Summary: Vaccines for the prevention of diseases caused by various species of Rickettsia.
- Meltzer E, Schwartz E. Enteric fever: an Israeli perspective. Isr Med Assoc J. 2007;9:736-41 pubmed..Unfortunately, with the limited efficacy of the current typhoid vaccinations and the increase in multidrug-resistant strains, cases among travelers are expected to continue to increase and become ever challenging to treat. ..
- Kocan K, Blouin E, Palmer G, Eriks I, Edwards W, Claypool P. Preliminary studies on the effect of Anaplasma marginale antibodies ingested by Dermacentor andersoni ticks (Acari:Ixodidae) with their blood meal on infections in salivary glands. Exp Appl Acarol. 1996;20:297-311 pubmed..There was no statistically significant effect of tick exposure to the anti-erythrocytic stage antibody on the development of salivary gland infection or transmission of A. marginale by ticks. ..
- Weindling P. Between bacteriology and virology: the development of typhus vaccines between the First and Second World Wars. Hist Philos Life Sci. 1995;17:81-90 pubmed..This 'paradigm switch' stimulated interest in the possibility of producing an effective medicine. ..
- Wincewicz A, Sulkowska M, Sulkowski S. Rudolph Weigl (1883-1957)--a scientist in Poland in wartime plus ratio quam vis. J Med Biogr. 2007;15:111-5 pubmed..His vaccine saved millions, particularly during World War II. Despite many nominations, he was never awarded the Nobel Prize...
- Vishwanath S, McDonald G, Watkins N. A recombinant Rickettsia conorii vaccine protects guinea pigs from experimental boutonneuse fever and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Infect Immun. 1990;58:646-53 pubmed..conorii strain and partially protected from experimental infections with a strain of the heterologous species R. rickettsii. These findings show that the 198-kDa R. conorii protein is a candidate for a vaccine against boutonneuse fever...
- Xu G, Chattopadhyay S, Jiang J, Chan T, Chao C, Ching W, et al. Short- and long-term immune responses of CD-1 outbred mice to the scrub typhus DNA vaccine candidate: p47Kp. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1063:266-9 pubmed..Our laboratory has demonstrated that the DNA vaccine vector pVR1012 carrying the O. tsutsugamushi Karp strain 47-kDa protein gene (p47Kp) consistently provides outbred mice protection against homologous challenge. ..
- Gazi M, Caro Gomez E, Góez Y, Cespedes M, Hidalgo M, Correa P, et al. Discovery of a protective Rickettsia prowazekii antigen recognized by CD8+ T cells, RP884, using an in vivo screening platform. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e76253 pubmed publisher..We report the use of this method to discover a protective T-cell rickettsial antigen, RP884, among a test subset of rickettsial proteins. ..
- Kenyon R, Ascher M, Kishimoto R, Pedersen C. In vitro guinea pig leukocyte reactions to Rickettsia rickettsii. Infect Immun. 1977;18:840-6 pubmed..Antibody-treated rickettsiae were phagocytized and destroyed by guinea pig peritoneal macrophages, whereas normal serum-treated rickettsiae replicated and eventually destroyed the phagocytes. ..
- Oster C, Burke D, Kenyon R, Ascher M, Harber P, Pedersen C. Laboratory-acquired Rocky Mountain spotted fever. The hazard of aerosol transmission. N Engl J Med. 1977;297:859-63 pubmed
- Marmion B, Harris R, Storm P, Helbig K, Penttila I, Worswick D, et al. Q Fever Research Group (QRG), Adelaide: activities-exit summary 1980-2004. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1063:181-6 pubmed
- Lindenmann J. Typhus vaccine developments from the First to the Second World War (on Paul Weindling's 'between bacteriology and virology...'). Hist Philos Life Sci. 2002;24:467-85 pubmed..These developments were not spurned by any 'upswing of virology' but by the threat of typhus in endemic areas and, after 1938, in a war-torn world. Their basis was firmly anchored in bacteriological thought styles and techniques. ..
- Ge H, Tong M, Li A, Mehta R, Ching W. Cloning and sequence analysis of the 22-kDa antigen genes of Orientia tsutsugamushi strains Kato, TA763, AFSC 7, 18-032460, TH1814, and MAK 119. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1063:231-8 pubmed..The information gained from this analysis will facilitate our selection of O. tsutsugamushi strains from which antigens should be derived to be included in a multivalent vaccine candidate for scrub typhus. ..
