salmonella vaccines


Summary: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.

Top Publications

  1. Kodama C, Matsui H. Salmonella flagellin is not a dominant protective antigen in oral immunization with attenuated live vaccine strains. Infect Immun. 2004;72:2449-51 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that Salmonella flagellin is not a dominant protective antigen in oral immunization with attenuated live vaccine strains. ..
  2. Simon R, Tennant S, Wang J, Schmidlein P, Lees A, Ernst R, et al. Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis core O polysaccharide conjugated to H:g,m flagellin as a candidate vaccine for protection against invasive infection with S. enteritidis. Infect Immun. 2011;79:4240-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Enteritidis cells into mouse macrophages. Mice immunized with flagellin alone, COPS-CRM???, or COPS-flagellin conjugates were significantly protected from lethal challenge with wild-type S. Enteritidis (80 to 100% vaccine efficacy)...
  3. Aebischer T, Bumann D, Epple H, Metzger W, Schneider T, Cherepnev G, et al. Correlation of T cell response and bacterial clearance in human volunteers challenged with Helicobacter pylori revealed by randomised controlled vaccination with Ty21a-based Salmonella vaccines. Gut. 2008;57:1065-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Challenge infection offers a controlled model for vaccine testing. Importantly, it revealed evidence for T cell-mediated immunity against H pylori infection in humans. ..
  4. Flo J, Tisminetzky S, Baralle F. Oral transgene vaccination mediated by attenuated Salmonellae is an effective method to prevent Herpes simplex virus-2 induced disease in mice. Vaccine. 2001;19:1772-82 pubmed
    ..Macrophages and dendritic cells were found expressing the protein in systemic and mucosal compartments of the immune system. ..
  5. Hotes S, Traulsen I, Krieter J. Salmonella control measures with special focus on vaccination and logistic slaughter procedures. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2011;58:434-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The herd status separation significantly decreased the percentage of infected pigs that became infected at lairage. ..
  6. Dueger E, House J, Heithoff D, Mahan M. Salmonella DNA adenine methylase mutants elicit protective immune responses to homologous and heterologous serovars in chickens. Infect Immun. 2001;69:7950-4 pubmed
  7. Desin T, Koster W, Potter A. Salmonella vaccines in poultry: past, present and future. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2013;12:87-96 pubmed publisher
    ..However, despite numerous studies that have been performed, there is still a need for safer, well-defined Salmonella vaccines. This review examines the different classes of Salmonella vaccines that have been tested, highlighting the ..
  8. Uzzau S, Marogna G, Leori G, Curtiss R, Schianchi G, Stocker B, et al. Virulence attenuation and live vaccine potential of aroA, crp cdt cya, and plasmid-cured mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Abortusovis in mice and sheep. Infect Immun. 2005;73:4302-8 pubmed
    ..All three vaccine candidates appear to be safe for use in sheep and provide a model for the development of live vaccine candidates against naturally occurring ovine salmonellosis. ..
  9. Bumann D. Regulated antigen expression in live recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strongly affects colonization capabilities and specific CD4(+)-T-cell responses. Infect Immun. 2001;69:7493-500 pubmed
    Regulated antigen expression can influence the immunogenicity of live recombinant Salmonella vaccines, but a rational optimization has remained difficult since important aspects of this effect are incompletely understood...

More Information


  1. Vindurampulle C, Attridge S. Impact of vector priming on the immunogenicity of recombinant Salmonella vaccines. Infect Immun. 2003;71:287-97 pubmed
  2. Kong Q, Six D, Liu Q, Gu L, Roland K, Raetz C, et al. Palmitoylation state impacts induction of innate and acquired immunity by the Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium msbB mutant. Infect Immun. 2011;79:5027-38 pubmed publisher
  3. Park S, Jeong J, Choy H, Rhee J, Na H, Lee T, et al. Immune response induced by ppGpp-defective Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum in chickens. J Microbiol. 2010;48:674-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these data, live attenuated ?ppGpp-defective strains may serve as novel vaccines to control fowl typhoid in chickens. ..
