streptococcal vaccines


Summary: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.

Top Publications

  1. Batzloff M, Yan H, Davies M, Hartas J, Lowell G, White G, et al. Toward the development of an antidisease, transmission-blocking intranasal vaccine for group a streptococcus. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:1450-5 pubmed
    ..Such immunization led to high titers of J14-specific serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G and mucosal IgA. After upper respiratory tract GAS challenge, immunized mice demonstrated increased survival and reduced GAS colonization of the throat. ..
  2. Simerska P, Abdel Aal A, Fujita Y, Moyle P, McGeary R, Batzloff M, et al. Development of a liposaccharide-based delivery system and its application to the design of group A streptococcal vaccines. J Med Chem. 2008;51:1447-52 pubmed publisher
    ..High serum IgG antibody titers against each of the incorporated peptide epitopes were detected following subcutaneous immunization of B10.BR (H-2 (k)) mice with the liposaccharide vaccine candidates. ..
  3. McArthur J, Walker M. Domains of group A streptococcal M protein that confer resistance to phagocytosis, opsonization and protection: implications for vaccine development. Mol Microbiol. 2006;59:1-4 pubmed
    ..While safe and efficacious human group A streptococcal vaccines are not commercially available, candidate M protein-derived vaccines have shown promise in murine vaccine ..
  4. Abdel Aal A, Batzloff M, Fujita Y, Barozzi N, Faria A, Simerska P, et al. Structure-activity relationship of a series of synthetic lipopeptide self-adjuvanting group a streptococcal vaccine candidates. J Med Chem. 2008;51:167-72 pubmed
    ..Overall, the best vaccines featured a C-terminal lipid moiety, conjugated through a lysine residue to P25 at the N-terminus, and J14 on the lysine side chain. ..
  5. Okamoto S, Tamura Y, Terao Y, Hamada S, Kawabata S. Systemic immunization with streptococcal immunoglobulin-binding protein Sib 35 induces protective immunity against group: a Streptococcus challenge in mice. Vaccine. 2005;23:4852-9 pubmed
    ..Immunization with Sib 35 enhanced survival rates in mice challenged with a GAS strain, while exhibiting no toxicity in hosts. We conclude that Sib 35 is a promising vaccine for prevention of GAS infections. ..
  6. Hayman W, Toth I, Flinn N, Scanlon M, Good M. Enhancing the immunogenicity and modulating the fine epitope recognition of antisera to a helical group A streptococcal peptide vaccine candidate from the M protein using lipid-core peptide technology. Immunol Cell Biol. 2002;80:178-87 pubmed
    ..These data show the potential for LCP technology to both enhance immunogenicity of complex peptides and to focus the immune response towards or away from critical epitopes. ..
  7. Olive C, Batzloff M, Horvath A, Clair T, Yarwood P, Toth I, et al. Potential of lipid core peptide technology as a novel self-adjuvanting vaccine delivery system for multiple different synthetic peptide immunogens. Infect Immun. 2003;71:2373-83 pubmed
  8. Flock M, Karlstrom A, Lannergård J, Guss B, Flock J. Protective effect of vaccination with recombinant proteins from Streptococcus equi subspecies equi in a strangles model in the mouse. Vaccine. 2006;24:4144-51 pubmed
    ..Co-administration of CNE with EAG, a poorly immunogenic alpha2-macroglobulin-, albumin- and immunoglobulin G-binding protein, resulted in a significant synergistic effect and enhanced the protective immune response against EAG...
  9. Bisno A, Rubin F, Cleary P, Dale J. Prospects for a group A streptococcal vaccine: rationale, feasibility, and obstacles--report of a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases workshop. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41:1150-6 pubmed
    ..This report summarizes the deliberations of the workshop. ..

More Information


  1. Dale J, Penfound T, Chiang E, Long V, Shulman S, Beall B. Multivalent group A streptococcal vaccine elicits bactericidal antibodies against variant M subtypes. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005;12:833-6 pubmed
  2. Kotloff K, Corretti M, Palmer K, Campbell J, Reddish M, Hu M, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant multivalent group a streptococcal vaccine in healthy adults: phase 1 trial. JAMA. 2004;292:709-15 pubmed
  3. Mannam P, Jones K, Geller B. Mucosal vaccine made from live, recombinant Lactococcus lactis protects mice against pharyngeal infection with Streptococcus pyogenes. Infect Immun. 2004;72:3444-50 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, mucosal vaccination with LL-CRR produced CRR-specific salivary IgA and serum IgG, prevented pharyngeal infection with S. pyogenes, and promoted survival. ..