- Kenyon R, Pedersen C. Immune responses to Rickettsia akari infection in congenitally athymic nude mice. Infect Immun. 1980;28:310-3 pubmed..This suggests that a T-cell-dependent step is generally necessary to terminate the rickettsialpox infection. ..
- McDonald G, Anacker R, Mann R. Extraction of protective components of Rickettsia rickettsii with n-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside. Rev Infect Dis. 1988;10 Suppl 2:S382-5 pubmed..Vaccination of mice with the detergent-soluble fraction protected them against death caused by R. rickettsii and protected guinea pigs from developing Rocky Mountain spotted fever after being challenged with viable R. rickettsii. ..
- Chan Y, Riley S, Chen E, Martínez J. Molecular basis of immunity to rickettsial infection conferred through outer membrane protein B. Infect Immun. 2011;79:2303-13 pubmed publisher..Considering the evolutionary conservation of rOmpB and its crucial contribution to bacterial invasion of host cells, we propose that rOmpB antibody-mediated killing confers immunity to rickettsial infection. ..
- Eisenberg G, Osterman J. Gamma-irradiated scrub typhus immunogens: broad-spectrum immunity with combinations of rickettsial strains. Infect Immun. 1979;26:131-6 pubmed
- Karatepe M. [The role of Turkish physicians in the vaccination against typhus during the years of World War I]. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2008;42:301-13 pubmed..According to the sources, the claim that some Turkish physicians used the blood of patients with typhus as a means of biological warfare does not reflect the historical truth. ..
- Mahan S, Kumbula D, Burridge M, Barbet A. The inactivated Cowdria ruminantium vaccine for heartwater protects against heterologous strains and against laboratory and field tick challenge. Vaccine. 1998;16:1203-11 pubmed
- Nyika A, Mahan S, Burridge M, McGuire T, Rurangirwa F, Barbet A. A DNA vaccine protects mice against the rickettsial agent Cowdria ruminantium. Parasite Immunol. 1998;20:111-9 pubmed..This study demonstrates that MAP1 is a protective antigen and validates the concept of DNA vaccines against heartwater. ..
- Hornick R, Woodward W, Greisman S. Doctor T. E. Woodward's legacy: from typhus to typhoid fever. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45 Suppl 1:S6-8 pubmed..Subsequently, he was influential in establishing a unique volunteer unit in Maryland in which a wide range of vaccines were evaluated. ..
- Micoli F, Rondini S, Pisoni I, Proietti D, Berti F, Costantino P, et al. Vi-CRM 197 as a new conjugate vaccine against Salmonella Typhi. Vaccine. 2011;29:712-20 pubmed publisher..Vi-CRM(197) proved immunogenic in animal studies, even without adjuvant. Thus, Vi-CRM(197) appears to be a suitable candidate for the development of a commercially viable, effective typhoid vaccine for developing countries. ..
- Chao C, Chelius D, Zhang T, Mutumanje E, Ching W. Insight into the virulence of Rickettsia prowazekii by proteomic analysis and comparison with an avirulent strain. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1774:373-81 pubmed publisher..This result suggests the possible relationship between this gene product and the virulence of the strains...
- Resl M, Sidorenko S, Zhuljabin E. Development of local morphological changes after intradermal inoculation of Q-fever chemovaccine. Acta Virol. 1989;33:167-71 pubmed..Interesting was the finding of Kurloff cells in the haemorrhagic foci. The results suggest that the low-reactogenic chemovaccine dose of 0.2 mg might be sufficiently immunogenic after subcutaneous administration. ..
- Hamid N, Jain S. Characterization of an outer membrane protein of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium that confers protection against typhoid. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15:1461-71 pubmed publisher..An amplified 1.3-kb band was purified and sequenced to confirm its identity. These OMPs provide promising targets for the development of a candidate vaccine against typhoid. ..
- Eisenberg G, Osterman J. Gamma-irradiated scrub typhus immunogens: development and duration of immunity. Infect Immun. 1978;22:80-6 pubmed..Protection against heterologous challenge was first observed on day 17 and peaked on day 38, when the mice resisted a 10(5)-MLD(50) Kato challenge. Thereafter, heterologous protection waned rapidly and was not significant at 6 months. ..
