typhoid paratyphoid vaccines


Summary: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.

Top Publications

  1. Cook J, Jeuland M, Whittington D, Poulos C, Clemens J, Sur D, et al. The cost-effectiveness of typhoid Vi vaccination programs: calculations for four urban sites in four Asian countries. Vaccine. 2008;26:6305-16 pubmed publisher
    ..A program targeting school-aged children in Hue, Vietnam would prevent 21 cases, avert 6 DALYs, and not be cost-effective (US$3779 per DALY averted) because of the low typhoid incidence there. ..
  2. Salerno Goncalves R, Pasetti M, Sztein M. Characterization of CD8(+) effector T cell responses in volunteers immunized with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty21a typhoid vaccine. J Immunol. 2002;169:2196-203 pubmed
    ..001). In conclusion, this work constitutes the first evidence that immunization of volunteers with Ty21a elicits specific CD8(+) CTL and provides an estimate of the frequency of CD8(+) IFN-gamma-secreting cells induced by vaccination. ..
  3. Harrison N, Brydon L, Walker C, Gray M, Steptoe A, Critchley H. Inflammation causes mood changes through alterations in subgenual cingulate activity and mesolimbic connectivity. Biol Psychiatry. 2009;66:407-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Peripheral cytokines modulate this mood-dependent sACC connectivity, suggesting a common pathophysiological basis for major depressive disorder and sickness-associated mood change and depression. ..
  4. Basu P. Vaccines on trial. Nature. 2005;436:484 pubmed
  5. Lin F, Ho V, Khiem H, Trach D, Bay P, Thanh T, et al. The efficacy of a Salmonella typhi Vi conjugate vaccine in two-to-five-year-old children. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:1263-9 pubmed
    ..The antibody responses and the efficacy suggest that this vaccine should be at least as protective in persons who are more than five years old. ..
  6. Ochiai R, Acosta C, Agtini M, Bhattacharya S, Bhutta Z, Do C, et al. The use of typhoid vaccines in Asia: the DOMI experience. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45 Suppl 1:S34-8 pubmed
    ..The DOMI Program has begun to provide momentum for the evidence-based, rational introduction of typhoid vaccines into the public health programs of several Asian countries. ..
  7. DeRoeck D, Clemens J, Nyamete A, Mahoney R. Policymakers' views regarding the introduction of new-generation vaccines against typhoid fever, shigellosis and cholera in Asia. Vaccine. 2005;23:2762-74 pubmed
  8. Wahid R, Salerno Goncalves R, Tacket C, Levine M, Sztein M. Generation of specific effector and memory T cells with gut- and secondary lymphoid tissue- homing potential by oral attenuated CVD 909 typhoid vaccine in humans. Mucosal Immunol. 2008;1:389-98 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first demonstration that oral immunization of humans with S. Typhi elicits diverse IFN-gamma-secreting CD4(+) and CD8(+) T(CM) and T(EM) subsets able to migrate to the gut and other lymphoid tissues. ..
  9. Lauria D, Maskery B, Poulos C, Whittington D. An optimization model for reducing typhoid cases in developing countries without increasing public spending. Vaccine. 2009;27:1609-21 pubmed publisher
    ..A Monte Carlo simulation explores the effects of uncertain parameters on vaccination program outcomes. ..

More Information


  1. Kirkpatrick B, Tenney K, Larsson C, O Neill J, Ventrone C, Bentley M, et al. The novel oral typhoid vaccine M01ZH09 is well tolerated and highly immunogenic in 2 vaccine presentations. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:360-6 pubmed
    ..The oral typhoid vaccine M01ZH09 is well tolerated and highly immunogenic in a single oral dose, with and without prevaccination with a bicarbonate buffer. Field studies to demonstrate protective efficacy are planned. ..
  2. Yang H, Kilgore P, Yang L, Park J, Pan Y, Kim Y, et al. An outbreak of typhoid fever, Xing-An County, People's Republic of China, 1999: estimation of the field effectiveness of Vi polysaccharide typhoid vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2001;183:1775-80 pubmed
    ..These results provide the first evidence about the effectiveness of Vi vaccine when deployed routinely in a typhoid-endemic area and support the use of Vi vaccine as a public health tool to control typhoid fever. ..
