diphtheria tetanus acellular pertussis vaccines


Summary: Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.

Top Publications

  1. Rennels M, Englund J, Bernstein D, Losonsky G, Anderson E, Pichichero M, et al. Diminution of the anti-polyribosylribitol phosphate response to a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis/Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine by concurrent inactivated poliovirus vaccination. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000;19:417-23 pubmed
    ..In this trial concurrent IPV appeared to interfere with the anti-PRP response to DTaP/Hib vaccine, suggesting that introduction of new vaccines may require evaluation of immune responses to all concurrently administered vaccines. ..
  2. Poolman J, Kaufhold A, De Grave D, Goldblatt D. Clinical relevance of lower Hib response in DTPa-based combination vaccines. Vaccine. 2001;19:2280-5 pubmed
    ..It is likely therefore that the DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib combination will be efficacious against Hib disease. ..
  3. Kalies H, Grote V, Verstraeten T, Hessel L, Schmitt H, Von Kries R. The use of combination vaccines has improved timeliness of vaccination in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;25:507-12 pubmed
    ..Combination vaccines are usually advocated for reducing the number of injections. In Germany, however, the use of combination vaccines has also significantly improved timeliness of immunizations. ..
  4. Zinke M, Kappes R, Kindler K, Paulus Koschik A, Goering U, Disselhoff J, et al. Immune memory to hepatitis B virus in 4-9-year old children vaccinated in infancy with four doses of hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine. Hum Vaccin. 2009;5:592-8 pubmed
    ..The HBV vaccine challenge dose was well tolerated. These studies show that primary and booster vaccination with combined DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib (Infanrix hexa) induces sustained immune memory against hepatitis B up to age 9 years. ..
  5. Guerra F, Gress J, Werzberger A, Reisinger K, Walter E, Lakkis H, et al. Safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of VAQTA given concomitantly versus nonconcomitantly with other pediatric vaccines in healthy 12-month-old children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;25:912-9 pubmed
  6. Beutels P, Bonanni P, Tormans G, Canale F, Crovari P. An economic evaluation of universal pertussis vaccination in Italy. Vaccine. 1999;17:2400-9 pubmed
    ..The total net savings for this strategy would be well over US$100 per additional vaccinee. In the sensitivity analysis, the positive relationship between incremental coverage and incremental efficiency remained unchanged. ..
  7. Dunning A. A model for immunological correlates of protection. Stat Med. 2006;25:1485-97 pubmed
  8. Halperin S, Sweet L, Baxendale D, Neatby A, Rykers P, Smith B, et al. How soon after a prior tetanus-diphtheria vaccination can one give adult formulation tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine?. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;25:195-200 pubmed
    ..Although there is a slight increase in injection site events with decreasing interval since a previous immunization, Tdap can be safely administered at intervals of > or = 18 months since a previous TD/Td vaccine. ..
  9. Faldella G, Galletti S, Corvaglia L, Ancora G, Alessandroni R. Safety of DTaP-IPV-HIb-HBV hexavalent vaccine in very premature infants. Vaccine. 2007;25:1036-42 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, it is advisable to immunize and monitor them at 8 weeks before discharge instead of possibly delaying immunization for several weeks and not monitor them. ..

More Information

Publications107 found, 100 shown here

  1. van der Maas N, David S, Kemmeren J, Vermeer de Bondt P. [Safety surveillance in the National Vaccination Programme; fewer adverse events with the DTP-IPV-Hib vaccine after the transition to an acellular pertussis component in 2005]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2007;151:2732-7 pubmed
    ..This study confirms the data from the passive surveillance system, which show that the newly introduced acellular DTP-IPV-Hib vaccine is associated with fewer adverse events than the whole-cell vaccine that was used previously. ..
  2. Heininger U. Comment: clinical implications of endotoxin concentrations in vaccines. Ann Pharmacother. 2002;36:1650; author reply 1650-1 pubmed
  3. Shek L, Khor E, Tan G, Low K, Ong D, Roy J, et al. Comparative study of the reactogenicity of a three-component acellular pertussis vaccine and whole-cell pertussis vaccine administered to healthy Singaporean infants. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2003;34:863-8 pubmed
  4. Gust D, Strine T, Maurice E, Smith P, Yusuf H, Wilkinson M, et al. Underimmunization among children: effects of vaccine safety concerns on immunization status. Pediatrics. 2004;114:e16-22 pubmed
    ..Efforts to maintain and improve immunization coverage need to target those with attitudes/beliefs/behaviors indicative of vaccine safety concerns, as well as those with socioeconomic and health care access problems. ..