  4. Hall M, Stroop S, Hu M, Walls M, Reddish M, Burt D, et al. Intranasal immunization with multivalent group A streptococcal vaccines protects mice against intranasal challenge infections. Infect Immun. 2004;72:2507-12 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that intranasal delivery of adjuvanted multivalent M protein vaccines induces protective antibody responses and may provide an alternative to parenteral vaccine formulations. ..
  5. O Loughlin R, Roberson A, Cieslak P, Lynfield R, Gershman K, Craig A, et al. The epidemiology of invasive group A streptococcal infection and potential vaccine implications: United States, 2000-2004. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:853-62 pubmed
    ..GAS remains an important cause of severe disease in the United States. The introduction of a vaccine could significantly reduce morbidity and mortality due to these infections. ..
  6. McNeil S, Halperin S, Langley J, Smith B, Warren A, Sharratt G, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of 26-valent group a streptococcus vaccine in healthy adult volunteers. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41:1114-22 pubmed
  7. Waller A, Jolley K. Getting a grip on strangles: recent progress towards improved diagnostics and vaccines. Vet J. 2007;173:492-501 pubmed
    ..Advances in understanding of the molecular evolution of S. equi highlight the role played by phage-mediated acquisition of virulence factors and suggest new avenues for prophylactic intervention. ..
  8. Dale J, Penfound T, Chiang E, Walton W. New 30-valent M protein-based vaccine evokes cross-opsonic antibodies against non-vaccine serotypes of group A streptococci. Vaccine. 2011;29:8175-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the potential efficacy of the new multivalent vaccine may be greater than predicted based on the "type-specific" M peptides represented. ..
  9. Dale J, Fischetti V, Carapetis J, Steer A, Sow S, Kumar R, et al. Group A streptococcal vaccines: paving a path for accelerated development. Vaccine. 2013;31 Suppl 2:B216-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific recommendations are presented for an accelerated plan leading to the introduction of a broadly protective vaccine designed for deployment in low-, middle-, and high-income countries. ..
  10. Olive C, Hsien K, Horvath A, Clair T, Yarwood P, Toth I, et al. Protection against group A streptococcal infection by vaccination with self-adjuvanting lipid core M protein peptides. Vaccine. 2005;23:2298-303 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that protective immunity to GAS infection can be evoked using the self-adjuvanting LCP system, and point to the potential application of this system in human mucosal GAS vaccine development. ..
  11. Kelly C, Bugg M, Robinson C, Mitchell Z, Davis Poynter N, Newton J, et al. Sequence variation of the SeM gene of Streptococcus equi allows discrimination of the source of strangles outbreaks. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:480-6 pubmed
    ..equi and not due to reversion of the vaccine strain...
  12. Timoney J, Qin A, Muthupalani S, Artiushin S. Vaccine potential of novel surface exposed and secreted proteins of Streptococcus equi. Vaccine. 2007;25:5583-90 pubmed
    ..equi and do not make detectable serum antibody responses to its surface proteins suggest that acquired immune-mediated tonsillar clearance and not serum antibody must be stimulated by an effective strangles vaccine. ..
  13. Vohra H, Dey N, Gupta S, Sharma A, Kumar R, McMillan D, et al. M protein conserved region antibodies opsonise multiple strains of Streptococcus pyogenes with sequence variations in C-repeats. Res Microbiol. 2005;156:575-82 pubmed
    ..In vivo challenge experiments also confirmed the protective efficacy of immunisation with J14 peptide. ..
  14. Guilherme L, Postol E, Freschi de Barros S, Higa F, Alencar R, Lastre M, et al. A vaccine against S. pyogenes: design and experimental immune response. Methods. 2009;49:316-21 pubmed publisher
    ..No autoimmune reactions were observed, suggesting that the vaccine epitope is safe. ..
  15. Hu M, Walls M, Stroop S, Reddish M, Beall B, Dale J. Immunogenicity of a 26-valent group A streptococcal vaccine. Infect Immun. 2002;70:2171-7 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that type-specific, protective M protein epitopes can be incorporated into complex, multivalent vaccines designed to elicit broadly protective opsonic antibodies in the absence of tissue-cross-reactive antibodies. ..