  4. Negi V, Nagarajan A, Chakravortty D. A safe vaccine (DV-STM-07) against Salmonella infection prevents abortion and confers protective immunity to the pregnant and new born mice. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9139 pubmed publisher
    ..Since there are no such vaccine candidates which can be given to the new born and to the pregnant women, this vaccine holds a very bright future to combat Salmonella induced pregnancy loss. ..
  5. Piao H, Tam V, Na H, Kim H, Ryu P, Kim S, et al. Immunological responses induced by asd and wzy/asd mutant strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in BALB/c mice. J Microbiol. 2010;48:486-95 pubmed publisher
    ..p. route were protected against wild-type Salmonella infection even at 100-fold of the LD(50) (5x10(6) CFU). Taken together, these data indicate that HTSaYA and SHJ2104 could be developed as live attenuated Salmonella vaccine candidates. ..
  6. Adriaensen C, De Greve H, Tian J, De Craeye S, Gubbels E, Eeckhaut V, et al. A live Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis vaccine allows serological differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals. Infect Immun. 2007;75:2461-8 pubmed
    ..enterica serovar Enteritidis challenge strain but not against intestinal colonization. These data demonstrate that nonflagellated attenuated Salmonella mutants can be used as marker vaccines. ..
  7. Yang X, Hinnebusch B, Trunkle T, Bosio C, Suo Z, Tighe M, et al. Oral vaccination with salmonella simultaneously expressing Yersinia pestis F1 and V antigens protects against bubonic and pneumonic plague. J Immunol. 2007;178:1059-67 pubmed
    ..pestis. These results show that a single Salmonella vaccine can deliver both F1- and V-Ags to effect both systemic and mucosal immune protection against Y. pestis. ..
  8. Kang H, Curtiss R. Immune responses dependent on antigen location in recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium vaccines following oral immunization. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2003;37:99-104 pubmed
    The subcellular location of a recombinant antigen in recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccines may influence immunogenicity dependent on exposure of the recombinant antigen to cells involved in systemic immune responses...
  9. Hingorani A, Cross J, Kharbanda R, Mullen M, Bhagat K, Taylor M, et al. Acute systemic inflammation impairs endothelium-dependent dilatation in humans. Circulation. 2000;102:994-9 pubmed
    ..This finding might explain the association between infection and inflammation and the enhanced risk of an acute cardiovascular event. ..
  10. Rana N, Kulshreshtha R. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses to a virulent plasmid-cured mutant strain of Salmonella enterica serotype gallinarum in broiler chickens. Vet Microbiol. 2006;115:156-62 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that the live attenuated mutant vaccine induced a strong cellular and humoral immunity, which may play a role in the protection of fowl typhoid in broiler chickens. ..
  11. Trebichavsky I, Splichalova A, Rychlik I, Hojna H, Muneta Y, Mori Y, et al. Attenuated aroA Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium does not induce inflammatory response and early protection of gnotobiotic pigs against parental virulent LT2 strain. Vaccine. 2006;24:4285-9 pubmed
    ..The absence of induction of proinflammatory cytokines may be a reason why aroA mutant was unable to elicit any inflammatory response and protect pigs against challenge with virulent LT2 strain administered 24h later. ..
  12. Wang S, Li Y, Shi H, Sun W, Roland K, Curtiss R. Comparison of a regulated delayed antigen synthesis system with in vivo-inducible promoters for antigen delivery by live attenuated Salmonella vaccines. Infect Immun. 2011;79:937-49 pubmed publisher
    Induction of strong immune responses against a vectored antigen in hosts immunized with live attenuated Salmonella vaccines is related in part to the amount of antigen delivered and the overall fitness of the Salmonella vector in ..
  13. Penha Filho R, Moura B, de Almeida A, Montassier H, Barrow P, Berchieri Junior A. Humoral and cellular immune response generated by different vaccine programs before and after Salmonella Enteritidis challenge in chickens. Vaccine. 2012;30:7637-43 pubmed publisher
    The poultry industry has a high demand for Salmonella vaccines in order to generate safer Salmonella-free food for consumers around the world. Vaccination against S...