  5. Halperin S. Pertussis--a disease and vaccine for all ages. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:1615-7 pubmed
  6. Davis M, Broder K, Cowan A, Mijalski C, Katrina K, Stokley S, et al. Physician attitudes and preferences about combined Tdap vaccines for adolescents. Am J Prev Med. 2006;31:176-80 pubmed
    ..Near-term efforts regarding Tdap recommendations must address providers' concerns about infrequent routine visits for adolescents and convince more physicians of the importance of pertussis booster immunization during adolescence. ..
  7. Knutsson N, Trollfors B, Taranger J, Bergfors E, Sundh V, Lagergard T, et al. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis toxoids combined with inactivated polio vaccine, when administered concomitantly with or as a diluent for a Hib conjugate vaccine. Vaccine. 2001;19:4396-403 pubmed
  8. Mawas F, Newman G, Burns S, Corbel M. Suppression and modulation of cellular and humoral immune responses to Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) conjugate vaccine in hib-diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussis combination vaccines: a study in a rat model. J Infect Dis. 2005;191:58-64 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the model can predict the effect of combined administration of Hib and DTaP vaccines on Hib immunogenicity and would be suitable for preclinical studies of mechanisms of interference in Hib/DTaP vaccines. ..
  9. Finger R, Shoemaker J. Preventing pertussis in infants by vaccinating adults. Am Fam Physician. 2006;74:382 pubmed
  10. Göring C. [Prevention in family practice. Are your patients fully vaccinated?]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2008;150:16 pubmed
  11. Lieu T, Davis R, Capra A, Mell L, Quesenberry C, Martin K, et al. Variation in clinician recommendations for multiple injections during adoption of inactivated polio vaccine. Pediatrics. 2001;107:E49 pubmed
    ..Clinical policymakers should continue to monitor practice variation as future vaccines are added to the infant immunization schedule. ..
  12. Bernsen R, van der Wouden J. Re: no epidemiological evidence for infant vaccinations to cause allergic disease. Vaccine. 2005;23:1427 pubmed
  13. Cohen A, Veenstra D. Economic analysis of prevaccination serotesting compared with presumptive immunization for polio, diphtheria, and tetanus in internationally adopted and immigrant infants. Pediatrics. 2006;117:1650-5 pubmed
    ..The results for DTaP are less definitive, although immunization is the preferred strategy in populations with poor vaccine compliance or low seroprevalence of antibodies to diphtheria and tetanus. ..
  14. Cherry J. Immunity to pertussis. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:1278-9 pubmed
  15. Lovette B. Update on adolescent immunization. J Pediatr Health Care. 2006;20:430; author reply 430 pubmed
  16. Togashi T, Mitsuya N, Kogawara O, Sumino S, Takanami Y, Sugizaki K. Immunogenicity and safety of a fully liquid aluminum phosphate adjuvanted Haemophilus influenzae type b PRP-CRM197-conjugate vaccine in healthy Japanese children: A phase III, randomized, observer-blind, multicenter, parallel-group study. Vaccine. 2016;34:4635-4641 pubmed publisher
    ..Registered on ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01379846. ..
  17. Lavigne M, Castro M, Mateo N, Deluchi S, Atzori C, Piudo L, et al. Whole-cell Bordetella pertussis vaccine component modulates the mouse immune response to an unrelated soluble antigen. Microbes Infect. 2002;4:815-20 pubmed
    ..pertussis as an in vitro stimulus. Results might indicate that these cells may not play a key role in protecting against B. pertussis when the host is vaccinated with DTPa. ..
  18. Pichichero M, Bernstein H, Blatter M, Schuerman L, Cheuvart B, Holmes S. Immunogenicity and safety of a combination diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, and inactivated poliovirus vaccine coadministered with a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate va. J Pediatr. 2007;151:43-9, 49.e1-2 pubmed
    ..05). No group differences were observed in rates of symptoms for which parents sought medical advice. DTaP-HepB-IPV was highly immunogenic and well tolerated when coadministered with Hib and PCV-7 at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. ..