  16. Olive C, Ho M, Dyer J, Lincoln D, Barozzi N, Toth I, et al. Immunization with a tetraepitopic lipid core peptide vaccine construct induces broadly protective immune responses against group A streptococcus. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:1666-76 pubmed
    ..These data support the efficacy of the LCP vaccine delivery system in the development of a synthetic, multiepitopic vaccine for the prevention of GAS infection. ..
  17. Cohen Poradosu R, Kasper D. Group A streptococcus epidemiology and vaccine implications. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:863-5 pubmed
  18. Flock M, Jacobsson K, Frykberg L, Hirst T, Franklin A, Guss B, et al. Recombinant Streptococcus equi proteins protect mice in challenge experiments and induce immune response in horses. Infect Immun. 2004;72:3228-36 pubmed
    ..No adverse effects of the antigens or EtxB were observed. Thus, FNZ and EAG in conjunction with EtxB are promising candidates for an efficacious and safe vaccine against strangles...
  19. Olive C, Batzloff M, Toth I. Lipid core peptide technology and group A streptococcal vaccine delivery. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2004;3:43-58 pubmed
    ..This review aims to cover the various strategies and technologies that have been investigated with regard to group A streptococcus vaccine design and development. ..
  20. Steer A, Batzloff M, Mulholland K, Carapetis J. Group A streptococcal vaccines: facts versus fantasy. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2009;22:544-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Although strong advocacy for GAS vaccine development is important, there remains an urgent need to institute available public health control measures against GAS diseases globally, particularly in developing countries. ..
  21. Waller A, Flock M, Smith K, Robinson C, Mitchell Z, Karlström A, et al. Vaccination of horses against strangles using recombinant antigens from Streptococcus equi. Vaccine. 2007;25:3629-35 pubmed
    ..The adjuvant used was Abisco, a saponin derived matrix. No adverse effects were observed following vaccination with the antigens and adjuvant. ..
  22. Shulman S, Tanz R, Dale J, Beall B, Kabat W, Kabat K, et al. Seven-year surveillance of north american pediatric group a streptococcal pharyngitis isolates. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49:78-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have important implications for the development and formulation of type-specific GAS vaccines. ..
  23. Olive C, Clair T, Yarwood P, Good M. Protection of mice from group A streptococcal infection by intranasal immunisation with a peptide vaccine that contains a conserved M protein B cell epitope and lacks a T cell autoepitope. Vaccine. 2002;20:2816-25 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that immunity to GAS infection can be evoked by intranasal immunisation with a GAS M protein C-region peptide vaccine that contains a protective B cell epitope and lacks a T cell autoepitope. ..
  24. Olive C, Batzloff M, Horvath A, Wong A, Clair T, Yarwood P, et al. A lipid core peptide construct containing a conserved region determinant of the group A streptococcal M protein elicits heterologous opsonic antibodies. Infect Immun. 2002;70:2734-8 pubmed
    ..These data indicate the potential of an LCP-based M protein conserved region GAS vaccine in the induction of broadly protective immune responses in the absence of a conventional adjuvant. ..
  25. Safar A, Lennon D, Stewart J, Trenholme A, Drinkovic D, Peat B, et al. Invasive group A streptococcal infection and vaccine implications, Auckland, New Zealand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:983-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Seventy-four percent of patients who died had an underlying condition. To the population in our study, the proposed 26-valent vaccine would provide limited benefit. ..
  26. Seepersaud R, Hanniffy S, Mayne P, Sizer P, Le Page R, Wells J. Characterization of a novel leucine-rich repeat protein antigen from group B streptococci that elicits protective immunity. Infect Immun. 2005;73:1671-83 pubmed
    ..The data presented in this report suggest that this conserved protein is a highly promising candidate antigen for use in a GBS vaccine. ..
  27. Jia R, Fan M, Bian Z, Guo J, Chen Z, Du M. [Construction and cellular expression of GTF-PAc fusion anti-caries DNA vaccine]. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2002;37:456-8 pubmed
    ..Fusion anti-caries DNA vaccine pGLUA-P is successfully constructed and confirmed by sequencing and enzymes digestion. Fusion GLUA-P protein can be correctly expressed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. ..