  14. Saxena M, Coloe P, Smooker P. Influence of promoter, gene copy number, and preexisting immunity on humoral and cellular responses to a vectored antigen delivered by a Salmonella enterica vaccine. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:78-87 pubmed publisher
    ..In the case of homologous preexposure, responses were generally greater, and this was correlated with an increased uptake of Salmonella by macrophages in vitro after opsonization with immune sera. ..
  15. Nagy G, Dobrindt U, Hacker J, Emody L. Oral immunization with an rfaH mutant elicits protection against salmonellosis in mice. Infect Immun. 2004;72:4297-301 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, in vitro immunoreactivity is not confined to strain SL1344; rather, it is directed also towards other serovars of S. enterica and even Salmonella bongori strains. ..
  16. Curtiss R, Xin W, Li Y, Kong W, Wanda S, Gunn B, et al. New technologies in using recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine vectors. Crit Rev Immunol. 2010;30:255-70 pubmed
    Recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccines (RASVs) have been constructed to deliver antigens from other pathogens to induce immunity to those pathogens in vaccinated hosts...
  17. Gahan M, Webster D, Wesselingh S, Strugnell R. Impact of plasmid stability on oral DNA delivery by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Vaccine. 2007;25:1476-83 pubmed
    ..However, pAT153 was the only plasmid to induce a tetanus toxoid-specific antibody response following oral delivery. Plasmid copy number was found to impact on plasmid stability and the induction of antigen-specific humoral responses. ..
  18. Collard J, Bertrand S, Dierick K, Godard C, Wildemauwe C, Vermeersch K, et al. Drastic decrease of Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from humans in Belgium in 2005, shift in phage types and influence on foodborne outbreaks. Epidemiol Infect. 2008;136:771-81 pubmed
    ..Enteritidis. ..
  19. Villarreal Ramos B, Manser J, Collins R, Dougan G, Chatfield S, Howard C. Immune responses in calves immunised orally or subcutaneously with a live Salmonella typhimurium aro vaccine. Vaccine. 1998;16:45-54 pubmed
    ..This is the first time that Salmonella recombinant vaccines have been shown to successfully elicit antibodies against a guest antigen in cattle after one single oral inoculation. ..
  20. Toobak H, Rasooli I, Talei D, Jahangiri A, Owlia P, Darvish Alipour Astaneh S. Immune response variations to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi recombinant porin proteins in mice. Biologicals. 2013;41:224-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Porin antigens are not suitable vaccine candidates alone or in denatured forms. Native forms of the antigens maybe studied for protective immunogenicity...
  21. Garmory H, Brown K, Titball R. Salmonella vaccines for use in humans: present and future perspectives. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2002;26:339-53 pubmed
    ..In many cases, the problems associated with expression of antigens in Salmonella have been successfully addressed and the future of Salmonella vaccine development is very promising. ..
  22. Letellier A, Messier S, Lessard L, Chénier S, Quessy S. Host response to various treatments to reduce Salmonella infections in swine. Can J Vet Res. 2001;65:168-72 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that SC54 vaccine can stimulate local immunity and reduce the presence of Salmonella in the ileum in swine. Use of SC54 vaccine should thus be considered in further field experiments. ..
  23. Hur J, Song S, Lim J, Chung I, Lee J. Efficacy of a novel virulence gene-deleted Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine for protection against Salmonella infections in growing piglets. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2011;139:250-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that vaccination of the piglets with the vaccine and mucosal adjuvant in addition to vaccination of their sows induced effective protection against Salmonella infections in the growing piglets. ..
  24. Matsuda K, Chaudhari A, Kim S, Lee K, Lee J. Physiology, pathogenicity and immunogenicity of lon and/or cpxR deleted mutants of Salmonella Gallinarum as vaccine candidates for fowl typhoid. Vet Res. 2010;41:59 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the results of this study suggest that JOL916 among the mutants studied represented the safest and most effective live vaccine candidate against FT. ..
  25. Kajikawa A, Igimi S. Innate and acquired immune responses induced by recombinant Lactobacillus casei displaying flagellin-fusion antigen on the cell-surface. Vaccine. 2010;28:3409-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The immune responses elicited by the Lactobacillus-associated antigens were mainly Th1 while that by the soluble antigen was Th2, although some of the responses were mixed. ..