  19. Gzyl A, Augustynowicz E, Zawadka M, Rabczenko D, Slusarczyk J. [Analysis of chosen parameters of immuno response in mice immunized with whole-cell or acellular pertussis vaccines and challenged with B. pertussis strains harbouring different ptxS1/prn allele genes combinations]. Med Dosw Mikrobiol. 2007;59:137-47 pubmed
    ..There were no quantitative differences of analysed factors involved in the immune response among mice challenged B. pertussis strains containing different ptxS1/prn composition. ..
  20. Lin T, Wang Y, Chang L, Huang Y, Kao H, Lin P, et al. A fully liquid diphtheria-tetanus-five component acellular pertussis-inactivated poliomyelitis--Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine: immunogenicity and safety of primary vaccination in Taiwanese infants. Int J Infect Dis. 2007;11:129-36 pubmed
    ..The fully liquid pentavalent vaccine has the advantages of not requiring reconstitution and of administration as a single injection. ..
  21. Kato T. [Vaccines in Japan]. Nihon Rinsho. 2007;65 Suppl 2 Pt. 1:637-8 pubmed
  22. Aboul Enein B, Puddy W, Bowser J. The 1925 Diphtheria Antitoxin Run to Nome - Alaska: A Public Health Illustration of Human-Animal Collaboration. J Med Humanit. 2016;: pubmed publisher
    ..This unique example of cooperative interspecies fellowship and collaboration highlights the importance of the human-animal bond in the one-health initiative. ..
  23. Kataoka M, Toyoizumi H, Yamamoto A, Ochiai M, Horiuchi Y. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell clustering does not correlate with in vivo histamine-sensitization when measuring residual activity of aldehyde-treated pertussis toxin (PT). Biologicals. 2002;30:297-302 pubmed
    ..These findings suggested that CHO cell clustering test might have an efficacy limitation in predicting in vivo activity of aldehyde-treated PT. ..
  24. Weston W, Klein N. Kinrix: a new combination DTaP-IPV vaccine for children aged 4-6 years. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2008;7:1309-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Strategies such as the use of combined vaccines can help to maintain high levels of coverage against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and poliomyelitis diseases. ..
  25. Yucesoy B, Johnson V, Fluharty K, Kashon M, Slaven J, Wilson N, et al. Influence of cytokine gene variations on immunization to childhood vaccines. Vaccine. 2009;27:6991-7 pubmed publisher
    ..05). These data suggest that genetic variations in cytokine genes can influence vaccine-induced immune responses in infants, which in turn may influence vaccine efficacy. ..
  26. Silfverdal S, Icardi G, Vesikari T, Flores S, Pagnoni M, Xu J, et al. A Phase III randomized, double-blind, clinical trial of an investigational hexavalent vaccine given at 2, 4, and 11-12 months. Vaccine. 2016;34:3810-6 pubmed publisher
    ..DTaP5-HB-IPV-Hib could provide a new hexavalent option for pediatric combination vaccines, aligned with recommended immunizations in Europe. V419-008 CLINICALTRIALS.GOV identifier: NCT01480258. ..
  27. Rowe J, Macaubas C, Monger T, Holt B, Harvey J, Poolman J, et al. Heterogeneity in diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine-specific cellular immunity during infancy: relationship to variations in the kinetics of postnatal maturation of systemic th1 function. J Infect Dis. 2001;184:80-8 pubmed
    ..The Th2 component of vaccine-specific responses was more prominent in children with atopic family history. ..
  28. Johnson N, Ruggeberg J, Balfour G, Lee Y, Liddy H, Irving D, et al. Haemophilus influenzae type b reemergence after combination immunization. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:937-41 pubmed
    ..001, respectively). Hib was found in 2.1% (95% CI 0.7%-6.0%) of study participants. Our data support an association between DTaP-Hib vaccine combinations and clinical Hib disease through an effect on antibody concentration and avidity. ..
  29. Siegrist C. Blame vaccine interference, not neonatal immunization, for suboptimal responses after neonatal diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis immunization. J Pediatr. 2008;153:305-7 pubmed publisher
  30. Zerbo O, Chan B, Goddard K, Lewis N, Bok K, Klein N, et al. Kaiser Permanente Northern California pregnancy database: Description and proof of concept study. Vaccine. 2016;34:5519-5523 pubmed publisher
    ..92, 95% CI 0.82-1.04). The KPNC pregnancy database can be used for studies investigating exposure during pregnancy and outcomes in mothers and/or infants, particularly monitoring vaccine safety and effectiveness. ..