  3. Wright C, Strike P, Brydon L, Steptoe A. Acute inflammation and negative mood: mediation by cytokine activation. Brain Behav Immun. 2005;19:345-50 pubmed
    ..Implications for depressed mood in physical illness are discussed. ..
  4. Tacket C, Pasetti M, Sztein M, Livio S, Levine M. Immune responses to an oral typhoid vaccine strain that is modified to constitutively express Vi capsular polysaccharide. J Infect Dis. 2004;190:565-70 pubmed
    ..Although many of the volunteers generated antibody-secreting cell responses to Vi, only 2 of the 32 volunteers generated anti-Vi IgG antibody in serum. ..
  5. Acosta C, Galindo C, Ochiai R, Danovaro Holliday M, Page A, Thiem V, et al. The role of epidemiology in the introduction of vi polysaccharide typhoid fever vaccines in Asia. J Health Popul Nutr. 2004;22:240-5 pubmed
    ..Epidemiological studies contribute to all stages of development of vaccine evaluation and introduction. ..
  6. Ali M, Thiem V, Park J, Ochiai R, Canh D, Danovaro Holliday M, et al. Geographic analysis of vaccine uptake in a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Hue, Vietnam. Health Place. 2007;13:577-87 pubmed
    ..The findings are important for the management of vaccine campaigns during a trial and for interpretation of disease patterns during vaccine-efficacy evaluation. ..
  7. Sur D, Ochiai R, Bhattacharya S, Ganguly N, Ali M, Manna B, et al. A cluster-randomized effectiveness trial of Vi typhoid vaccine in India. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:335-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Uncertainties about the protective effect of Vi polysaccharide vaccine in children under the age of 5 years and about the vaccine's effect under programmatic conditions have inhibited its use in developing countries...
  8. Kroon F, Van Dissel J, Ravensbergen E, Nibbering P, Van Furth R. Impaired antibody response after immunization of HIV-infected individuals with the polysaccharide vaccine against Salmonella typhi (Typhim-Vi). Vaccine. 1999;17:2941-5 pubmed
    ..The results of this study indicate that after vaccination the proportion of HIV-infected individuals with protective antibody concentrations against Salmonella typhi will be lower than in healthy controls. ..
  9. Kantele A, Hakkinen M, Moldoveanu Z, Lu A, Savilahti E, Alvarez R, et al. Differences in immune responses induced by oral and rectal immunizations with Salmonella typhi Ty21a: evidence for compartmentalization within the common mucosal immune system in humans. Infect Immun. 1998;66:5630-5 pubmed
    ..The different immune response profiles found in various secretions after oral versus rectal antigen administration provide evidence for a compartmentalization within the common mucosal immune system in humans. ..
  10. Kirkpatrick B, McKenzie R, O Neill J, Larsson C, Bourgeois A, Shimko J, et al. Evaluation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Ty2 aroC-ssaV-) M01ZH09, with a defined mutation in the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2, as a live, oral typhoid vaccine in human volunteers. Vaccine. 2006;24:116-23 pubmed
    ..The SPI-2 mutant vaccine, M01ZH09, is a promising typhoid vaccine candidate and deserves further study as a vectoring system for heterologous vaccine antigens. ..
  11. Kirkpatrick B, Bentley M, Thern A, Larsson C, Ventrone C, Sreenivasan M, et al. Comparison of the antibodies in lymphocyte supernatant and antibody-secreting cell assays for measuring intestinal mucosal immune response to a novel oral typhoid vaccine (M01ZH09). Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005;12:1127-9 pubmed
    ..The specificity of the ALS assay compared to the ASC assay was excellent (100%), as was sensitivity (82%). The ALS assay was less sensitive than the ASC assay at <or=42 spots/10(6) peripheral blood lymphocytes. ..
  12. Hingorani A, Cross J, Kharbanda R, Mullen M, Bhagat K, Taylor M, et al. Acute systemic inflammation impairs endothelium-dependent dilatation in humans. Circulation. 2000;102:994-9 pubmed
    ..This finding might explain the association between infection and inflammation and the enhanced risk of an acute cardiovascular event. ..
  13. Bhan M, Bahl R, Bhatnagar S. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever. Lancet. 2005;366:749-62 pubmed
    ..Routine immunisation of school-age children with Vi or Ty21a vaccine is recommended for countries endemic for typhoid. Vi vaccine should be used for 2-5 year-old children in highly endemic settings...