- Rendi Wagner P, Hoeller K, Kollaritsch H. [Immunization recommendations for travel in the Mediterranean area]. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2004;116:652-60 pubmed
- Tylewska Wierzbanowska S, Zielińska Z, Chmielowski J. [Rudolf Stefan Weigl--scientist and human being]. Przegl Epidemiol. 2003;57:225-30 pubmed..He and his co-workers introduced first vaccination of medical staff, people from endemic area in Poland and missionaries working in Asia. He was an international authority on prophylactics and control of rickettsial epidemic typhus. ..
- Kelly D, Richards A, Temenak J, Strickman D, Dasch G. The past and present threat of rickettsial diseases to military medicine and international public health. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:S145-69 pubmed..The continuation of a proven, highly productive military infectious disease research program is essential for providing solutions to these daunting tasks. ..
- Jiao Y, Wen B, Chen M, Niu D, Zhang J, Qiu L. Analysis of immunoprotectivity of the recombinant OmpA of Rickettsia heilongjiangensis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1063:261-5 pubmed..These results suggest that the truncated OmpA of R. heilongjiangii is immunogenic for effectively inducing humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against homologous and heterologous species in the spotted fever group. ..
- Dutta S, Vemulapalli R, Biswas B. Association of deficiency in antibody response to vaccine and heterogeneity of Ehrlichia risticii strains with Potomac horse fever vaccine failure in horses. J Clin Microbiol. 1998;36:506-12 pubmed..These studies suggest that the deficiency in the antibody response to the PHF vaccines and the heterogeneity of E. risticii isolates may be associated with the vaccine failure...
- Jerrells T, Palmer B, Osterman J. Gamma-irradiated scrub typhus immunogens: development of cell-mediated immunity after vaccination of inbred mice. Infect Immun. 1983;39:262-9 pubmed..Furthermore, mice that were immunized with viable rickettsiae demonstrated markedly lower levels of rickettsemia after intraperitoneal challenge compared with either mice immunized with irradiated rickettsiae or nonimmunized mice. ..
- Jongejan F. Protective immunity to heartwater (Cowdria ruminantium infection) is acquired after vaccination with in vitro-attenuated rickettsiae. Infect Immun. 1991;59:729-31 pubmed..This is the first report of vaccination with live attenuated C. ruminantium. These attenuated organisms may replace vaccination with virulent blood currently in use in areas where heartwater is endemic...
- Hammac G, Ku P, Galletti M, Noh S, Scoles G, Palmer G, et al. Protective immunity induced by immunization with a live, cultured Anaplasma marginale strain. Vaccine. 2013;31:3617-22 pubmed publisher..AmStM-GFP provided clinical protection, yielding a stable PCV and low bacteremia following challenge, whereas A. centrale only afforded partial clinical protection...
- Hedfors E. The reading of scientific texts: questions on interpretation and evaluation, with special reference to the scientific writings of Ludwik Fleck. Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci. 2007;38:136-58 pubmed..The restricted possibilities of those not trained in science or not possessing field specific knowledge, evaluating science are discussed, as are also formal aspects of scientific papers and questions related to research ethics...
- Ruiz A, Zavala J. [Spotted fever Rickettsiae. Their immunodominant proteins and immune response]. Rev Med Chil. 2004;132:381-7 pubmed..This review covers these topics and provides an overview about the development of vaccines and accessible diagnostic methods for diseases caused by Rickettsia. ..
- Valbuena G, Feng H, Walker D. Mechanisms of immunity against rickettsiae. New perspectives and opportunities offered by unusual intracellular parasites. Microbes Infect. 2002;4:625-33 pubmed
- Schautteet K, De Clercq E, Vanrompay D. Chlamydia trachomatis vaccine research through the years. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2011;2011:963513 pubmed publisher..trachomatis genital infection despite the many efforts that have been made throughout the years. In this paper, the many attempts to develop a protective vaccine against a genital C. trachomatis infection will be reviewed. ..
- Kazar J, Brezina R. Control of rickettsial diseases. Eur J Epidemiol. 1991;7:282-6 pubmed..However, development of subunit vaccines, namely immunogenic rickettsial proteins, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, seems to be very promising. ..