  31. Pichichero M, Casey J. Acellular pertussis vaccines for adolescents. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24:S117-26 pubmed
    ..Tdap vaccines appear safe and immunogenic. The economic impact of pertussis provides a cost-benefit justification for widespread use of Tdap vaccine boosting in adolescents. ..
  32. Guiso N, de la Rocque F, Njamkepo E, Lécuyer A, Levy C, Romain O, et al. Pertussis surveillance in private pediatric practices, France, 2002-2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1159-61 pubmed publisher
  33. Caboré R, Maertens K, Dobly A, Leuridan E, Van Damme P, Huygen K. Influence of maternal vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis on the avidity of infant antibody responses to a pertussis containing vaccine in Belgium. Virulence. 2017;8:1245-1254 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical significance of lower avidity of vaccine induced infant antibodies after maternal vaccination, if any, needs further investigation...
  34. Turnbull F, Heath T, Jalaludin B, Burgess M, Ramalho A. A randomized trial of two acellular pertussis vaccines (dTpa and pa) and a licensed diphtheria-tetanus vaccine (Td) in adults. Vaccine. 2000;19:628-36 pubmed
    ..The dTpa vaccine was well tolerated and capable of eliciting an immune response against all the antigens in a broad spectrum of the adult population and could potentially replace Td for routine boosters in adults. ..
  35. de Carvalho A, Pereira E. Acellular pertussis vaccine for adolescents. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2006;82:S15-24 pubmed
    ..Perhaps the strategy of using a second booster dose in adolescence to replace the double diphtheria and tetanus vaccine should be adopted immediately. ..
  36. McNeil S, Noya F, Dionne M, Predy G, Meekison W, Ojah C, et al. Comparison of the safety and immunogenicity of concomitant and sequential administration of an adult formulation tetanus and diphtheria toxoids adsorbed combined with acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine and trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in a. Vaccine. 2007;25:3464-74 pubmed
  37. Happe L, Lunacsek O, Kruzikas D, Marshall G. Impact of a pentavalent combination vaccine on immunization timeliness in a state Medicaid population. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28:98-101 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings, along with previous research associating combination vaccines with improved coverage rates, provide quantitative data to support the ACIP, AAP, and AAFP preference for combination vaccines. ..
  38. Ghosh T, Patnaik J, Bennett A, Trefren L, Vogt R. Assessment of missing immunizations and immunization-related barriers among WIC populations at the local level. Public Health Rep. 2007;122:602-6 pubmed
    ..Local health departments should target immunization-related interventions by assessing their own WIC populations to identify unique vaccine-related deficiencies, misperceptions, and high-risk subpopulations. ..
  39. Sauberan J, Dean L, Fiedelak J, Abraham J. Origins of and solutions for neonatal medication-dispensing errors. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2010;67:49-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Multidisciplinary collaboration within the system helped the pharmacy identify, resolve, and prevent errors related to medication storage, labeling, delivery, knowledge, and administration documentation. ..
  40. Vesikari T, Karvonen A, Prymula R, Schuster V, Tejedor J, Thollot F, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of the human rotavirus vaccine Rotarix co-administered with routine infant vaccines following the vaccination schedules in Europe. Vaccine. 2010;28:5272-9 pubmed publisher
    ..RIX4414 was immunogenic and well tolerated in European infants and the co-administration of routine childhood vaccines with RIX4414 did not negatively impact the immune responses to these vaccines. ..
  41. Jackson L, Falls S, Yu O, George J, Pietrobon P, Rubanowice D, et al. Diphtheria antitoxin levels among children primed with a diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine lot with a subpotent diphtheria toxoid component. J Infect Dis. 2001;183:1698-700 pubmed
    ..The booster response to dose 4, although reduced, was sufficient to confer adequate protection in the interval before receipt of the fifth dose of DTaP. ..
