloni C, Desole M, et al. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of two diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated polio virus-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines administered at 3, 5 and 11-12 months of age. Hum Vaccin. 2009;5:18-25 pubmed
    ..5 degrees C) were mostly reported in less than 5% of the vaccinees. Three doses of DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib combination vaccines produced sufficient immune responses in nearly all vaccinees. ..
  44. Shah H. A cluster survey for determination of regular vaccination coverage among children. JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc. 2008;47:91-3 pubmed
    ..The drop-out of BCG versus measles was also very high. The District Health Office (DHO) reports were remarkably higher than the coverage of immunizations obtained by the survey, showing additional number of the target children. ..
  45. Tan T, Trindade E, Skowronski D. Epidemiology of pertussis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24:S10-8 pubmed
    ..Understanding the link between these observations may lead to better informed global control strategies, especially those pertaining to immunization schedules and use of pertussis vaccine. ..
  46. Riel Romero R. Acute transverse myelitis in a 7-month-old boy after diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis immunization. Spinal Cord. 2006;44:688-91 pubmed
    ..Case report of a 7-month-old boy, who developed acute transverse myelitis after diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis immunization...
  47. Fiechtner H. Menactra, Boostrix and ADACEL; new vaccines for 2005. S D J Med. 2005;58:309-10 pubmed
  48. Halperin S, Langley J, Hesley T, Zappacosta P, Radley D, Smith B, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of two formulations of a hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae conjugate-hepatitis B vaccine in 15 to 18-month-old children. Hum Vaccin. 2005;1:245-50 pubmed
    ..8 microg/mL in PRP-T/HBV10 recipients and 9.4 microg/mL in PRP-OMPC/HBV15 recipients. We conclude that the hexavalent formulations appear generally well tolerated and immunogenic as a booster dose in these toddlers. ..
  49. Gómez de León Cruces P, Díaz García J, Santos J. Effect of the DTwP Haemophilus influenzae b conjugate vaccination in Mexico (1999-2007). Arch Med Res. 2010;41:281-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reinforce the findings of postvaccination studies done elsewhere. ..
  50. Bae K, Choi J, Jang Y, Ahn S, Hur B. Innovative vaccine production technologies: the evolution and value of vaccine production technologies. Arch Pharm Res. 2009;32:465-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These at-risk groups include infants, the elderly and immunocompromized individuals, as well as people living in developing countries or emerging economies. ..
  51. Wood N, McIntyre P, Marshall H, Roberton D. Acellular pertussis vaccine at birth and one month induces antibody responses by two months of age. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:209-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Larger and more detailed studies of aPV from birth are needed to evaluate other antibody responses and the potential of this approach to reduce death and morbidity from Bordetella pertussis infection in the first 3 months of life. ..
  52. Wallace A, Willis F, Nwaze E, Dieng B, Sipilanyambe N, Daniels D, et al. Vaccine wastage in Nigeria: An assessment of wastage rates and related vaccinator knowledge, attitudes and practices. Vaccine. 2017;35:6751-6758 pubmed publisher
    ..Missed opportunities for vaccination may occur due to how the health system's contradicting policies may force health workers to prioritize reduced wastage rates over vaccine administration, particularly for multi-dose vials. ..
  53. Cook I, Murtagh J. Optimal technique for intramuscular injection of infants and toddlers: a randomised trial. Med J Aust. 2005;183:60-3 pubmed
  54. Collins C, Salt P, McCarthy N, Chantler T, Lane L, Hemme F, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of a low-dose diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis combination vaccine with either inactivated or oral polio vaccine as a pre-school booster in UK children. Vaccine. 2004;22:4262-9 pubmed
    ..The study vaccines containing low-dose diphtheria antigen (Td5aP-IPV and Td5aP + OPV) are immunogenic and have acceptable reactogenicity for use as a pre-school booster vaccine administered concomitantly with MMR. ..
  55. Isaka M, Komiya T, Takahashi M, Yasuda Y, Taniguchi T, Zhao Y, et al. Recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (rCTB) as a mucosal adjuvant enhances induction of diphtheria and tetanus antitoxin antibodies in mice by intranasal administration with diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) combination vaccine. Vaccine. 2004;22:3061-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that co-administration of rCTB as an adjuvant is necessary for induction of diphtheria and tetanus antitoxin antibodies on the occasion of intranasal administration of DPT combination vaccine. ..
  56. Edelman K, He Q, Mäkinen J, Sahlberg A, Haanperä M, Schuerman L, et al. Immunity to pertussis 5 years after booster immunization during adolescence. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:1271-7 pubmed
    ..The results of the present study of adolescents indicate that the interval between acellular pertussis booster immunizations might be extended beyond 5 years. ..
