tuberculosis vaccines


Summary: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.

Top Publications

  1. McNeil S, Rosenkrands I, Agger E, Andersen P, Perrie Y. Subunit vaccines: distearoylphosphatidylcholine-based liposomes entrapping antigen offer a neutral alternative to dimethyldioctadecylammonium-based cationic liposomes as an adjuvant delivery system. J Pharm Sci. 2011;100:1856-65 pubmed publisher
  2. McNamara L, He Y, Yang Z. Using epitope predictions to evaluate efficacy and population coverage of the Mtb72f vaccine for tuberculosis. BMC Immunol. 2010;11:18 pubmed publisher
    ..The efficacy of the Mtb72f vaccine should be further examined in these particular populations to determine whether additional protective measures might be necessary for these regions. ..
  3. Scriba T, Tameris M, Mansoor N, Smit E, van der Merwe L, Isaacs F, et al. Modified vaccinia Ankara-expressing Ag85A, a novel tuberculosis vaccine, is safe in adolescents and children, and induces polyfunctional CD4+ T cells. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:279-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This includes induction of novel Th1-cell populations that have not been previously described in humans. ..
  4. Leroux Roels I, Leroux Roels G, Ofori Anyinam O, Moris P, De Kock E, Clement F, et al. Evaluation of the safety and immunogenicity of two antigen concentrations of the Mtb72F/AS02(A) candidate tuberculosis vaccine in purified protein derivative-negative adults. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:1763-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, Mtb72F/AS02(A) is clinically well tolerated and is highly immunogenic in TB-naïve adults. The 10- and 40-?g Mtb72F/AS02(A) vaccines show comparable safety and immunogenicity profiles. ..
  5. Yang C, He Y, Zhang L, Xu L, Yi Z, Wang Y, et al. GLS/IL-12-modified Mycobacterium smegmatis as a novel anti-tuberculosis immunotherapeutic vaccine. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2009;13:1360-6 pubmed
    ..To study the effects and mechanisms of recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis (rMS) carrying pZM03 (a co-expression plasmid encoding human granulysin [GLS] and murine interleukin 12 [IL-12]) on murine M. tuberculosis infection...
  6. Scriba T, Tameris M, Mansoor N, Smit E, van der Merwe L, Mauff K, et al. Dose-finding study of the novel tuberculosis vaccine, MVA85A, in healthy BCG-vaccinated infants. J Infect Dis. 2011;203:1832-43 pubmed publisher
    ..MVA85A was safe and induced robust, polyfunctional, durable CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses in infants. These data support efficacy evaluation of MVA85A to prevent tuberculosis in infancy. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00679159. ..
  7. Li Q, Yu H, Zhang Y, Wang B, Jiang W, Da Z, et al. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a fusion protein vaccine consisting of antigen Ag85B and HspX against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice. Scand J Immunol. 2011;73:568-76 pubmed publisher
  8. Meyer J, Harris S, Satti I, Poulton I, Poyntz H, Tanner R, et al. Comparing the safety and immunogenicity of a candidate TB vaccine MVA85A administered by intramuscular and intradermal delivery. Vaccine. 2013;31:1026-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are important for TB vaccine development and are of relevance to HIV, malaria, influenza and other intracellular pathogens for which T cell-inducing MVA-based vaccine platforms are being evaluated. ..
  9. Rouanet C, Debrie A, Lecher S, Locht C. Subcutaneous boosting with heparin binding haemagglutinin increases BCG-induced protection against tuberculosis. Microbes Infect. 2009;11:995-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..7log when compared to BCG alone. These results suggest an immunisation strategy where BCG is administered to neonates and is followed by subcutaneous HBHA boosting in young adults. ..

More Information


  1. Rowland R, Pathan A, Satti I, Poulton I, Matsumiya M, Whittaker M, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of an FP9-vectored candidate tuberculosis vaccine (FP85A), alone and with candidate vaccine MVA85A in BCG-vaccinated healthy adults: a phase I clinical trial. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2013;9:50-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that FP85A induced anti-FP9 IgG antibodies with cross-reactivity for MVA85A, which may have mediated inhibition of the immune response to subsequent MVA85A. identification number: NCT00653770. ..