  42. Abarca K, Valdivieso F, Potin M, Ibánez I, Vial P. [Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a reduced antigen content diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis vaccine dTpa) in 10 to 11 years old children and in adults]. Rev Med Chil. 2002;130:502-10 pubmed
    ..Only one vaccinee had fever above 39 degrees C. The dTpa vaccine showed an adequate safety profile and induced an intense immunological response to all antigens in adults and children aged 10-11. ..
  43. Greenberg D, Wong V, Partridge S, Howe B, Ward J. Safety and immunogenicity of a combination diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B vaccine administered at two, four and six months of age compared with monovalent hepatitis B vaccine administered at birth, one month and six months. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002;21:769-77 pubmed
    ..Hepatitis B-containing combination vaccines should reduce the number of vaccine injections required in childhood and maintain excellent seroprotection against multiple pathogens. ..
  44. Melvin A, Mohan K. Response to immunization with measles, tetanus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines in children who have human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and are treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. Pediatrics. 2003;111:e641-4 pubmed
    ..Consideration should be given to readministering childhood immunizations to children who have HIV infection and are treated successfully with combination antiretroviral therapy. ..
  45. Robbins J, Schneerson R, Trollfors B, Sato H, Sato Y, Rappuoli R, et al. The diphtheria and pertussis components of diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-pertussis vaccine should be genetically inactivated mutant toxins. J Infect Dis. 2005;191:81-8 pubmed
    ..Replacement of the diphtheria and aP components with these improved antigens will reduce the amount of protein in DTaP vaccine and, most likely, the incidence and severity of local reactions in teenagers and adults...
  46. Knuf M, Habermehl P, Cimino C, Petersen G, Schmitt H. Immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) concurrently administered with a DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib combination vaccine in healthy infants. Vaccine. 2006;24:4727-36 pubmed
    ..These results support the coadministration of PVC7 with DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib as part of the routine immunization schedule for infants and children. ..
  47. Langley J, Predy G, Guasparini R, Law B, Diaz Mitoma F, Whitstitt P, et al. An adolescent-adult formulation tetanus and diptheria toxoids adsorbed combined with acellular pertussis vaccine has comparable immunogenicity but less reactogenicity in children 4-6 years of age than a pediatric formulation acellular pertussis vacci. Vaccine. 2007;25:1121-5 pubmed
    ..Fever and injection site reactions are less common in 4-6 year-old-children who receive a dTap vaccine compared to DTaP-IPV, without inferior immunogenicity. ..
  48. McIntyre P, Burgess M, Egan A, Schuerman L, Hoet B. Booster vaccination of adults with reduced-antigen-content diphtheria, Tetanus and pertussis vaccine: immunogenicity 5 years post-vaccination. Vaccine. 2009;27:1062-6 pubmed publisher
    ..5% and 90.6% of pa vaccine recipients. At 5 years post boosting, antibody levels to diphtheria and tetanus are similar amongst adults receiving a dTpa or dT, and pertussis antibodies remain above pre-booster levels in at least 85%. ..
  49. Mertsola J, Van Der Meeren O, He Q, Linko Parvinen A, Ramakrishnan G, Mannermaa L, et al. Decennial administration of a reduced antigen content diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine in young adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51:656-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Antibody concentrations against vaccine antigens were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Solicited and unsolicited symptoms and serious adverse events were recorded...
  50. Mink C, Yeh S. Pertussis in adolescents and its prevention using Tdap vaccination. Adolesc Med State Art Rev. 2010;21:220-35, viii pubmed
    ..The goals of Tdap booster are to protect older vaccinees, reduce circulating disease, and thereby protect young infants. ..
  51. Miller E, Waight P, Laurichesse H, Andrews N, Thornton C, Sesardic D, et al. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of acellular diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis vaccines given as a pre-school booster: effect of simultaneous administration of MMR. Vaccine. 2001;19:3904-11 pubmed
  52. Mertsola J. [Acellular pertussis vaccine--effective but expensive]. Duodecim. 2002;118:75-6 pubmed
  53. Avdicova M, Prikazsky V, Hudeckova H, Schuerman L, Willems P. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a novel hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine compared to separate concomitant injections of DTPa-IPV/Hib and HBV vaccines, when administered according to a 3, 5 and 11 month vaccination schedule. Eur J Pediatr. 2002;161:581-7 pubmed
  54. Vergara R, Tregnaghi M, Ussher J, Navarro S, Ruttimann R, Potin M, et al. Reduced-antigen-content-diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis and inactivated polio vaccine as a booster for adolescents 10 to 14 years of age. Eur J Pediatr. 2005;164:377-82 pubmed
  55. McPherson P, Powell K. Hypotonic-hyporesponsive episode in a 7-month-old infant after receipt of multiple vaccinations. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24:1010-1 pubmed
    ..The report describes hypotonic-hyporesponsive episode, encourages reporting of vaccine-associated adverse events and discusses prognosis and implications for subsequent immunization. ..