  14. Salerno Goncalves R, Wyant T, Pasetti M, Fernandez Vina M, Tacket C, Levine M, et al. Concomitant induction of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in volunteers immunized with Salmonella enterica serovar typhi strain CVD 908-htrA. J Immunol. 2003;170:2734-41 pubmed
  15. Strike P, Wardle J, Steptoe A. Mild acute inflammatory stimulation induces transient negative mood. J Psychosom Res. 2004;57:189-94 pubmed
    ..65, P<.025). A mild acute inflammatory stimulus induces transient negative mood, and responses were modulated by chronic stress. Implications for depressed mood in physical illness are discussed. ..
  16. Wahid R, Salerno Goncalves R, Tacket C, Levine M, Sztein M. Cell-mediated immune responses in humans after immunization with one or two doses of oral live attenuated typhoid vaccine CVD 909. Vaccine. 2007;25:1416-25 pubmed
    ..These observations add impetus for the continuing evaluation of CVD 909 as a typhoid vaccine candidate. ..
  17. Poulos C, Bahl R, Whittington D, Bhan M, Clemens J, Acosta C. A cost-benefit analysis of typhoid fever immunization programmes in an Indian urban slum community. J Health Popul Nutr. 2004;22:311-21 pubmed
  18. Salerno Goncalves R, Fernandez Vina M, Lewinsohn D, Sztein M. Identification of a human HLA-E-restricted CD8+ T cell subset in volunteers immunized with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty21a typhoid vaccine. J Immunol. 2004;173:5852-62 pubmed
  19. Papadimitropoulos V, Vergidis P, Bliziotis I, Falagas M. Vaccination against typhoid fever in travellers: a cost-effectiveness approach. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004;10:681-3 pubmed
    ..Vaccination of travellers on standard tourist itineraries is probably not necessary. The basic preventative measure for typhoid fever should be the avoidance of potentially contaminated food and drink. ..
  20. Do G, Whittington D, Le T, Utomo N, Nguyen T, Poulos C, et al. Household demand for typhoid fever vaccines in Hue, Vietnam. Health Policy Plan. 2006;21:241-55 pubmed
    ..Demand was similar for vaccines with different degrees of effectiveness and intervals of duration. These results suggest a significant potential for private sector provision of typhoid fever vaccines in Hue. ..
  21. Brydon L, Walker C, Wawrzyniak A, Whitehead D, Okamura H, Yajima J, et al. Synergistic effects of psychological and immune stressors on inflammatory cytokine and sickness responses in humans. Brain Behav Immun. 2009;23:217-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that, as seen in animals, psychological and immune stressors may act synergistically to promote inflammation and sickness behaviour in humans. ..
  22. Yang H, Wu C, Xie G, Gu Q, Wang B, Wang L, et al. Efficacy trial of Vi polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid fever in south-western China. Bull World Health Organ. 2001;79:625-31 pubmed
    ..To test the efficacy of locally produced Vi vaccine over a time period of longer than one year...
  23. Harrison N, Brydon L, Walker C, Gray M, Steptoe A, Dolan R, et al. Neural origins of human sickness in interoceptive responses to inflammation. Biol Psychiatry. 2009;66:415-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that peripheral infection selectively influences central nervous system function to generate core symptoms of sickness and reorient basic motivational states. ..
  24. Bhutta Z. Current concepts in the diagnosis and treatment of typhoid fever. BMJ. 2006;333:78-82 pubmed
  25. Parry C, Hien T, Dougan G, White N, Farrar J. Typhoid fever. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:1770-82 pubmed
  26. Salerno Goncalves R, Wahid R, Sztein M. Immunization of volunteers with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty21a elicits the oligoclonal expansion of CD8+ T cells with predominant Vbeta repertoires. Infect Immun. 2005;73:3521-30 pubmed
    ..Moreover, these serovar Typhi-specific CD8(+) T cells bearing defined Vbeta specificities are phenotypically and functionally consistent with T effector memory cells with preferential gut homing potential. ..
  27. Begier E, Burwen D, Haber P, Ball R. Postmarketing safety surveillance for typhoid fever vaccines from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, July 1990 through June 2002. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38:771-9 pubmed
    ..Nonfatal anaphylaxis was reported after both vaccines. VAERS reports do not indicate any unexpected serious side effects that compromise these vaccines' use for travelers' prophylaxis. ..