  2. Ottenhoff T, Kaufmann S. Vaccines against tuberculosis: where are we and where do we need to go?. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002607 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, there is good reason for optimism in the field of TB vaccines that it will be possible to develop better vaccines than BCG, which is still the only vaccine available against TB. ..
  3. van Dissel J, Soonawala D, Joosten S, Prins C, Arend S, Bang P, et al. Ag85B-ESAT-6 adjuvanted with IC31® promotes strong and long-lived Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific T cell responses in volunteers with previous BCG vaccination or tuberculosis infection. Vaccine. 2011;29:2100-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The strong responses persisted through 32 weeks of follow-up, indicating the induction of a persistent memory response in the vaccine recipients. ..
  4. Billeskov R, Grandal M, Poulsen C, Christensen J, Winther N, Vingsbo Lundberg C, et al. Difference in TB10.4 T-cell epitope recognition following immunization with recombinant TB10.4, BCG or infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:1342-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we show that different vectors can induce completely different recognition of the same protein. ..
  5. Rowland R, McShane H. Tuberculosis vaccines in clinical trials. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2011;10:645-58 pubmed publisher
  6. Griffiths G, Nyström B, Sable S, Khuller G. Nanobead-based interventions for the treatment and prevention of tuberculosis. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010;8:827-34 pubmed publisher
    ..tuberculosis in animal models than conventional antibiotic treatment regimens. This technology also has substantial potential for vaccination and other therapeutic strategies against TB and other infectious diseases. ..
  7. Pathan A, Minassian A, Sander C, Rowland R, Porter D, Poulton I, et al. Effect of vaccine dose on the safety and immunogenicity of a candidate TB vaccine, MVA85A, in BCG vaccinated UK adults. Vaccine. 2012;30:5616-24 pubmed publisher
    ..A higher dose of 1×10(8)PFU of MVA85A is well-tolerated, increases the frequency of IFN-? secreting T cells detected following immunisation and broadens the range of Ag85A epitopes detected. ..
  8. Cooper A. T cells in mycobacterial infection and disease. Curr Opin Immunol. 2009;21:378-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The integration of the T cell functional data with the consequences of infection should improve rational vaccine design. ..
  9. Woodworth J, Shin D, Volman M, Nunes Alves C, Fortune S, Behar S. Mycobacterium tuberculosis directs immunofocusing of CD8+ T cell responses despite vaccination. J Immunol. 2011;186:1627-37 pubmed publisher
    ..tuberculosis. We speculate that factors intrinsic to the chronic nature of M. tuberculosis infection establishes the hierarchy of immunodominance and may explain the failure of some vaccines to provide protection. ..
  10. Minassian A, Satti I, Poulton I, Meyer J, Hill A, McShane H. A human challenge model for Mycobacterium tuberculosis using Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin. J Infect Dis. 2012;205:1035-42 pubmed publisher
    ..identification of correlates of antimycobacterial immunity and will greatly facilitate the rational down-selection of candidate tuberculosis vaccines. Further evaluation of this model with BCG and new vaccine candidates is warranted.
  11. Lindsey D, Dhandayuthapani S, Jagannath C. Anti-tuberculosis immunity induced in mice by vaccination with Mycobacterium smegmatis over-expressing Antigen 85B is due to the increased influx of IFNgamma-positive CD4 T cells into the lungs. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2009;89 Suppl 1:S46-8 pubmed publisher
  12. Okada M, Kita Y, Nakajima T, Kanamaru N, Hashimoto S, Nagasawa T, et al. Novel therapeutic vaccine: granulysin and new DNA vaccine against Tuberculosis. Hum Vaccin. 2011;7 Suppl:60-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that novel vaccines might be useful against TB including XDR-TB and MDR-TB for human therapeutic clinical trials. ..
  13. Abu Raddad L, Sabatelli L, Achterberg J, Sugimoto J, Longini I, Dye C, et al. Epidemiological benefits of more-effective tuberculosis vaccines, drugs, and diagnostics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:13980-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Elimination will require new delivery strategies, such as mass vaccination campaigns, and new products targeted at latently infected people. ..