  26. Buckley A, Wang J, Hudson D, Grant A, Jones M, Maskell D, et al. Evaluation of live-attenuated Salmonella vaccines expressing Campylobacter antigens for control of C. jejuni in poultry. Vaccine. 2010;28:1094-105 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data are rendered highly relevant by use of the target host in large numbers and support the potential of CjaA- and Peb1A-based vaccines for control of C. jejuni in poultry...
  27. Ye J, Zhang Y, Zhang X, Ren D, Chen W. Recombinant attenuated Salmonella harboring 4-1BB ligand gene enhances cellular immunity. Vaccine. 2009;27:1717-23 pubmed publisher
    ..002). Salmonella serovar Typhimurium containing 4-1BBL can transfect target genes into antigen presenting cells in vivo, and the expression of exogenous 4-1BBL enhances cellular immunity markedly. ..
  28. Rosu V, Chadfield M, Santona A, Christensen J, Thomsen L, Rubino S, et al. Effects of crp deletion in Salmonella enterica serotype Gallinarum. Acta Vet Scand. 2007;49:14 pubmed
    ..In the current study, the effect of crp deletion was investigated with respect to virulence and biochemical properties and the possible use of a deletion mutant as vaccine candidate was preliminarily tested...
  29. Atkins H, Morton M, Griffin K, Stokes M, Nataro J, Titball R. Recombinant Salmonella vaccines for biodefence. Vaccine. 2006;24:2710-7 pubmed
    ..To address this need, recombinant Salmonella vaccines are being developed...
  30. Northen H, Paterson G, Constantino Casas F, Bryant C, Clare S, Mastroeni P, et al. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mutants completely lacking the F(0)F(1) ATPase are novel live attenuated vaccine strains. Vaccine. 2010;28:940-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We have shown that the F(0)F(1) ATPase is important for bacterial growth in vivo and that atp mutants are effective live attenuated vaccines against Salmonella infection. ..
  31. Bohez L, Dewulf J, Ducatelle R, Pasmans F, Haesebrouck F, Van Immerseel F. The effect of oral administration of a homologous hilA mutant strain on the long-term colonization and transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis in broiler chickens. Vaccine. 2008;26:372-8 pubmed
  32. Denagamage T, O Connor A, Sargeant J, Rajic A, Mckean J. Efficacy of vaccination to reduce Salmonella prevalence in live and slaughtered swine: a systematic review of literature from 1979 to 2007. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2007;4:539-49 pubmed
  33. Metzger W, Mansouri E, Kronawitter M, Diescher S, Soerensen M, Hurwitz R, et al. Impact of vector-priming on the immunogenicity of a live recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar typhi Ty21a vaccine expressing urease A and B from Helicobacter pylori in human volunteers. Vaccine. 2004;22:2273-7 pubmed
    Orally administered recombinant Salmonella vaccines represent an attractive option for mass vaccination programmes against various infectious diseases...
  34. Abd El Ghany M, Jansen A, Clare S, Hall L, Pickard D, Kingsley R, et al. Candidate live, attenuated Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium vaccines with reduced fecal shedding are immunogenic and effective oral vaccines. Infect Immun. 2007;75:1835-42 pubmed
    ..Further, immunization with serotype Typhimurium aroA candidate vaccines harboring shdA and misL afforded complete protection against challenge with a virulent strain of serotype Typhimurium. ..
  35. Husseiny M, Hensel M. Rapid method for the construction of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium vaccine carrier strains. Infect Immun. 2005;73:1598-605 pubmed
    ..The novel "knock-in" approach allows the rapid and efficient construction of recombinant Salmonella strains as vaccine carriers. ..
  36. Konjufca V, Wanda S, Jenkins M, Curtiss R. A recombinant attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine encoding Eimeria acervulina antigen offers protection against E. acervulina challenge. Infect Immun. 2006;74:6785-96 pubmed
  37. Wang J, Pasetti M, Noriega F, Anderson R, Wasserman S, Galen J, et al. Construction, genotypic and phenotypic characterization, and immunogenicity of attenuated DeltaguaBA Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain CVD 915. Infect Immun. 2001;69:4734-41 pubmed
    ..Used as a live vector, CVD 915(pTETlpp) elicited high titers of serum immunoglobulin G anti-fragment C. These encouraging preclinical data pave the way for phase 1 clinical trials with CVD 915. ..