  28. Meiring J, Gibani M. The Typhoid Vaccine Acceleration Consortium (TyVAC): Vaccine effectiveness study designs: Accelerating the introduction of typhoid conjugate vaccines and reducing the global burden of enteric fever. Report from a meeting held on 26-27 October 2016, O. Vaccine. 2017;35:5081-5088 pubmed publisher
  29. Mittrucker H, Raupach B, Kohler A, Kaufmann S. Cutting edge: role of B lymphocytes in protective immunity against Salmonella typhimurium infection. J Immunol. 2000;164:1648-52 pubmed
    ..typhimurium involved both B cell-dependent and -independent effector mechanisms. Thus, B cell-mediated immunity plays a distinct role in control of S. typhimurium in susceptible mice. ..
  30. Raufu A. Nigerian immunisation programme accused of distributing expired vaccines. BMJ. 2003;327:950 pubmed
  31. Purchase C, Picard J, McDonald R, Bisschop S. A comparison of the oral application and injection routes using the onderstepoort biological products fowl typhoid vaccine, its safety, efficacy and duration of protection in commercial laying hens. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2008;79:39-43 pubmed
    ..It was found that there was no significant difference (P < 0.05) in the protection offered by either the oral or injected route of vaccination with the OBPft vaccine. ..
  32. El Yousfi M, Mercier S, Breuille D, Denis P, Papet I, Mirand P, et al. The inflammatory response to vaccination is altered in the elderly. Mech Ageing Dev. 2005;126:874-81 pubmed
    ..However, the interpretation must respect the limitation of small subjects number. ..
  33. Mogasale V, Mogasale V, Ramani E, Lee J, Park J, Lee K, et al. Revisiting typhoid fever surveillance in low and middle income countries: lessons from systematic literature review of population-based longitudinal studies. BMC Infect Dis. 2016;16:35 pubmed publisher
    ..Published longitudinal typhoid fever studies in low and middle income countries are geographically clustered and the methodology employed has a potential for underestimation. Future studies should account for these limitations. ..
  34. Steinberg E, Bishop R, Haber P, Dempsey A, Hoekstra R, Nelson J, et al. Typhoid fever in travelers: who should be targeted for prevention?. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39:186-91 pubmed
    ..Reports of serious adverse events due to typhoid vaccination were very rare. Vaccination should be considered even for persons planning short-term travel to high-risk areas. ..
  35. Gahan M, Webster D, Wesselingh S, Strugnell R. Impact of plasmid stability on oral DNA delivery by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Vaccine. 2007;25:1476-83 pubmed
    ..However, pAT153 was the only plasmid to induce a tetanus toxoid-specific antibody response following oral delivery. Plasmid copy number was found to impact on plasmid stability and the induction of antigen-specific humoral responses. ..
  36. Gilmartin H. Provider-pharmacist education and adherence rates for the oral typhoid vaccine: a pilot study. J Travel Med. 2005;12:113-4 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrated that pharmacy education is minimal and that computerized pharmacy education handouts were not considered helpful by these travelers. Complete adherence was reported at 49%. ..
  37. Gupta D, Faridi M, Aggarwal A, Kaur I. Seroprevalence of anti Vi antibodies and immunogenicity of Typhim Vi vaccine in children. Hum Vaccin. 2008;4:305-8 pubmed
    ..The study highlights very low prevalence of baseline anti Vi antibodies in children between 6 months and less than 5 years of age and shows high immunogenicity and safety of Typhim Vi polysaccharide vaccine in children 2-5 years of age. ..
  38. Stubi C, Landry P, Petignat C, Bille J, Genton B, Darioli R, et al. Compliance to live oral Ty21a typhoid vaccine, and its effect on viability. J Travel Med. 2000;7:133-7 pubmed
    ..Electronic monitoring of compliance provides more accurate results than questionnaires. Emphasis must be put on motivating the travelers to take the vaccine as recommended. ..
  39. Khromava A, Eidex R, Weld L, Kohl K, Bradshaw R, Chen R, et al. Yellow fever vaccine: an updated assessment of advanced age as a risk factor for serious adverse events. Vaccine. 2005;23:3256-63 pubmed
    ..6-22.2). Yellow fever is a serious and potentially fatal disease. For elderly travelers, the risk for severe illness and death due to yellow fever infection should be balanced against the risk of a serious adverse event due to YEL. ..