  14. Okada M, Kita Y. Tuberculosis vaccine development: The development of novel (preclinical) DNA vaccine. Hum Vaccin. 2010;6:297-308 pubmed
  15. Whelan K, Pathan A, Sander C, Fletcher H, Poulton I, Alder N, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of boosting BCG vaccinated subjects with BCG: comparison with boosting with a new TB vaccine, MVA85A. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5934 pubmed publisher NCT00654316 NCT00427830. ..
  16. von Eschen K, Morrison R, Braun M, Ofori Anyinam O, De Kock E, Pavithran P, et al. The candidate tuberculosis vaccine Mtb72F/AS02A: Tolerability and immunogenicity in humans. Hum Vaccin. 2009;5:475-82 pubmed
    ..This first trial in humans found Mtb72F/AS02A to have an acceptable tolerability, to be immunogenic in healthy adults and warrants further development of the vaccine. ..
  17. Walker K, Brennan M, Ho M, Eskola J, Thiry G, Sadoff J, et al. The second Geneva Consensus: Recommendations for novel live TB vaccines. Vaccine. 2010;28:2259-70 pubmed publisher
    ..v. Consider requirements and associated issues related to the use of these new vaccines within an existing BCG vaccination programme. ..
  18. Hoft D, Blazevic A, Stanley J, Landry B, Sizemore D, Kpamegan E, et al. A recombinant adenovirus expressing immunodominant TB antigens can significantly enhance BCG-induced human immunity. Vaccine. 2012;30:2098-108 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that AERAS-402 is a promising TB vaccine candidate that can significantly enhance both CD4(+) and CD8(+) TB-specific T cell responses after BCG priming. Identifier: NCT01378312. ..
  19. Brennan M, Clagett B, Fitzgerald H, Chen V, Williams A, Izzo A, et al. Preclinical evidence for implementing a prime-boost vaccine strategy for tuberculosis. Vaccine. 2012;30:2811-23 pubmed publisher
  20. Aagaard C, Hoang T, Izzo A, Billeskov R, Troudt J, Arnett K, et al. Protection and polyfunctional T cells induced by Ag85B-TB10.4/IC31 against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is highly dependent on the antigen dose. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5930 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the adjuvant IC31 can, with the optimal dose of Ag85B-TB10.4, induce strong protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This vaccine has now entered clinical trials. ..
  21. Ronan E, Lee L, Beverley P, Tchilian E. Immunization of mice with a recombinant adenovirus vaccine inhibits the early growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis after infection. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8235 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that an optimal immunization strategy for tuberculosis should aim to induce both lung and systemic immunity, targeting the early and late phases of Mtb growth. ..
  22. Prabowo S, Gröschel M, Schmidt E, Skrahina A, Mihaescu T, Hasturk S, et al. Targeting multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) by therapeutic vaccines. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2013;202:95-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a renewed concept of immunotherapy is needed. We review current perspectives of immunotherapy in MDR-TB based on the knowledge of TB immunology and briefly discuss the profiles of several therapeutic vaccine products. ..
  23. Mu J, Jeyanathan M, Shaler C, Horvath C, Damjanovic D, Zganiacz A, et al. Respiratory mucosal immunization with adenovirus gene transfer vector induces helper CD4 T cell-independent protective immunity. J Gene Med. 2010;12:693-704 pubmed publisher
  24. Lindenstrøm T, Woodworth J, Dietrich J, Aagaard C, Andersen P, Agger E. Vaccine-induced th17 cells are maintained long-term postvaccination as a distinct and phenotypically stable memory subset. Infect Immun. 2012;80:3533-44 pubmed publisher
    ..tuberculosis-infected lung. In the absence of overt inflammation, however, stable bona fide Th17 memory can indeed be induced by parenteral immunization...
  25. Hanif S, al Attiyah R, Mustafa A. DNA vaccine constructs expressing Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific genes induce immune responses. Scand J Immunol. 2010;72:408-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of the DNA vaccine constructs to elicit cellular immune responses makes them an attractive weapon as a safer vaccine candidate for preventive and therapeutic applications against tuberculosis. ..