  56. Knuf M, Zepp F, Meyer C, Grzegowski E, Wolter J, Riffelmann M, et al. Immunogenicity of a single dose of reduced-antigen acellular pertussis vaccine in a non-vaccinated adolescent population. Vaccine. 2006;24:2043-8 pubmed
    ..IgA-anti-PT and IgA-anti-FHA responses were found in 43 and 81% of subjects, respectively. This study shows that in unvaccinated German adolescents pertussis immunity can be achieved by a single dose of Tdap. ..
  57. Wilson T. Update on adolescent immunization: review of pertussis and the efficacy, safety, and clinical use of vaccines that contain tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis. J Pediatr Health Care. 2006;20:229-37 pubmed
    ..Regional epidemics among infants and other vulnerable populations can be reduced or eliminated with improved immunity in adolescents. ..
  58. Sänger R, Behre U, Krause K, Loch H, Soemantri P, Herrmann D, et al. Booster vaccination and 1-year follow-up of 4-8-year-old children with a reduced-antigen-content dTpa-IPV vaccine. Eur J Pediatr. 2007;166:1229-36 pubmed
    ..It provides immunity against four diseases in a single injection, with the potential reactogenicity benefit of a reduced-antigen dose. ..
  59. Barreto L, Guasparini R, Meekison W, Noya F, Young L, Mills E. Humoral immunity 5 years after booster immunization with an adolescent and adult formulation combined tetanus, diphtheria, and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine. Vaccine. 2007;25:8172-9 pubmed
    ..These data will contribute to selecting the optimal interval for booster doses of Tdap. ..
  60. Kilpi T, Silfverdal S, Nilsson L, Syrjänen R, Belloni C, Desole M, et al. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of two diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated polio virus-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines administered at 3, 5 and 11-12 months of age. Hum Vaccin. 2009;5:18-25 pubmed
    ..5 degrees C) were mostly reported in less than 5% of the vaccinees. Three doses of DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib combination vaccines produced sufficient immune responses in nearly all vaccinees. ..
  61. Flatz Jequier A, Posfay Barbe K, Pfister R, Siegrist C. Recurrence of cardiorespiratory events following repeat DTaP-based combined immunization in very low birth weight premature infants. J Pediatr. 2008;153:429-31 pubmed publisher
    ..A cardiorespiratory event associated with the first vaccination was the sole risk factor for recurrence identified. ..
  62. Rank C, Quinn H, McIntyre P. Pertussis vaccine effectiveness after mass immunization of high school students in Australia. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28:152-3 pubmed publisher
    ..7-87.6%) for all study cases (n = 167), increasing to 85.4% (95% CI: 83.0-87.5%) for laboratory-confirmed cases (n = 155). Effectiveness should be comparable in settings with similar programs, such as the United States and Canada...
  63. Yih W, Nordin J, Kulldorff M, Lewis E, Lieu T, Shi P, et al. An assessment of the safety of adolescent and adult tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, using active surveillance for adverse events in the Vaccine Safety Datalink. Vaccine. 2009;27:4257-62 pubmed publisher
    ..5-2 for the other outcomes. This study provides reassurance that Tdap is similar in safety to Td regarding the outcomes studied and supports the viability of sequential analysis for post-licensure vaccine safety monitoring. ..
  64. Dhillon S. Spotlight on DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib Vaccine (Infanrix hexa). BioDrugs. 2010;24:299-302 pubmed publisher
  65. Greenberg D, Wong V, Partridge S, Chang S, Jing J, Howe B, et al. Immunogenicity of a Haemophilus influenzae type b-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine when mixed with a diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B combination vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000;19:1135-40 pubmed
    ..However, the immune response to a booster dose of Hib conjugate vaccine indicated the presence of immunologic memory. ..