  38. Hur J, Lee J. Enhancement of immune responses by an attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain secreting an Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit protein as an adjuvant for a live Salmonella vaccine candidate. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011;18:203-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that vaccination with the LTB strain, especially when added at the prime stage only, effectively enhances immune responses and protection against salmonellosis. ..
  39. Kremer C, O Meara K, Layton S, Hargis B, Cole K. Evaluation of recombinant Salmonella expressing the flagellar protein fliC for persistence and enhanced antibody response in commercial turkeys. Poult Sci. 2011;90:752-8 pubmed publisher
  40. Gunn B, Wanda S, Burshell D, Wang C, Curtiss R. Construction of recombinant attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium vaccine vector strains for safety in newborn and infant mice. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:354-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The vaccine strains are well tolerated when orally administered to infant mice 24 h old at doses as high as 3.5 x 10(8) CFU. ..
  41. Peters S, Paterson G, Bandularatne E, Northen H, Pleasance S, Willers C, et al. Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium trxA mutants are protective against virulent challenge and induce less inflammation than the live-attenuated vaccine strain SL3261. Infect Immun. 2010;78:326-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested this by deleting trxA in SL3261. SL3261 trxA was also less inflammatory than SL3261 but was slightly less effective as a vaccine strain than either the SL3261 parent strain or SL1344 trxA...
  42. Selke M, Meens J, Springer S, Frank R, Gerlach G. Immunization of pigs to prevent disease in humans: construction and protective efficacy of a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium live negative-marker vaccine. Infect Immun. 2007;75:2476-83 pubmed
    ..The approach described overcomes the problems currently limiting the use of bacterial live vaccines and holds considerable potential for future developments in the field. ..
  43. Karasova D, Sebkova A, Vrbas V, Havlickova H, Sisak F, Rychlik I. Comparative analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis mutants with a vaccine potential. Vaccine. 2009;27:5265-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, when a detailed comparison of polymyxin and serum sensitive mutants was performed, the serum sensitive mutants were more immunogenic...
  44. Yang X, Thornburg T, Holderness K, Suo Z, Cao L, Lim T, et al. Serum antibodies protect against intraperitoneal challenge with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2011;2011:632396 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that parenteral immunization with purified CFA/I fimbriae can induce protective Abs and may represent an alternative method to elicit protective Abs for passive immunity to ETEC. ..
  45. Wolfenden R, Layton S, Wolfenden A, Khatiwara A, Gaona Ramirez G, Pumford N, et al. Development and evaluation of candidate recombinant Salmonella-vectored Salmonella vaccines. Poult Sci. 2010;89:2370-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The increased clearance of the candidate vaccines, particularly the vector expressing fliC alone, may have value in that the fliC epitope may decrease the clearance time of other recombinant vectored Salmonella vaccines.
  46. Hegazy W, Xu X, METELITSA L, Hensel M. Evaluation of Salmonella enterica type III secretion system effector proteins as carriers for heterologous vaccine antigens. Infect Immun. 2012;80:1193-202 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that the selection of an optimal SPI2 effector protein for T3SS-mediated translocation is a critical parameter for the rational design of effective Salmonella-based recombinant vaccines. ..
  47. Kotton C, Lankowski A, Scott N, Sisul D, Chen L, Raschke K, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium delivering an HIV-1 Gag antigen via the Salmonella Type III secretion system. Vaccine. 2006;24:6216-24 pubmed
    ..Although immunogenicity of the HIV antigen needs augmentation, the attenuated Salmonella strain proved to be an excellent platform for vaccine development. ..
  48. Raupach B, Kaufmann S. Bacterial virulence, proinflammatory cytokines and host immunity: how to choose the appropriate Salmonella vaccine strain?. Microbes Infect. 2001;3:1261-9 pubmed
    ..Consequently, Salmonella mutants defective in distinct virulence functions offer the potential to specifically modulate the immune response for defined medical applications. ..