  26. Lewis D, Huo Z, Barnett S, Kromann I, Giemza R, Galiza E, et al. Transient facial nerve paralysis (Bell's palsy) following intranasal delivery of a genetically detoxified mutant of Escherichia coli heat labile toxin. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6999 pubmed publisher
  27. Jeyanathan M, Heriazon A, Xing Z. Airway luminal T cells: a newcomer on the stage of TB vaccination strategies. Trends Immunol. 2010;31:247-52 pubmed publisher
    ..tuberculosis challenge restores protection. We propose that understanding the biology of airway luminal T cells holds important implications for developing effective TB vaccination strategies. ..
  28. Romano M, Huygen K. An update on vaccines for tuberculosis - there is more to it than just waning of BCG efficacy with time. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2012;12:1601-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Prime-boost strategies based on the actual BCG vaccine may not be sufficient to overcome this hurdle. The use of plasmid DNA vaccination might offer a solution. ..
  29. Rappuoli R, Aderem A. A 2020 vision for vaccines against HIV, tuberculosis and malaria. Nature. 2011;473:463-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We also argue that new and innovative approaches to clinical trials will accelerate the availability of these vaccines. ..
  30. Shanahan E, Pinto R, Triccas J, Britton W, West N. Cutinase-like protein-6 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is recognised in tuberculosis patients and protects mice against pulmonary infection as a single and fusion protein vaccine. Vaccine. 2010;28:1341-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The data presented here may indicate that the cell wall-associated, putatively essential protein Culp6, shown here for the first time to be recognised in TB patients, is an attractive candidate for inclusion in future subunit vaccines. ..
  31. Hatherill M. Prospects for elimination of childhood tuberculosis: the role of new vaccines. Arch Dis Child. 2011;96:851-6 pubmed publisher
    ..14 new tuberculosis vaccines have entered human clinical trials, including viral-vectored vaccines, recombinant fusion proteins, ..
  32. Singh V, Jain S, Gowthaman U, Parihar P, Gupta P, Gupta U, et al. Co-administration of IL-1+IL-6+TNF-? with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infected macrophages vaccine induces better protective T cell memory than BCG. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16097 pubmed publisher
    ..tb can be utilized with great efficacy especially in protection against TB. ..
  33. Aagaard C, Hoang T, Dietrich J, Cardona P, Izzo A, Dolganov G, et al. A multistage tuberculosis vaccine that confers efficient protection before and after exposure. Nat Med. 2011;17:189-94 pubmed publisher
    All tuberculosis vaccines currently in clinical trials are designed as prophylactic vaccines based on early expressed antigens...
  34. Ottenhoff T. Overcoming the global crisis: "yes, we can", but also for TB ... ?. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:2014-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Equally important is that we build high-quality clinical trial capacity and biobanks for TB biomarker identification. But most important is a global commitment at all levels to roll back TB before it outwits us again. ..
  35. Kaufmann S. Novel tuberculosis vaccination strategies based on understanding the immune response. J Intern Med. 2010;267:337-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Ultimately, vaccination strategies that achieve sterile eradication of, or prevent infection with, tubercle bacilli would be an ambitious highly promising goal. ..
  36. Maertzdorf J, Weiner J, Kaufmann S. Enabling biomarkers for tuberculosis control. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2012;16:1140-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, simple, low-cost biomarker-based point-of-care diagnosis will probably not be achieved in the next few years. ..
  37. Kaufmann S. Tuberculosis vaccine development: strength lies in tenacity. Trends Immunol. 2012;33:373-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Amalgamation of this information will foster the way towards more efficacious vaccination strategies that not only prevent disease, but prevent or abolish infection. ..
  38. Kaufmann S, Gengenbacher M. Recombinant live vaccine candidates against tuberculosis. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2012;23:900-7 pubmed publisher
  39. McCormick S, Shaler C, Xing Z. Pulmonary mucosal dendritic cells in T-cell activation: implications for TB therapy. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2011;5:75-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we discuss how DCs may be manipulated and exploited as a cell-based prophylactic TB vaccine and the prospect of using this strategy for post-M. tuberculosis exposure settings. ..