  57. Reinert P, Guy M, Girier B, Szelechowski B, Baudoin B, Deberdt P, et al. [The safety and immunogenicity of an heptavalent pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (Prevenar) administered in association with a whole-cell pertussis-based pediatric combination vaccine (DTP-IPV/PRP-T) to French infants with a two-, three. Arch Pediatr. 2003;10:1048-55 pubmed
    ..The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is immunogenic when administered at 2, 3 and 4 months. PREVENAR can be administered simultaneously with the DTP-IPV/Hib combination vaccine. ..
  58. Verwer C, van der Ark A, van Amerongen G, van den Bos R, Hendriksen C. Reducing variation in a rabbit vaccine safety study with particular emphasis on housing conditions and handling. Lab Anim. 2009;43:155-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, this also reduces distress and thus contributes to refining this animal model. ..
  59. Swartz T, Saliou P, Catznelson E, Blondeau C, Gil I, Peled T, et al. Immune response to a diphtheria and tetanus toxoid administration in a three-dose diphtheria tetanus whole-cell pertussis/enhanced inactivated poliovirus vaccination schedule: a 7-year follow up. Eur J Epidemiol. 2003;18:827-33 pubmed
  60. Cruz S, Silva G, Sampaio F, Souza S, Dias A, Milagres L. Comparison of long-term humoral memory development after immunisation against Neisseria meningitidis B or diphtheria toxoid. Vaccine. 2010;28:6841-6 pubmed publisher
    ..9%) or 6 months (mean of 1.9%). The kinetics of specific IgG induced by both vaccines was similar, suggesting that memory B cells were responsible for the strong antibody response seen after the booster vaccination. ..
  61. Rosenblatt H, Song L, Nachman S, Stanley K, Krogstad P, Johnson G, et al. Tetanus immunity after diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and acellular pertussis vaccination in children with clinically stable HIV infection. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;116:698-703 pubmed
    ..Long-term monitoring of specific immune function in such children is indicated. ..
  62. Shann F, Nohynek H, Scott J, Hesseling A, Flanagan K. Randomized trials to study the nonspecific effects of vaccines in children in low-income countries. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:457-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Trials of early BCG vaccination in low-birth-weight babies, early measles vaccination, and altered timing of DTP vaccination all have a high priority. ..
  63. Olusanya B. Optimising the use of routine immunisation clinics for early childhood development in sub-Saharan Africa. Vaccine. 2009;27:3719-23 pubmed publisher
    ..It also accords with the current early childhood development policies of all major UN organisations and the World Bank. Such integrated programmes should now be widely encouraged throughout the region by its developmental partners. ..
  64. Mallet E, Belohradsky B, Lagos R, Gothefors L, Camier P, Carrière J, et al. A liquid hexavalent combined vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, Haemophilus influenzae type B and hepatitis B: review of immunogenicity and safety. Vaccine. 2004;22:1343-57 pubmed
    ..Hexavac provided immunity against six important childhood diseases with a single injection at each visit...
  65. Anima H, Malay M, Santanu H, Rajashree R, Sita C, Baran S. A study on determinants of occurrence of complications and fatality among diphtheria cases admitted to ID & BG Hospital of Kolkata. J Commun Dis. 2008;40:53-8 pubmed
    ..The main reason for non-immunization was ignorance (44%). IEC for full immunization coverage and early admission with proper management are indispensable for the reduction of diphtheria morbidity and mortality...
  66. Shah R, Raghu M, Shivananda A, Mangayarkarasi S, Rao I, Rao R, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of an indigenously developed DTPw hepatitis B combination vaccine in Indian infants. Indian Pediatr. 2008;45:819-23 pubmed
    ..The safety and immunogenicity of indigenously developed DTPwHepatitis B combination vaccine was demonstrated in the present study. ..
  67. Drain P, Ralaivao J, Rakotonandrasana A, Carnell M. Introducing auto-disable syringes to the national immunization programme in Madagascar. Bull World Health Organ. 2003;81:553-60 pubmed
    ..AD syringes, although more expensive, can feasibly be introduced into a developing country's immunization programme to improve vaccination safety and coverage. ..
  68. Trollfors B, Bergfors E. [Aluminum allergy following vaccination should be entitled to compensation as drug-induced injury]. Lakartidningen. 2007;104:1533-4; author reply 1534 pubmed
  69. Labadie J, van Grootheest A. [Adverse events following vaccination reported to the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Center Lareb in 2004-2006]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2007;151:2738-42 pubmed
    ..The data on possible adverse events related to vaccines found in the Lareb database provide no cause to question the safety of vaccines. ..
  70. Bagheri H, Ghambarian M, Salemi A, Es Haghi A. Trace determination of free formaldehyde in DTP and DT vaccines and diphtheria-tetanus antigen by single drop microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2009;50:287-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The limit of detection was 0.22 ng/l and relative standard deviation (RSD) value was 6.2% (n=5). The regression coefficient was satisfactory (r(2)=0.992) and linear range was obtained from 1 to 500 ng/l. ..