  28. Guttormsen H, Baker C, Nahm M, Paoletti L, Zughaier S, Edwards M, et al. Type III group B streptococcal polysaccharide induces antibodies that cross-react with Streptococcus pneumoniae type 14. Infect Immun. 2002;70:1724-38 pubmed
    ..When present, these vaccine-induced cross-reacting antibodies conferred in vitro antibody-mediated opsonophagocytosis and killing of both GBS III and Pn14, two pathogens that cause invasive disease in young infants. ..
  29. Zhang S, Green N, Sitkiewicz I, Lefebvre R, Musser J. Identification and characterization of an antigen I/II family protein produced by group A Streptococcus. Infect Immun. 2006;74:4200-13 pubmed
    ..Similar to other antigen I/II proteins, recombinant Spy1325 bound purified human salivary agglutinin glycoprotein. Spy1325 may represent a shared virulence factor among GAS, GBS, and oral streptococci. ..
  30. Elhaik Goldman S, Dotan S, Talias A, Lilo A, Azriel S, Malka I, et al. Streptococcus pneumoniae fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, a protein vaccine candidate, elicits Th1/Th2/Th17-type cytokine responses in mice. Int J Mol Med. 2016;37:1127-38 pubmed publisher
    ..pneumoniae challenge in comparison with preimmune sera. Our results emphasize the mixed involvement of the Th1, Th2 and Th17 arms of the immune system in response to immunization with pneumococcal rFBA, a potential vaccine candidate. ..
  31. Erdem G, Mizumoto C, Esaki D, Abe L, Reddy V, Effler P. Streptococcal emm types in Hawaii: a region with high incidence of acute rheumatic fever. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28:13-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The prevalent emm types in Hawaii differ from those in the continental US. The prevalence of these unusual emm types might limit the effectiveness of any proposed multivalent type-specific GAS vaccine in Hawaii. ..
  32. Sun Y, Hu Y, Liu C, Sun L. Construction and analysis of an experimental Streptococcus iniae DNA vaccine. Vaccine. 2010;28:3905-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicated that pSia10 is an effective vaccine candidate and may be used in the control of S. iniae infection in aquaculture...
  33. Li J, Hu M, Guo J, Su Z, Wei Q. Calcineurin subunit B is an immunostimulatory protein and acts as a vaccine adjuvant inducing protective cellular and humoral responses against pneumococcal infection. Immunol Lett. 2011;140:52-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, rhCnB promoted a mixed Th1/Th2 type immune response when given together with the specific antigen PN. RhCnB could have potential as a prophylactic vaccine adjuvant. ..
  34. Bachrach G, Zlotkin A, Hurvitz A, Evans D, Eldar A. Recovery of Streptococcus iniae from diseased fish previously vaccinated with a streptococcus vaccine. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001;67:3756-8 pubmed
    ..Streptococcus iniae was recovered from diseased rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) previously vaccinated against streptococcosis. PCR and serological methods indicate the presence of a new serotype in the diseased fish...
  35. Wong C, Stevens D. Serious group a streptococcal infections. Med Clin North Am. 2013;97:721-36, xi-xii pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of invasive GAS infections are discussed. ..
  36. Jordan H, Farley M, Craig A, Mohle Boetani J, Harrison L, Petit S, et al. Revisiting the need for vaccine prevention of late-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease: a multistate, population-based analysis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27:1057-64 pubmed publisher
    ..A trivalent vaccine could be an effective prevention strategy. Because many cases were born preterm, reducing the opportunity for transplacental antibody transfer, adolescent immunization should be considered. ..
  37. Shimada T, Kondoh M, Motonaga C, Kitamura Y, Cheng L, Shi H, et al. Enhancement of anti-allergic effects mediated by the Kampo medicine Shoseiryuto (Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang in Chinese) with lysed Enterococcus faecalis FK-23 in mice. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2010;28:59-66 pubmed
    ..The results indicate a synergistic effect of a Kampo medicine (Shoseiryuto, Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang in Chinese) and lysed Enterococcus faecalis FK-23 on allergic responses in mice...
  38. Besgen P, Trommler P, Vollmer S, Prinz J. Ezrin, maspin, peroxiredoxin 2, and heat shock protein 27: potential targets of a streptococcal-induced autoimmune response in psoriasis. J Immunol. 2010;184:5392-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, ezrin and hsp27 might constitute antigenic links between psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease, uveitis, or arteriosclerosis, which are clinically associated. ..