  49. Maybeno M, Redeker A, Welten S, Peters B, Loughhead S, Schoenberger S, et al. Polyfunctional CD4+ T cell responses to immunodominant epitopes correlate with disease activity of virulent Salmonella. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43481 pubmed publisher
    ..To develop more effective Salmonella vaccines, it is important to understand the development of protective adaptive immunity to virulent Salmonella...
  50. Tennant S, Wang J, Galen J, Simon R, Pasetti M, Gat O, et al. Engineering and preclinical evaluation of attenuated nontyphoidal Salmonella strains serving as live oral vaccines and as reagent strains. Infect Immun. 2011;79:4175-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Since S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis are the most common NTS serovars associated with invasive disease, these findings can pave the way for development of a highly effective, broad-spectrum vaccine against invasive NTS...
  51. Juarez Rodriguez M, Yang J, Kader R, Alamuri P, Curtiss R, Clark Curtiss J. Live attenuated Salmonella vaccines displaying regulated delayed lysis and delayed antigen synthesis to confer protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infect Immun. 2012;80:815-31 pubmed publisher
    ..bovis BCG, demonstrating that RASV strains displaying regulated delayed lysis with delayed antigen synthesis resulted in highly immunogenic delivery vectors for oral vaccination against M. tuberculosis infection. ..
  52. Matulova M, Havlickova H, Sisak F, Rychlik I. Vaccination of chickens with Salmonella Pathogenicity Island (SPI) 1 and SPI2 defective mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. Vaccine. 2012;30:2090-7 pubmed publisher
  53. Carvajal B, Methner U, Pieper J, Berndt A. Effects of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis on cellular recruitment and cytokine gene expression in caecum of vaccinated chickens. Vaccine. 2008;26:5423-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Enteritidis 147N infection in caecum. The results demonstrated a distinctive immune reaction pattern of previously vaccinated compared to non-vaccinated chickens upon S. Enteritidis wild-type challenge. ..
  54. Li Y, Wang S, Scarpellini G, Gunn B, Xin W, Wanda S, et al. Evaluation of new generation Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccines with regulated delayed attenuation to induce immune responses against PspA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:593-8 pubmed publisher
    Increasing the immunogenicity to delivered antigens by recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccines (RASV) has been the subject of intensive study...
  55. Hormaeche C, Mastroeni P, Harrison J, Demarco de Hormaeche R, Svenson S, Stocker B. Protection against oral challenge three months after i.v. immunization of BALB/c mice with live Aro Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis vaccines is serotype (species)-dependent and only partially determined by the main LPS O antigen. Vaccine. 1996;14:251-9 pubmed
    ..of protection as mediated by systemic mechanisms following immunization with live attenuated Aro Salmonella vaccines was studied in mice...
  56. Vishwakarma V, Pati N, Chandel H, Sahoo S, Saha B, Suar M. Evaluation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium TTSS-2 deficient fur mutant as safe live-attenuated vaccine candidate for immunocompromised mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52043 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, this vaccine candidate can be employed to express heterologous antigens targeted against several other diseases, especially related to enterocolitic pathogens...
  57. Roland K, Tinge S, Killeen K, Kochi S. Recent advances in the development of live, attenuated bacterial vectors. Curr Opin Mol Ther. 2005;7:62-72 pubmed
    ..These strategies and their application to the recent development of delivery systems for use in humans will be discussed. ..
  58. Bumann D. T cell receptor-transgenic mouse models for studying cellular immune responses to Salmonella in vivo. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2003;37:105-9 pubmed
    ..In this review, the results obtained with four different TCR-transgenic Salmonella infection models are described, and advantages and potential limits of each of the different models are compared. ..
  59. Methner U, Barrow P, Berndt A, Rychlik I. Salmonella Enteritidis with double deletion in phoPfliC--a potential live Salmonella vaccine candidate with novel characteristics for use in chickens. Vaccine. 2011;29:3248-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The double phoPfliC deletion mutant of Salmonella Enteritidis might be a potential and promising live Salmonella vaccine candidate with novel characteristics for use in poultry...