  40. Aagaard C, Hoang T, Vingsbo Lundberg C, Dietrich J, Andersen P. Quality and vaccine efficacy of CD4+ T cell responses directed to dominant and subdominant epitopes in ESAT-6 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Immunol. 2009;183:2659-68 pubmed publisher
  41. Ota M, Odutola A, Owiafe P, Donkor S, Owolabi O, Brittain N, et al. Immunogenicity of the tuberculosis vaccine MVA85A is reduced by coadministration with EPI vaccines in a randomized controlled trial in Gambian infants. Sci Transl Med. 2011;3:88ra56 pubmed publisher
    New tuberculosis vaccines are urgently needed to curtail the current epidemic. MVA85A is a subunit vaccine that could enhance immunity from BCG vaccination...
  42. de Cassan S, Pathan A, Sander C, Minassian A, Rowland R, Hill A, et al. Investigating the induction of vaccine-induced Th17 and regulatory T cells in healthy, Mycobacterium bovis BCG-immunized adults vaccinated with a new tuberculosis vaccine, MVA85A. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:1066-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These data highlight the intricate balance of effector and regulatory immune responses induced by vaccination and that preexisting immunity to mycobacterial antigens may affect the composition of vaccine-induced T-cell subsets. ..
  43. Christensen D, Agger E, Andreasen L, Kirby D, Andersen P, Perrie Y. Liposome-based cationic adjuvant formulations (CAF): past, present, and future. J Liposome Res. 2009;19:2-11 pubmed publisher
  44. Chen L, Xu M, Wang Z, Chen B, Du W, Su C, et al. The development and preliminary evaluation of a new Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine comprising Ag85b, HspX and CFP-10:ESAT-6 fusion protein with CpG DNA and aluminum hydroxide adjuvants. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2010;59:42-52 pubmed publisher
  45. Scriba T, Tameris M, Smit E, van der Merwe L, Hughes E, Kadira B, et al. A phase IIa trial of the new tuberculosis vaccine, MVA85A, in HIV- and/or Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected adults. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;185:769-78 pubmed publisher
    ..MVA85A was safe and immunogenic in persons with HIV and/or M.tb infection. These results support further evaluation of safety and efficacy of this vaccine for prevention of TB in these target populations. ..
  46. Yang X, Chen Q, Li Y, Wu S. Mycobacterium vaccae as adjuvant therapy to anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy in never-treated tuberculosis patients: a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23826 pubmed publisher
    ..20 and 95% CI (0.12, 0.33). No systemic adverse events were reported. Added to chemotherapy, M. vaccae is helpful in the treatment of never-treated TB patients in terms of improving both sputum conversion and X-ray appearances. ..
  47. Mahomed H, Fourie P. Clinical trials of TB vaccines: harmonization and cooperation. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2012;92 Suppl 1:S21-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, there needs to be sufficient funding to support TB vaccine development. These challenges can be met through commitment by all role-players within the TB vaccine arena and with support from external stakeholders. ..
  48. Vordermeier H, Villarreal Ramos B, Cockle P, McAulay M, Rhodes S, Thacker T, et al. Viral booster vaccines improve Mycobacterium bovis BCG-induced protection against bovine tuberculosis. Infect Immun. 2009;77:3364-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings also have implications for human tuberculosis vaccine development. ..
  49. Meyer J, McShane H. The next 10 years for tuberculosis vaccines: do we have the right plans in place?. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2013;12:443-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the increasing pace, extent and coordination of global research efforts in TB promises to broaden understanding and inform the next generation of vaccine candidates against TB as well as related globally important pathogens. ..
  50. Lee L, Ronan E, de Lara C, Franken K, Ottenhoff T, Tchilian E, et al. CXCR6 is a marker for protective antigen-specific cells in the lungs after intranasal immunization against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infect Immun. 2011;79:3328-37 pubmed publisher
  51. Baldwin S, Ching L, Pine S, Moutaftsi M, Lucas E, Vallur A, et al. Protection against tuberculosis with homologous or heterologous protein/vector vaccine approaches is not dependent on CD8+ T cells. J Immunol. 2013;191:2514-2525 pubmed publisher
    Considerable effort has been directed to develop Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccines to boost bacille Calmette-Guérin or for those who cannot be immunized with bacille Calmette-Guérin...