  39. Baker C, Rench M, Paoletti L, Edwards M. Dose-response to type V group B streptococcal polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in healthy adults. Vaccine. 2007;25:55-63 pubmed
    ..V-TT vaccine-induced antibodies promoted opsonophagocytic killing of type V GBS and avidity maturation of V CPS-specific IgG. ..
  40. Turner C, Kurupati P, Wiles S, Edwards R, Sriskandan S. Impact of immunization against SpyCEP during invasive disease with two streptococcal species: Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus equi. Vaccine. 2009;27:4923-9 pubmed publisher
    ..CEP-immunized mice also demonstrated reduced bacterial dissemination from S. equi intramuscular infection. Therefore immunization against SpyCEP may provide protection against other streptococci species with homologous proteases. ..
  41. Palazzi D, Rench M, Edwards M, Baker C. Use of type V group B streptococcal conjugate vaccine in adults 65-85 years old. J Infect Dis. 2004;190:558-64 pubmed
    ..These results suggest the potential for prevention of invasive type V GBS infections in healthy elderly adults through immunization. ..
  42. Eyngor M, Tekoah Y, Shapira R, Hurvitz A, Zlotkin A, Lublin A, et al. Emergence of novel Streptococcus iniae exopolysaccharide-producing strains following vaccination with nonproducing strains. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:6892-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Present findings indicate that the extracellular polysaccharide is a major antigenic factor, suggesting an evolutionary selection of strains capable of extracellular polysaccharide production. ..
  43. Lei B, Liu M, Chesney G, Musser J. Identification of new candidate vaccine antigens made by Streptococcus pyogenes: purification and characterization of 16 putative extracellular lipoproteins. J Infect Dis. 2004;189:79-89 pubmed
    ..05) increased growth-inhibitory activity, compared with the blood of unimmunized mice, which identified these proteins as potential new vaccine candidates. ..
  44. Nakanishi T, Kiryu I, Ototake M. Development of a new vaccine delivery method for fish: percutaneous administration by immersion with application of a multiple puncture instrument. Vaccine. 2002;20:3764-9 pubmed
    ..The greater protection gained by the present method can be attributed to higher numbers of particulate antigens taken up by fish and delivered to the lymphoid tissues. ..
  45. McQuaid F, Jones C, Stevens Z, Plumb J, Hughes R, Bedford H, et al. Factors influencing women's attitudes towards antenatal vaccines, group B Streptococcus and clinical trial participation in pregnancy: an online survey. BMJ Open. 2016;6:e010790 pubmed publisher
    ..More research specifically focusing on acceptability in pregnant women is required and, given the value attached to input from healthcare professionals, this group should be included in future studies. ..
  46. O Brien K, Beall B, Barrett N, Cieslak P, Reingold A, Farley M, et al. Epidemiology of invasive group a streptococcus disease in the United States, 1995-1999. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35:268-76 pubmed
    ..We estimate that 9600-9700 cases of invasive GAS disease occur in the United States each year, resulting in 1100-1300 deaths. ..
  47. Yang H, Madoff L, Guttormsen H, Liu Y, Paoletti L. Recombinant group B streptococcus Beta C protein and a variant with the deletion of its immunoglobulin A-binding site are protective mouse maternal vaccines and effective carriers in conjugate vaccines. Infect Immun. 2007;75:3455-61 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the rBCP(DeltaIgA) could be used as a carrier to augment the immunogenicity of the CPS while expanding coverage to GBS strains bearing BCP. ..
  48. Tan C, Liu M, Liu J, Yuan F, Fu S, Liu Y, et al. Vaccination with Streptococcus suis serotype 2 recombinant 6PGD protein provides protection against S. suis infection in swine. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2009;296:78-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results suggest that r6PGD can confer partial protection against SS2 infection and could be useful for the development of subunit vaccines against SS2. ..
  49. Boyle A, Sweeney C, Kristula M, Boston R, Smith G. Factors associated with likelihood of horses having a high serum Streptococcus equi SeM-specific antibody titer. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2009;235:973-7 pubmed publisher
  50. Soriani M, Telford J. Relevance of pili in pathogenic streptococci pathogenesis and vaccine development. Future Microbiol. 2010;5:735-47 pubmed publisher
    ..All this information makes the characterization of pili a hot scientific issue that we believe will lead to important future developments in understanding bacterial dynamics that lead to successful occupation of microbial niches. ..