  60. Van Immerseel F, De Buck J, De Smet I, Mast J, Haesebrouck F, Ducatelle R. The effect of vaccination with a Salmonella enteritidis aroA mutant on early cellular responses in caecal lamina propria of newly-hatched chickens. Vaccine. 2002;20:3034-41 pubmed
  61. Kharbanda R, Walton B, Allen M, Klein N, Hingorani A, MacAllister R, et al. Prevention of inflammation-induced endothelial dysfunction: a novel vasculo-protective action of aspirin. Circulation. 2002;105:2600-4 pubmed
    ..Locally administered aspirin does not reverse vaccine-induced endothelial dysfunction once established. The protective effects of aspirin on inflammation-induced endothelial dysfunction may be through modulation of the cytokine cascade. ..
  62. Simon R, Tennant S, Galen J, Levine M. Mouse models to assess the efficacy of non-typhoidal Salmonella vaccines: revisiting the role of host innate susceptibility and routes of challenge. Vaccine. 2011;29:5094-106 pubmed publisher
    ..The immunologic basis of this discrepancy and the implications for human NTS vaccine development are reviewed herein...
  63. Lu Z, Grohn Y, Smith R, Wolfgang D, Van Kessel J, Schukken Y. Assessing the potential impact of Salmonella vaccines in an endemically infected dairy herd. J Theor Biol. 2009;259:770-84 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the potential impact of imperfect Salmonella vaccines on prevalence over time and the eradication criterion, we developed a deterministic compartmental model ..
  64. McClelland M, Sanderson K, Spieth J, Clifton S, Latreille P, Courtney L, et al. Complete genome sequence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2. Nature. 2001;413:852-6 pubmed
    ..Most of these homologues were previously unknown, and 50 may be exported to the periplasm or outer membrane, rendering them accessible as therapeutic or vaccine targets. ..
  65. Matsui H, Suzuki M, Isshiki Y, Kodama C, Eguchi M, Kikuchi Y, et al. Oral immunization with ATP-dependent protease-deficient mutants protects mice against subsequent oral challenge with virulent Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium. Infect Immun. 2003;71:30-9 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that Salmonella with a disruption of the ATP-dependent protease ClpXP or Lon can be useful in developing a live vaccine strain. ..
  66. Berndt A, Methner U. Gamma/delta T cell response of chickens after oral administration of attenuated and non-attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strains. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2001;78:143-61 pubmed
    ..The remarkable increase of CD8(+)TcR1(+)(gammadelta) double positive cells in treated birds indicates an important role of this cell sub-population in the immunological defense of chickens against Salmonella exposure. ..
  67. Matsuda K, Chaudhari A, Lee J. Evaluation of safety and protection efficacy on cpxR and lon deleted mutant of Salmonella Gallinarum as a live vaccine candidate for fowl typhoid. Vaccine. 2011;29:668-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results demonstrate the safety and protective efficacy of JOL916 as a live vaccine for systemic FT. ..
  68. Heithoff D, Enioutina E, Daynes R, Sinsheimer R, Low D, Mahan M. Salmonella DNA adenine methylase mutants confer cross-protective immunity. Infect Immun. 2001;69:6725-30 pubmed
  69. Nandre R, Chaudhari A, Matsuda K, Lee J. Immunogenicity of a Salmonella Enteritidis mutant as vaccine candidate and its protective efficacy against salmonellosis in chickens. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2011;144:299-311 pubmed publisher
    ..By the examination of the protection efficacy measured by observations of gross lesions in the organs and bacterial recovery, the candidate can provide an efficient protection upon virulent challenge...
  70. Berndt A, Wilhelm A, Jugert C, Pieper J, Sachse K, Methner U. Chicken cecum immune response to Salmonella enterica serovars of different levels of invasiveness. Infect Immun. 2007;75:5993-6007 pubmed
    ..The data indicate that the capability of Salmonella serovars to enter the cecal mucosa and invade lower regions affects both the level and character of the immune response in tissue. ..
  71. Sood S, Rishi P, Dhawan V, Sharma S, Ganguly N. Protection mediated by antibodies to iron-regulated outer-membrane proteins of S. typhi in a mouse peritonitis model. Mol Cell Biochem. 2005;273:69-78 pubmed
    ..This study, thus indicates that anti IROMPs antibodies may play an important role in providing protection at systemic as well as at mucosal level. ..