  40. Engels E, Falagas M, Lau J, Bennish M. Typhoid fever vaccines: a meta-analysis of studies on efficacy and toxicity. BMJ. 1998;316:110-6 pubmed
    ..Whether the added efficacy of the whole cell vaccines outweighs their toxicity will depend on the setting in which vaccination is used. ..
  41. DeRoeck D, Jodar L, Clemens J. Putting typhoid vaccination on the global health agenda. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:1069-71 pubmed
  42. Sztein M. Cell-mediated immunity and antibody responses elicited by attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi strains used as live oral vaccines in humans. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45 Suppl 1:S15-9 pubmed
    ..In sum, human immunity to S. Typhi elicited by immunization is unexpectedly broad and complex. However, the immunologic correlates of protection remain largely undefined. ..
  43. Robbe Saule V, Coynault C, Norel F. The live oral typhoid vaccine Ty21a is a rpoS mutant and is susceptible to various environmental stresses. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1995;126:171-6 pubmed
    ..These results contribute to a better understanding of the genetic background of the live typhoid oral vaccine Ty21a and suggest that the rpoS mutation may contribute to the safety of this strain in humans...
  44. Azze R, Rodríguez J, Iniesta M, Marchena X, Alfonso V, Padrón F. Immunogenicity of a new Salmonella Typhi Vi polysaccharide vaccine--vax-TyVi--in Cuban school children and teenagers. Vaccine. 2003;21:2758-60 pubmed
    ..27 microg/ml (5.40-7.38 microg/ml) and 5.97 microg/ml (5.01-7.10 microg/ml), respectively. In contrast, subjects receiving the tetanus toxoid vaccine showed 0% seroconversion. ..
  45. Ku Y, McDonough S, Palaniappan R, Chang C, Chang Y. Novel attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis strains as live vaccine candidates generated by signature-tagged mutagenesis. Infect Immun. 2005;73:8194-203 pubmed
    ..STM-attenuated live vaccine strains SC4A9 (gifsy-1) and SC2D2 (ssaV) were superior to commercially available live vaccine because they provided both safety and a protective immune response against challenge in pigs. ..
  46. Khan M, Ochiai R, Clemens J. Population impact of Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2010;9:485-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The large-scale use of this vaccine can yield protective benefits to a larger population and can reduce the epidemiologic and economic burden of typhoid fever in endemic countries. ..
  47. Agtini M, Ochiai R, Soeharno R, Lee H, Sundoro J, Hadinegoro S, et al. Introducing Vi polysaccharide typhoid fever vaccine to primary school children in North Jakarta, Indonesia, via an existent school-based vaccination platform. Public Health. 2006;120:1081-7 pubmed
    ..The project had high parental acceptance. Nonetheless, policy-relevant questions still need to be answered before implementing a widespread Vi polysaccharide vaccine programme in Indonesia. ..
  48. Chia S, Ludlam C, Fox K, Newby D. Acute systemic inflammation enhances endothelium-dependent tissue plasminogen activator release in men. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41:333-9 pubmed
    ..Further studies are needed to clarify whether this response is impaired in patients with cardiovascular disease. ..
  49. Marshall A, Chetwynd A, Morris J, Placzek M, Smith C, Olabi A, et al. Type 1 diabetes mellitus in childhood: a matched case control study in Lancashire and Cumbria, UK. Diabet Med. 2004;21:1035-40 pubmed
    ..The association with maternal smoking could be due to recall bias but a causal link cannot be excluded with confidence. ..
  50. Levine M, Tacket C, Sztein M. Host-Salmonella interaction: human trials. Microbes Infect. 2001;3:1271-9 pubmed
  51. Talwar G, Diwan M, Razvi F, Malhotra R. The impact of new technologies on vaccines. Natl Med J India. 1999;12:274-80 pubmed
  52. Chatfield S, Fairweather N, Charles I, Pickard D, Levine M, Hone D, et al. Construction of a genetically defined Salmonella typhi Ty2 aroA, aroC mutant for the engineering of a candidate oral typhoid-tetanus vaccine. Vaccine. 1992;10:53-60 pubmed
    ..This strain has the advantage of harbouring no antibiotic-resistance markers and we consider it to be a candidate bivalent oral typhoid-tetanus vaccine. ..