  51. Fujita Y, Moyle P, Hieu S, Simerska P, Toth I. Investigation toward multi-epitope vaccine candidates using native chemical ligation. Biopolymers. 2008;90:624-32 pubmed publisher
    ..It was found that the difficulty in NCL of first two peptide antigen was associated with the steric hindrance. Using Thz instead of Cys(Acm) and Msc-Cys was important to reduce the steric hindrance and improve NCL yield. ..
  52. Santi I, Grifantini R, Jiang S, Brettoni C, Grandi G, Wessels M, et al. CsrRS regulates group B Streptococcus virulence gene expression in response to environmental pH: a new perspective on vaccine development. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:5387-97 pubmed publisher
    ..0 induced opsonophagocytic killing of GBS in immune serum highlights the importance of pH regulation in the protective efficacy of specific antibodies to surface-exposed GBS proteins...
  53. Buchanan J, Stannard J, Lauth X, Ostland V, Powell H, Westerman M, et al. Streptococcus iniae phosphoglucomutase is a virulence factor and a target for vaccine development. Infect Immun. 2005;73:6935-44 pubmed
    ..An S. iniae DeltaPGM mutant is able to stimulate a protective immune response and may have value as a live attenuated vaccine for aquaculture. ..
  54. Papasergi S, Galbo R, Lanza Cariccio V, Domina M, Signorino G, Biondo C, et al. Analysis of the Streptococcus agalactiae exoproteome. J Proteomics. 2013;89:154-64 pubmed publisher
  55. Auzanneau F, Borrelli S, Pinto B. Synthesis and immunological activity of an oligosaccharide-conjugate as a vaccine candidate against Group A Streptococcus. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013;23:6038-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The immunogenicity in mice is similar to that obtained with a native CWPS-TT conjugate, validating the glycoconjugate as a vaccine candidate against GAS infections. ..
  56. Dunn L, McMillan D, Batzloff M, Zeng W, Jackson D, Upcroft J, et al. Parenteral and mucosal delivery of a novel multi-epitope M protein-based group A streptococcal vaccine construct: investigation of immunogenicity in mice. Vaccine. 2002;20:2635-40 pubmed
    ..n. but not oral delivery. These data support the potential of the i.n. route in the mucosal delivery of a GAS vaccine. ..
  57. Li Y, Huang S, Du M, Bian Z, Chen Z, Fan M. Immunogenic characterization and protection against Streptococcus mutans infection induced by intranasal DNA prime-protein boost immunization. Vaccine. 2010;28:5370-6 pubmed publisher
    ..All these findings may provide useful information about effective mucosal vaccines against dental caries. ..
  58. Melin P. Neonatal group B streptococcal disease: from pathogenesis to preventive strategies. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17:1294-303 pubmed publisher
    ..Vaccines against GBS may become the most effective and sustainable long-term preventive strategy. ..
  59. Bauer M, Georgousakis M, Vu T, Henningham A, Hofmann A, Rettel M, et al. Evaluation of novel Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine candidates incorporating multiple conserved sequences from the C-repeat region of the M-protein. Vaccine. 2012;30:2197-205 pubmed publisher
    ..pyogenes vaccine candidates. ..
  60. Cutland C, Schrag S, Thigpen M, Velaphi S, Wadula J, Adrian P, et al. Increased risk for group B Streptococcus sepsis in young infants exposed to HIV, Soweto, South Africa, 2004-2008(1). Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:638-45 pubmed publisher
  61. Sharma P, Lata H, Arya D, Kashyap A, Kumar H, Dua M, et al. Role of pilus proteins in adherence and invasion of Streptococcus agalactiae to the lung and cervical epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:4023-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the present work supports the idea of making a more effective pilus protein-based vaccine that can be used universally...
  62. Wang J, Chang A, Guttormsen H, Rosas A, Kasper D. Construction of designer glycoconjugate vaccines with size-specific oligosaccharide antigens and site-controlled coupling. Vaccine. 2003;21:1112-7 pubmed
    ..As an example, we synthesized and evaluated an oligosaccharide-based vaccine against type III group B Streptococcus. ..
  63. Damle S. Caries vaccine: prospects and proposals. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2004;22:V pubmed
  64. Lee G, Wessels M. Changing epidemiology of acute rheumatic fever in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42:448-50 pubmed
  65. Olive C, Schulze K, Sun H, Ebensen T, Horvath A, Toth I, et al. Enhanced protection against Streptococcus pyogenes infection by intranasal vaccination with a dual antigen component M protein/SfbI lipid core peptide vaccine formulation. Vaccine. 2007;25:1789-97 pubmed
    ..This is the first report demonstrating the elicitation of better protective immunity by a dual antigen component S. pyogenes vaccine. ..