  52. Smith S, Joosten S, Verscheure V, Pathan A, McShane H, Ottenhoff T, et al. Identification of major factors influencing ELISpot-based monitoring of cellular responses to antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7972 pubmed publisher
    ..A pre-stimulation step may improve the sensitivity of the assay, particularly when cells have been previously frozen. ..
  53. Davila J, Zhang L, Marrs C, Durmaz R, Yang Z. Assessment of the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis esxA, esxH, and fbpB genes among clinical isolates and its implication for the future immunization by new tuberculosis subunit vaccines Ag85B-ESAT-6 and Ag85B-TB10.4. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2010;2010:208371 pubmed publisher
    ..4 vaccines will be affected by the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis population. Future studies should include a broader pool of M. tuberculosis strains to validate the current conclusion...
  54. Minassian A, Ronan E, Poyntz H, Hill A, McShane H. Preclinical development of an in vivo BCG challenge model for testing candidate TB vaccine efficacy. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19840 pubmed publisher
    ..tb challenge. Translation of these findings to a human BCG challenge model could enable more rapid assessment and down selection of candidate TB vaccines and ultimately the identification of an immune correlate of protection. ..
  55. Joosten S, van Meijgaarden K, Van Weeren P, Kazi F, Geluk A, Savage N, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis peptides presented by HLA-E molecules are targets for human CD8 T-cells with cytotoxic as well as regulatory activity. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000782 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results significantly increase our understanding of the human immune response to Mtb by identification of CD8(+) T-cell responses to novel HLA-E binding peptides of Mtb, which have cytotoxic as well as immunoregulatory activity. ..
  56. Xing Z, McFarland C, Sallenave J, Izzo A, Wang J, McMurray D. Intranasal mucosal boosting with an adenovirus-vectored vaccine markedly enhances the protection of BCG-primed guinea pigs against pulmonary tuberculosis. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5856 pubmed publisher
    ..tb challenge. Our results thus support further evaluation of this viral-vectored TB vaccine in clinical trials. ..
  57. Kaufmann S, Hussey G, Lambert P. New vaccines for tuberculosis. Lancet. 2010;375:2110-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Long-term vaccination strategies need to target these more ambitious goals. Even though vaccine development will have a price, the return of investment will greatly exceed original costs. ..
  58. Yang X, Bao L, Deng Y. A novel recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin strain expressing human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and Mycobacterium tuberculosis early secretory antigenic target 6 complex augments Th1 immunity. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2011;43:511-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The data presented here suggested the possibility that the recombinant BCG:GE might be a good vaccine candidate to TB. ..
  59. Yang X, Chen Q, Cui X, Yu Y, Li Y. Mycobacterium vaccae vaccine to prevent tuberculosis in high risk people: a meta-analysis. J Infect. 2010;60:320-30 pubmed publisher
    ..High-quality trials aimed at different groups of high risk people are encouraged. ..
  60. Abel B, Tameris M, Mansoor N, Gelderbloem S, Hughes J, Abrahams D, et al. The novel tuberculosis vaccine, AERAS-402, induces robust and polyfunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in adults. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;181:1407-17 pubmed publisher
    ..AERAS-402 induced a robust and durable CD8(+) T-cell response, which appears extremely promising. Clinical trial registered with (NHREC no. 1381). ..
  61. Lin P, Dietrich J, Tan E, Abalos R, Burgos J, Bigbee C, et al. The multistage vaccine H56 boosts the effects of BCG to protect cynomolgus macaques against active tuberculosis and reactivation of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:303-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that H56/IC31 boosting is able to control late-stage infection with M. tuberculosis and contain latent tuberculosis, providing a rationale for the clinical development of H56. ..
  62. Skeiky Y, Dietrich J, Lasco T, Stagliano K, Dheenadhayalan V, Goetz M, et al. Non-clinical efficacy and safety of HyVac4:IC31 vaccine administered in a BCG prime-boost regimen. Vaccine. 2010;28:1084-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, all non-clinical data supports the suitability of HyVac4 as a safe, immunogenic, and effective vaccination in a prime-boost regimen with BCG. ..