  53. Michel R, Garnotel E, Spiegel A, Morillon M, Saliou P, Boutin J. Outbreak of typhoid fever in vaccinated members of the French Armed Forces in the Ivory Coast. Eur J Epidemiol. 2005;20:635-42 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, repeat vaccination against typhoid fever is now conducted every 3 years in the French Forces, in compliance with the manufacturers' recommendations. ..
  54. Landry P. [Tuberculosis detection and immunization of long-term travellers]. Rev Med Suisse. 2009;5:1000-2, 1004-6 pubmed
    ..Tuberculosis is a rare disease in travellers in general but the incidence in health care workers reaches the one of the local population at risk, and therefore tuberculosis detection is recommended. ..
  55. Yang J, Acosta C, Si G, Zeng J, Li C, Liang D, et al. A mass vaccination campaign targeting adults and children to prevent typhoid fever in Hechi; expanding the use of Vi polysaccharide vaccine in southeast China: a cluster-randomized trial. BMC Public Health. 2005;5:49 pubmed
    ..School-based and all-age Vi mass immunizations programs are potentially important public health strategies for prevention of typhoid fever in high-risk populations in southern China. ..
  56. Yang C, Yan R, Zeng W, Zhang Y, Jia W, Liu J, et al. [Experimental study of controlled release microencapsulated Salmonella typhi capsular polysaccharide vaccines immunized mice]. Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi. 2003;20:626-9 pubmed
    ..The controlled release microencapsulated Salmonella Typhi capsular polysaccharide vaccines possess the advantages of releasing slowly in vivo and persisting long time immunogenicity. ..
  57. Park J, Hong J, Choi E, Lee J, Park J. Efficacy of purified Vi polysaccharide typhoid vaccine. J Vet Sci. 2002;3:67-70 pubmed
    ..We concluded that typhoid vaccine produced by purifying Vi antigen of S. typhi very effectively prevent S. typhi infection in mice. ..
  58. Vindurampulle C, Attridge S. Impact of vector priming on the immunogenicity of recombinant Salmonella vaccines. Infect Immun. 2003;71:287-97 pubmed
  59. Barrow P, Page K, Lovell M. The virulence for gnotobiotic pigs of live attenuated vaccine strains of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. Vaccine. 2001;19:3432-6 pubmed
    ..Enteritidis. The parental strains were virulent, inducing severe diarrhoea, dehydration and systemic disease. The cya crp mutant was also highly virulent whereas the aroA strains were attenuated. ..
  60. Chen A, Fry S, Forbes Faulkner J, Daggard G, Mukkur T. Comparative immunogenicity of M. hyopneumoniae NrdF encoded in different expression systems delivered orally via attenuated S. typhimurium aroA in mice. Vet Microbiol. 2006;114:252-9 pubmed
    ..typhimurium aroA can induce a cell-mediated immune response. We also indicate that different live bacterial vaccine carriers may have an influence on the type of the immune response induced. ..
  61. Blohmke C, Hill J, Darton T, Carvalho Burger M, Eustace A, Jones C, et al. Induction of Cell Cycle and NK Cell Responses by Live-Attenuated Oral Vaccines against Typhoid Fever. Front Immunol. 2017;8:1276 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide detailed insight into molecular immune responses to typhoid vaccines, which could aid the rational design of improved oral, live-attenuated vaccines against enteric pathogens...
  62. Arya S, Agarwal N. Military personnel are regularly immunized with Vi polysaccharide typhoid vaccines. Mil Med. 2006;171:x pubmed
  63. Marcus L, Froeschle J, Hill D, Wolfe M, Maus D, Connor B, et al. Safety of Typhim Vi vaccine in a postmarketing observational study. J Travel Med. 2007;14:386-91 pubmed
    ..The Vi vaccine was well tolerated in an unselected population, aged 2 to 82 years, presenting to a travel clinic for vaccination. ..