  71. Pourcyrous M, Korones S, Arheart K, Bada H. Primary immunization of premature infants with gestational age <35 weeks: cardiorespiratory complications and C-reactive protein responses associated with administration of single and multiple separate vaccines simultaneously. J Pediatr. 2007;151:167-72 pubmed
    ..Underlying medical conditions and possibly multiple injections are associated with cardiorespiratory events. Precautionary monitoring following immunizations is warranted. ..
  72. Broder K, Cortese M, Iskander J, Kretsinger K, Slade B, Brown K, et al. Preventing tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis among adolescents: use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccines recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2006;55:1-34 pubmed
  73. Hijnen M, He Q, Schepp R, van Gageldonk P, Mertsola J, Mooi F, et al. Antibody responses to defined regions of the Bordetella pertussis virulence factor pertactin. Scand J Infect Dis. 2008;40:94-104 pubmed
    ..It also suggests that the amount of pertactin type-specific antibodies will not be very large and that the variation in pertactin probably will not constitute a problem in highly immune individuals. ..
  74. Bremner S, Carey I, DeWilde S, Richards N, Maier W, Hilton S, et al. Vaccinations, infections and antibacterials in the first grass pollen season of life and risk of later hayfever. Clin Exp Allergy. 2007;37:512-7 pubmed
    ..However, the effect of DTP though weak deserves further study. ..
  75. Andreae M, Freed G, Katz S. Safety concerns regarding combination vaccines: the experience in Japan. Vaccine. 2004;22:3911-6 pubmed
  76. Salas A, Salazar H, Velasco V. Haemophilusinfluenzae type b conjugate vaccine for preventing pneumonia in infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis: a case-control study. Int J Infect Dis. 2010;14:e68-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Larger studies are needed to validate these results and reconsider the burden of Hib infection among infants in less developed countries. ..
  77. Cook I, Murtagh J. Comparative reactogenicity and parental acceptability of pertussis vaccines administered into the ventrogluteal area and anterolateral thigh in children aged 2, 4, 6 and 18 months. Vaccine. 2003;21:3330-4 pubmed
    ..0001) and bruising DTPw study (P<0.0001) and DTPa study (P<0.0004)).Parental acceptability was greater (P<0.0001) in both studies for ventrogluteal injection compared with anterolateral thigh injection. ..
  78. Greenberg D, Doemland M, Bettinger J, Scheifele D, Halperin S, Waters V, et al. Epidemiology of pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in Canada with exclusive use of a diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b pediatric combination vaccine and an adolescent-adult te. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28:521-8 pubmed publisher
  79. Kemmeren J, Vermeer de Bondt P, van der Maas N. Discolored leg syndrome after vaccination--descriptive epidemiology. Eur J Pediatr. 2009;168:43-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The pathophysiology is unknown but may be the result of a vasomotor reaction. Future studies should elucidate the recurrence rate, identify risk factors and assess late outcomes. ..
  80. van der Wal M, Diepenmaat A, Pel J, Hirasing R. Vaccination rates in a multicultural population. Arch Dis Child. 2005;90:36-40 pubmed
    ..Vaccination coverage for children domiciled in Amsterdam was very high. Nevertheless, there are groups where the vaccination level is relatively low and social contact is high. ..
  81. Luman E, Barker L, McCauley M, Drews Botsch C. Timeliness of childhood immunizations: a state-specific analysis. Am J Public Health. 2005;95:1367-74 pubmed
    ..States can use the modified Bonferroni comparison to appropriately compare their results with other states. ..
  82. Lim F, Han H, Jacquet J, Bock H. Primary vaccination of infants against hepatitis B can be completed using a combined hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliomyelitis-Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2007;36:801-6 pubmed
    ..We investigated whether a combined hexavalent vaccine, DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib, could replace the separate administration of DTPa-IPV/Hib and HBV for the final vaccination at 5 months of age (Trial DTPa-HBV-IPV-075)...
  83. Bisgard K, Rhodes P, Connelly B, Bi D, Hahn C, Patrick S, et al. Pertussis vaccine effectiveness among children 6 to 59 months of age in the United States, 1998-2001. Pediatrics. 2005;116:e285-94 pubmed
  84. McDonald K, Huq S, Lix L, Becker A, Kozyrskyj A. Delay in diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus vaccination is associated with a reduced risk of childhood asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;121:626-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism for this phenomenon requires further research. ..
  85. Celebioglu A, Akpinar R, Tezel A. The pain response of infants in Turkey to vaccination in different injection sites. Appl Nurs Res. 2010;23:101-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicated that pain response of infants was similar in each group. However, crying duration of the children who received the vastus lateralis vaccination was shorter than that of the deltoid group after the procedure. ..
  86. Hong R, Banta J. Effects of extra immunization efforts on routine immunization at district level in Pakistan. East Mediterr Health J. 2005;11:745-52 pubmed
    ..Additional immunization efforts, without additional resources, may reduce the effect of the routine Expanded Programme on Immunization. ..