  63. Zhang H, Peng P, Miao S, Zhao Y, Mao F, Wang L, et al. Recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis expressing an ESAT6-CFP10 fusion protein induces anti-mycobacterial immune responses and protects against Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge in mice. Scand J Immunol. 2010;72:349-57 pubmed publisher
    ..S-e6c10 and BCG vaccination was similar based on measures of MTB burden and lung pathology. Our data indicate that the recombinant M. smegmatis vaccine expressing the ESAT6-CFP10 fusion protein has potential in clinic application...
  64. Derrick S, Dao D, Yang A, Kolibab K, Jacobs W, Morris S. Formulation of a mmaA4 gene deletion mutant of Mycobacterium bovis BCG in cationic liposomes significantly enhances protection against tuberculosis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32959 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these data suggest that immunization with the ?mmaA4BCG/adjuvant formulation may be an effective, safe, and relatively inexpensive alternative to vaccination with conventional BCG. ..
  65. Arbués A, Aguiló J, Gonzalo Asensio J, Marinova D, Uranga S, Puentes E, et al. Construction, characterization and preclinical evaluation of MTBVAC, the first live-attenuated M. tuberculosis-based vaccine to enter clinical trials. Vaccine. 2013;31:4867-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These features have enabled MTBVAC to be the first live attenuated M. tuberculosis vaccine to enter clinical evaluation. ..
  66. Kaufmann S. Tuberculosis vaccines: time to think about the next generation. Semin Immunol. 2013;25:172-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Qualitatively superior vaccines should be capable of preventing or eliminating Mtb infection, in this way eliminating the risk of TB reactivation. The time is now ripe to exploit radically new strategies to achieve this goal. ..
  67. Tameris M, Hatherill M, Landry B, Scriba T, Snowden M, Lockhart S, et al. Safety and efficacy of MVA85A, a new tuberculosis vaccine, in infants previously vaccinated with BCG: a randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2b trial. Lancet. 2013;381:1021-8 pubmed
    ..Reasons for the absence of MVA85A efficacy against tuberculosis or M tuberculosis infection in infants need exploration. Aeras, Wellcome Trust, and Oxford-Emergent Tuberculosis Consortium (OETC). ..
  68. Lindenstrøm T, Agger E, Korsholm K, Darrah P, Aagaard C, Seder R, et al. Tuberculosis subunit vaccination provides long-term protective immunity characterized by multifunctional CD4 memory T cells. J Immunol. 2009;182:8047-55 pubmed publisher
  69. Barker L, Brennan M, Rosenstein P, Sadoff J. Tuberculosis vaccine research: the impact of immunology. Curr Opin Immunol. 2009;21:331-8 pubmed publisher
  70. Tyagi A, Nangpal P, Satchidanandam V. Development of vaccines against tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2011;91:469-78 pubmed publisher
  71. Ferrer N, Gomez A, Neyrolles O, Gicquel B, Martin C. Interactions of attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis phoP mutant with human macrophages. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12978 pubmed publisher
    ..SO2 has enhanced ability to bind human macrophages and differs in intracellular trafficking as to wild-type M. tuberculosis. The altered lipid profile expression of the phoP mutant SO2 and its inability to secrete ESAT-6 is discussed. ..
  72. Vilaplana C, Montane E, Pinto S, Barriocanal A, Domenech G, Torres F, et al. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled Phase I Clinical Trial of the therapeutical antituberculous vaccine RUTI. Vaccine. 2010;28:1106-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the feasibility of future evaluation, to be targeted at subjects with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). ..
  73. Svenson S, Kallenius G, Pawlowski A, Hamasur B. Towards new tuberculosis vaccines. Hum Vaccin. 2010;6:309-17 pubmed
    ..The live attenuated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine which is the only currently available TB vaccine does not confer any significant protection against the most common and contagious form of TB-adult pulmonary TB. ..