  64. Yang Y, Chen J, Li H, Wang Y, Xie Z, Wu M, et al. Porcine interleukin-2 gene encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles enhances immune response of mice to piglet paratyphoid vaccine. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007;30:19-32 pubmed
  65. Pulickal A, Pollard A. Vi polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine for the prevention of typhoid fever in children: hope or hype?. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2007;6:293-5 pubmed
  66. Zeng Y, Fan H, Chiueh G, Pham B, Martin R, Lechuga Ballesteros D, et al. Towards development of stable formulations of a live attenuated bacterial vaccine: a preformulation study facilitated by a biophysical approach. Hum Vaccin. 2009;5:322-31 pubmed
    ..The data show that 10% sucrose and trehalose both increase the in-process and storage stabilities of the cells. ..
  67. Issack M. Epidemiology of typhoid fever in Mauritius. J Travel Med. 2005;12:270-4 pubmed
    ..Mauritians traveling to India must be made aware of the risk of typhoid fever and of preventive measures. Ceftriaxone should be used as the initial first-line treatment of infection acquired in India. ..
  68. Greenberg S. 'Bacilli and bullets': William Osler and the antivaccination movement. South Med J. 2000;93:763-7 pubmed
    ..Similar arguments are being propounded by current antivaccination groups. ..
  69. Scarff J, Goldberg J. Vaccination against Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in immunocompromised mice. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15:367-75 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the importance of white blood cells while still suggesting a critical role for antibodies in protection against P. aeruginosa infection. ..
  70. Lopalco P, Prato R, Germinario C. [Typhoid fever: from parenteral to oral vaccines]. Ann Ig. 2002;14:27-32 pubmed
  71. Ruan P, Xia X, Sun D, Ojcius D, Mao Y, Yue W, et al. Recombinant SpaO and H1a as immunogens for protection of mice from lethal infection with Salmonella paratyphi A: implications for rational design of typhoid fever vaccines. Vaccine. 2008;26:6639-44 pubmed publisher
    ..paratyphi A are sequence conserved, extensively distributed and highly expressed, the rSpaO and rH1a immunogens should be considered in the development of novel vaccines to prevent S. paratyphi A-caused typhoid fever...
  72. Lundin B, Johansson C, Svennerholm A. Oral immunization with a Salmonella enterica serovar typhi vaccine induces specific circulating mucosa-homing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in humans. Infect Immun. 2002;70:5622-7 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we demonstrate that oral vaccination with a live oral bacterial vaccine induces antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) memory T cells, almost all of which express the gut-homing integrin beta(7). ..
  73. Gentschev I, Spreng S, Sieber H, Ures J, Mollet F, Collioud A, et al. Vivotif--a 'magic shield' for protection against typhoid fever and delivery of heterologous antigens. Chemotherapy. 2007;53:177-80 pubmed
    ..Recently, we successfully used Ty21a for antigen delivery via the haemolysin secretion system of Escherichia coli, which allows efficient protein secretion from the carrier bacteria. ..
  74. Fraser A, Paul M, Goldberg E, Acosta C, Leibovici L. Typhoid fever vaccines: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Vaccine. 2007;25:7848-57 pubmed
    ..Neither vaccine is currently registered for administration to children below 2 years of age. Given the recent finding that typhoid fever also affects infants, development of a conjugate vaccine is warranted. ..
  75. Favre D, Viret J. Biosafety evaluation of recombinant live oral bacterial vaccines in the context of European regulation. Vaccine. 2006;24:3856-64 pubmed
    ..Biosafety aspects of already registered and some promising live bacterial vaccine strains will be briefly discussed. ..
  76. DeRoeck D, Ochiai R, Yang J, Anh D, Alag V, Clemens J. Typhoid vaccination: the Asian experience. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2008;7:547-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This review also describes recent typhoid Vi vaccine demonstration projects that were conducted in five Asian countries. ..
  77. Basnyat B, Pokhrel G, Cohen Y. The Japanese need travel vaccinations. J Travel Med. 2000;7:37 pubmed
    ..There were 765 tourists for that time period out of which about 10% were Japanese. The rest were Americans, British, Israelis, Canadians, Australians, Danish and a small miscellaneous group from other countries. ..
  78. Birkenfeld G. [Last minute vaccinations]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2006;148:24-6 pubmed
    ..However, no last-minute protection is possible for hepatitis B, rabies, Japanese encephalitis or TBE. ..
  79. Arya S, Agarwal N. Re: typhoid fever vaccines: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials. Vaccine. 2008;26:291 pubmed