  66. Scheifele D, Halperin S, Ferguson A. Assessment of injection site reactions to an acellular pertussis-based combination vaccine, including novel use of skin tests with vaccine antigens. Vaccine. 2001;19:4720-6 pubmed
  67. Zotti C, Castella A. [Combined vaccines: a useful opportunity in public health]. Ann Ig. 2002;14:69-75 pubmed
  68. Strine T, Luman E, Okoro C, McCauley M, Barker L. Predictors of age-appropriate receipt of DTaP dose 4. Am J Prev Med. 2003;25:45-9 pubmed
  69. Iwaki M, Komiya T, Fukuda T, Arakawa Y, Takahashi M. Collaborative study: Standardization of Japanese reference diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, (adsorbed, lot 2), for potency determination of diphtheria-tetanus- acellular pertussis combined vaccine. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2003;56:183-5 pubmed
  70. Rowe J, Poolman J, Macaubas C, Sly P, Loh R, Holt P. Enhancement of vaccine-specific cellular immunity in infants by passively acquired maternal antibody. Vaccine. 2004;22:3986-92 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate a strong positive association between TT-specific cellular immunity as evidenced by increased IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 responses, and maternal TT-specific IgG. ..
  71. Pichichero M, Decker M. Verification of components of acellular pertussis vaccines that have been distributed solely, been in routine use for the last two decades and contributed greatly to control of pertussis in Japan. Biologicals. 2005;33:59 pubmed
  72. Diez Domingo J, Delgado J, Ballester A, Baldo J, Planelles M, Garcés M, et al. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a combined adsorbed tetanus toxoid, low dose diphtheria toxoid, five component acellular pertussis and inactivated polio vaccine in six-year-old children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24:219-24 pubmed
    ..4 and 38.5% in the DTacP plus OPV group, and no serious adverse events were reported. TdcP-IPV vaccine was shown to be immunogenic and safe when given as a booster in children 6 years of age who were primed with 4 doses of DTwcP and OPV. ..
  73. Carlin G, Viitanen E. In vitro pyrogenicity of the diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis components of a trivalent vaccine. Vaccine. 2005;23:3709-15 pubmed
    ..The receptors involved in stimulation by diphtheria toxoid are not known, but may differ from those used by endotoxin and lipoteichoic acid. ..
  74. Mitka M. Age range widens for pertussis vaccine: boosters advised for adolescents and adults. JAMA. 2006;295:871-2 pubmed
  75. Kitchin N, Southern J, Morris R, Hemme F, Thomas S, Watson M, et al. Evaluation of a diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine given concurrently with meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine at 2, 3 and 4 months of age. Arch Dis Child. 2007;92:11-6 pubmed
    ..Coadministration of MCC vaccine can influence the Hib response, and the MCC response to a tetanus conjugate can be influenced by the nature of the coadministered DTP-Hib vaccine. ..
  76. Khare M, Piccinino L, Barker L, Linkins R. Assessment of immunization registry databases as supplemental sources of data to improve ascertainment of vaccination coverage estimates in the national immunization survey. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006;160:838-42 pubmed
    ..The quality and completeness of the registry data must be improved and must be comparable across all states before further consideration may be given to supplement or replace the provider-reported National Immunization Survey data. ..
  77. Thanjan M, Ramaswamy P, Lai W, Lytrivi I. Acute myopericarditis after multiple vaccinations in an adolescent: case report and review of the literature. Pediatrics. 2007;119:e1400-3 pubmed
    ..Postvaccination cases of myopericarditis reported in the pediatric literature are also reviewed. ..
  78. Tozzi A, Azzari C, Bartolozzi G, Esposito S, Fara G, Giudice M. Can hexavalent vaccines be simultaneously administered with pneumococcal or meningococcal conjugate vaccines?. Hum Vaccin. 2007;3:252-9 pubmed
    ..Studies on vaccine coadministration should be promoted and unpublished studies realized for vaccine registration should be made available. ..
  79. Boot H, Schipper C. Simultaneous vaccination with Prevenar and multicomponent vaccines for children: interference or no interference?. Hum Vaccin. 2009;5:15-7 pubmed
    ..We advocate better assessment of potential interferences in immune responses after simultaneous vaccinations. Registration of new vaccines should include this assessment. ..