  74. Leroux Roels I, Forgus S, De Boever F, Clement F, Demoitie M, Mettens P, et al. Improved CD4? T cell responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in PPD-negative adults by M72/AS01 as compared to the M72/AS02 and Mtb72F/AS02 tuberculosis candidate vaccine formulations: a randomized trial. Vaccine. 2013;31:2196-206 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the formulations tested, M72/AS01 demonstrated significantly higher vaccine specific Th1 CD4(+) T cell responses supporting its further clinical evaluation. ..
  75. McShane H. Tuberculosis vaccines: beyond bacille Calmette-Guerin. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2011;366:2782-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews the leading candidate vaccines in development and considers the current challenges in the field with regard to efficacy testing. ..
  76. Griffiths K, Pathan A, Minassian A, Sander C, Beveridge N, Hill A, et al. Th1/Th17 cell induction and corresponding reduction in ATP consumption following vaccination with the novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine MVA85A. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23463 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a relationship between extracellular ATP and effector responses and unveil a possible pathway that could be targeted during vaccine design. ..
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    ..The pipeline of new vaccine candidates from preclinical to clinical testing could be accelerated by development of biomarkers that can predict the clinical outcome of tuberculosis. ..
  78. Govender L, Abel B, Hughes E, Scriba T, Kagina B, de Kock M, et al. Higher human CD4 T cell response to novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis latency associated antigens Rv2660 and Rv2659 in latent infection compared with tuberculosis disease. Vaccine. 2010;29:51-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Persons with LTBI preferentially recognize Rv2659 and Rv2660, compared with patients with TB disease. These results suggest promise of these antigens for incorporation into post-exposure TB vaccines. ..
  79. Lahey T, Arbeit R, Bakari M, Horsburgh C, Matee M, Waddell R, et al. Immunogenicity of a protective whole cell mycobacterial vaccine in HIV-infected adults: a phase III study in Tanzania. Vaccine. 2010;28:7652-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Post-immunization immune responses to MV correlated with baseline clinical factors, but the responses did not predict protection from HIV-associated TB. ..
  80. Parida S, Kaufmann S. Novel tuberculosis vaccines on the horizon. Curr Opin Immunol. 2010;22:374-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The live mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis show great promise, but face a myriad of regulatory challenges. ..
  81. Montoya J, Solon J, Cunanan S, Acosta L, Bollaerts A, Moris P, et al. A randomized, controlled dose-finding Phase II study of the M72/AS01 candidate tuberculosis vaccine in healthy PPD-positive adults. J Clin Immunol. 2013;33:1360-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The formulation with the lowest antigen and adjuvant dose, M72/AS01E (10 ?g), fulfilled our pre-defined selection criteria and has been selected for further clinical development. ..
  82. Achkar J, Casadevall A. Antibody-mediated immunity against tuberculosis: implications for vaccine development. Cell Host Microbe. 2013;13:250-62 pubmed publisher
    ..tuberculosis relies solely on cellular defense mechanisms, and posit that induction of antibody-mediated immunity should be included in TB vaccine development strategies. ..
  83. Kozakiewicz L, Phuah J, Flynn J, Chan J. The role of B cells and humoral immunity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;783:225-50 pubmed publisher
    ..tuberculosis in particular. Knowledge of the B cell-mediated immune response to M. tuberculosis may lead to the design of novel strategies, including the development of effective vaccines, to better control TB. ..
  84. Windish H, Duthie M, Misquith A, Ireton G, Lucas E, Laurance J, et al. Protection of mice from Mycobacterium tuberculosis by ID87/GLA-SE, a novel tuberculosis subunit vaccine candidate. Vaccine. 2011;29:7842-8 pubmed publisher
    ..ID87/GLA-SE appears to be a promising new vaccine candidate that warrants further development. ..
  85. Odutola A, Owolabi O, Owiafe P, McShane H, Ota M. A new TB vaccine, MVA85A, induces durable antigen-specific responses 14 months after vaccination in African infants. Vaccine. 2012;30:5591-4 pubmed publisher
    ..All the children had negligible evidence of latent infection with M. tuberculosis (Mtb), suggesting that deploying a prophylactic vaccine against Mtb infection at this age could still be effective in this setting. ..