  66. Licciardi P, Balloch A, Russell F, Burton R, Lin J, Nahm M, et al. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at 12 months of age produces functional immune responses. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129:794-800.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..Pneumovax might be of benefit in some populations, but further studies are required before this can be recommended in developing countries. ..
  67. Sheoran A, Artiushin S, Timoney J. Nasal mucosal immunogenicity for the horse of a SeM peptide of Streptococcus equi genetically coupled to cholera toxin. Vaccine. 2002;20:1653-9 pubmed
    ..Finally, the susceptibility of all immunized ponies to commingling challenge by S. equi indicated either that SeMF3 lacks protective epitopes or that the antibodies induced by the chimera were not at effective levels. ..
  68. Dagan R. Treatment of acute otitis media - challenges in the era of antibiotic resistance. Vaccine. 2000;19 Suppl 1:S9-S16 pubmed
    ..Whether these efforts will prove successful or, even if successful, will only modify the clinical and bacteriologic picture presenting new challenges, only time will tell. ..
  69. Han T, Dao M. Enhancement of salivary IgA response to a DNA vaccine against Streptococcus mutans wall-associated protein A in mice by plasmid-based adjuvants. J Med Microbiol. 2007;56:675-80 pubmed
    ..The enhancement effect was transient with pcDNA-il-5, but longer lasting with pcDNA-ctb, thus supporting the use of the latter as a genetic adjuvant to DNA vaccine. ..
  70. Zaman M, Skwarczynski M, Malcolm J, Urbani C, Jia Z, Batzloff M, et al. Self-adjuvanting polyacrylic nanoparticulate delivery system for group A streptococcus (GAS) vaccine. Nanomedicine. 2011;7:168-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper describes the delivery of the J14 peptide, a C-terminal derivative of M-protein in group A Streptococcus. ..
  71. Bayramoglu G, Topkaya A, Balıkcı A, Aydin F. [Serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibilities of invasive group A streptococci identified in eastern Black Sea region of Turkey]. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2011;45:446-53 pubmed
    ..Multi-center surveillance studies are required to determine the serotype distribution of invasive GAS in Turkey and to provide valuable information for the development of appropriate vaccines in our country. ..
  72. Henningham A, Chiarot E, Gillen C, Cole J, Rohde M, Fulde M, et al. Conserved anchorless surface proteins as group A streptococcal vaccine candidates. J Mol Med (Berl). 2012;90:1197-207 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study demonstrates anchorless cell surface antigens as promising vaccine candidates for the prevention of GAS disease. ..
  73. Florindo H, Pandit S, Gonçalves L, Videira M, Alpar O, Almeida A. Antibody and cytokine-associated immune responses to S. equi antigens entrapped in PLA nanospheres. Biomaterials. 2009;30:5161-9 pubmed publisher
    ..equi enzymatic extract proteins, although those induced by the pure antigen-entrapped particles were higher than the S. equi tested vaccines composed by total antigens entrapped in polymeric nanospheres. ..
  74. Cieslak T, Rajnik M, Roscelli J. Immunization against Haemophilus influenzae type B fails to prevent orbital and facial cellulitis: results of a 25-year study among military children. Mil Med. 2008;173:941-4 pubmed
    ..We show that, in marked contrast to the reduction in the number of meningitis and epiglottitis cases, the disease burden of orbital and facial cellulitis--conditions oft attributed to HI and SP-did not diminish...
  75. Guilherme L, Faé K, Higa F, Chaves L, Oshiro S, Freschi de Barros S, et al. Towards a vaccine against rheumatic fever. Clin Dev Immunol. 2006;13:125-32 pubmed
    ..Antibodies against the B cell epitope inhibited bacterial invasion/adhesion in vitro. Our results strongly indicated that the selected T and B cell epitopes could potentially be protective against S. pyogenes...
  76. Baker C, Rench M, McInnes P. Immunization of pregnant women with group B streptococcal type III capsular polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine. Vaccine. 2003;21:3468-72 pubmed
    ..Maternal immunization with GBS CPS-TT conjugates could prevent maternal, neonatal and young infant GBS disease. ..