  80. Southern J, Borrow R, Andrews N, Morris R, Waight P, Hudson M, et al. Immunogenicity of a reduced schedule of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine given concomitantly with the Prevenar and Pediacel vaccines in healthy infants in the United Kingdom. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:194-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that NeisVac-C and Menjugate generate good immunogenicity after the first dose at 2 months of age when coadministered with PCV7 and Pediacel and merit further investigation in single-dose priming strategies. ..
  81. Batra J, Eriksen E, Zangwill K, Lee M, Marcy S, Ward J. Evaluation of vaccine coverage for low birth weight infants during the first year of life in a large managed care population. Pediatrics. 2009;123:951-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, by 12 months of age this finding persists only in extremely low birth weight infants. ..
  82. Thisyakorn U, Chotpitayasunondh T, Pancharoen C, Chuenkitmongkol S, Ortiz E. Evaluation of an acellular pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus, inactivated poliovirus, Hib-conjugate combined vaccine (Pentaxim) at 2, 4, and 6 months of age plus hepatitis B vaccine at birth, 2, and 6 months of age in infants in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2010;41:450-62 pubmed
    ..1% for PT and 93.0% for FHA. The DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine given at 2, 4 and 6 months of age concomitantly with a monovalent hepatitis B vaccine, was well tolerated and highly immunogenic for primary immunization of infants in Thailand. ..
  83. Daum R, Zenko C, Given G, Ballanco G, Parikh H, Germino K. Magnitude of interference after diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussis/Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide-tetanus vaccination is related to the number of doses administered. J Infect Dis. 2001;184:1293-9 pubmed
    ..0001). The effects of interference were not eliminated by the completion of the primary series with 1 or 2 doses of the DTaP and PRP-T vaccines given separately. ..
  84. Greenberg D, Pickering L, Senders S, Bissey J, Howard R, Blatter M, et al. Interchangeability of 2 diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccines in infancy. Pediatrics. 2002;109:666-72 pubmed
    ..Initiating the primary immunization series with 1 or 2 doses of Tripedia and completing the 3-dose series with Infanrix is as safe and at least as immunogenic as administering Tripedia for all 3 doses. ..
  85. Halperin B, Halperin S, McGrath P, Smith B, Houston T. Use of lidocaine-prilocaine patch to decrease intramuscular injection pain does not adversely affect the antibody response to diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate and hepatitis B vaccin. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002;21:399-405 pubmed
  86. Van Damme P, Burgess M. Immunogenicity of a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine in adults. Vaccine. 2004;22:305-8 pubmed
  87. Zinka B, Rauch E, Buettner A, Rueff F, Penning R. Unexplained cases of sudden infant death shortly after hexavalent vaccination. Vaccine. 2006;24:5779-80 pubmed
  88. Tapiainen T, Cherry J, Heininger U. Effect of injection site on reactogenicity and immunogenicity of acellular and whole-cell pertussis component diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccines in infants. Vaccine. 2005;23:5106-12 pubmed
    ..pertussis, pertactin, is decreased. ..
  89. Greenberg D. Pertussis in adolescents: increasing incidence brings attention to the need for booster immunization of adolescents. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24:721-8 pubmed
    ..Improvements in diagnosis and prevention of pertussis in adolescents are needed. ..
  90. Scheifele D, Halperin S, Ochnio J, Ferguson A, Skowronski D. A modified vaccine reduces the rate of large injection site reactions to the preschool booster dose of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine: results of a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24:1059-66 pubmed
    ..With Tdap vaccine, such reactions were significantly fewer but not eliminated. A Tdap.IPV vaccine warrants study for routine use at 4-6 years of age. ..
  91. Bartell J, Hayney M. Pertussis update: focus on adolescents. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2005;45:762-4 pubmed
  92. Guiso N, Njamkepo E, Vie Le Sage F, Zepp F, Meyer C, Abitbol V, et al. Long-term humoral and cell-mediated immunity after acellular pertussis vaccination compares favourably with whole-cell vaccines 6 years after booster vaccination in the second year of life. Vaccine. 2007;25:1390-7 pubmed
    ..At year 6, CMI responses continued to be present and were higher in Pa-vaccinated than Pw-vaccinated subjects. Long-term protection with Pa vaccines can be expected to be at least as good as that provided by efficacious Pw vaccines. ..