meningococcal vaccines


Summary: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.

Top Publications

  1. Vipond C, Care R, Feavers I. History of meningococcal vaccines and their serological correlates of protection. Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 2:B10-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This review charts the history of the development of meningococcal vaccines and the importance of serological correlates of protection in their evaluation.
  2. Baxter R, Baine Y, Ensor K, Bianco V, Friedland L, Miller J. Immunogenicity and safety of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal ACWY tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in healthy adolescents and young adults 10 to 25 years of age. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:e41-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The investigational MenACWY-TT vaccine was immunogenic in adolescents and young adults, with an acceptable safety profile. ..
  3. Djingarey M, Barry R, Bonkoungou M, Tiéndrebéogo S, Sebgo R, Kandolo D, et al. Effectively introducing a new meningococcal A conjugate vaccine in Africa: the Burkina Faso experience. Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 2:B40-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The Burkina Faso success augurs well for further rollout of the Men A conjugate vaccine in meningitis belt countries...
  4. Christensen H, Hickman M, Edmunds W, Trotter C. Introducing vaccination against serogroup B meningococcal disease: an economic and mathematical modelling study of potential impact. Vaccine. 2013;31:2638-46 pubmed publisher
  5. Wing J, Smart L, Borrow R, Findlow J, Findlow H, Heath A, et al. Kinetics of immune responses to nasal challenge with meningococcal polysaccharide one year after serogroup-C glycoconjugate vaccination. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52:1317-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This is likely too slow to protect from natural meningococcal infection. MCC vaccinees rely on persistence of antibody levels rather than immunological memory for sustained protection. ..
  6. Zollinger W, Babcock J, Moran E, Brandt B, Matyas G, Wassef N, et al. Phase I study of a Neisseria meningitidis liposomal vaccine containing purified outer membrane proteins and detoxified lipooligosaccharide. Vaccine. 2012;30:712-21 pubmed publisher
    ..A quantitative enzyme linked immunosorbant assay showed increases in antibody against both OMPs and LOS antigens. The liposome formulation appeared to be particularly effective in presenting the dLOS as an antigen...
  7. Kaaijk P, van der Ende A, Berbers G, van den Dobbelsteen G, Rots N. Is a single dose of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine sufficient for protection? experience from the Netherlands. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:35 pubmed publisher
  8. Al Mazrou Y, Khalil M, Findlow H, Chadha H, Bosch Castells V, Johnson D, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of a meningococcal quadrivalent conjugate vaccine in Saudi Arabian adolescents previously vaccinated with one dose of bivalent and quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccines: a phase III, controlled, randomized, and . Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:999-1004 pubmed publisher
  9. Caron F, du Châtelet I, Leroy J, Ruckly C, Blanchard M, Bohic N, et al. From tailor-made to ready-to-wear meningococcal B vaccines: longitudinal study of a clonal meningococcal B outbreak. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011;11:455-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Outer-membrane-vesicle vaccines for meningococcal B outbreaks are complex and time consuming to develop. We studied the use of already available vaccine to control an outbreak caused by a genetically close strain...

More Information


  1. van der Ley P, van den Dobbelsteen G. Next-generation outer membrane vesicle vaccines against Neisseria meningitidis based on nontoxic LPS mutants. Hum Vaccin. 2011;7:886-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Several groups have now started the development of native OMV vaccines based on non-toxic LPS mutants, and this Commentary provides an overview of the various approaches and results thus far. ..
  2. Kaaijk P, van Straaten I, van de Waterbeemd B, Boot E, Levels L, van Dijken H, et al. Preclinical safety and immunogenicity evaluation of a nonavalent PorA native outer membrane vesicle vaccine against serogroup B meningococcal disease. Vaccine. 2013;31:1065-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that next-generation NonaMen is a safe vaccine with the potential to develop a broadly protective immune response and encourage the start of the first clinical studies. ..
  3. Poolman J, de Vleeschauwer I, Durant N, Devos N, Feron C, Lestrate P, et al. Measurement of functional anti-meningococcal serogroup a activity using strain 3125 as the target strain for serum bactericidal assay. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011;18:1108-17 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, SBA results obtained using the MenA L10 3125 strain better reflected vaccine-induced immunity. ..
  4. Hadad R, Jacobsson S, Pizza M, Rappuoli R, Fredlund H, Olcen P, et al. Novel meningococcal 4CMenB vaccine antigens - prevalence and polymorphisms of the encoding genes in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. APMIS. 2012;120:750-60 pubmed publisher
    ..However, possible cross-immunity of 4CMenB with gonococci and expression and function of the equivalent gonococcal GNAs, as well as of more appropriate GNAs for a gonococcal vaccine, need to be further examined...
  5. Ibarz Pavón A, MacLennan J, Andrews N, Gray S, Urwin R, Clarke S, et al. Changes in serogroup and genotype prevalence among carried meningococci in the United Kingdom during vaccine implementation. J Infect Dis. 2011;204:1046-53 pubmed publisher
    ..A large multicenter study investigated the effect of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine introduction on the meningococcal population...
  6. Panatto D, Amicizia D, Lai P, Gasparini R. Neisseria meningitidis B vaccines. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2011;10:1337-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The aims of this article are to describe the most recent developments in meningococcal B vaccines and to discuss how these vaccines can contribute to containing meningococcal disease. ..
  7. Holst J, Nøkleby H, Bettinger J. Considerations for controlling invasive meningococcal disease in high income countries. Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 2:B57-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We also offer a series of recommendations to address possible concerns about vaccine safety...
  8. Snape M, Medini D, Halperin S, DeTora L, Drori J, Moxon E. The challenge of post-implementation surveillance for novel meningococcal vaccines. Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 2:B67-72 pubmed publisher
    Novel serogroup B meningococcal vaccines are currently in late stage development and may be used in mass immunisation campaigns over the coming years...
  9. van de Waterbeemd B, Streefland M, van Keulen L, van den IJssel J, de Haan A, Eppink M, et al. Identification and optimization of critical process parameters for the production of NOMV vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis. Vaccine. 2012;30:3683-90 pubmed publisher
    ..High functional immunogenicity and low toxicity of the optimized vaccine were also confirmed. The EDTA extraction is therefore a robust process step which produces high quality OMV if harvest and pH are controlled accurately...
  10. Weston W, Friedland L, Wu X, Howe B. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of co-administered tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) and tetravalent meningococcal conjugate (MCV4) vaccines compared to their separate administration. Vaccine. 2011;29:1017-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The data provide support for current recommendations for co-administration of Tdap and MCV4 vaccines at the same office visit. ..
  11. Gasparini R, Panatto D. Meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccines. Hum Vaccin. 2011;7:170-82 pubmed
    ..For this reason, efforts to control the disease have been directed at optimizing meningococcal vaccines and implementing appropriate vaccination policies...
  12. Caini S, Beck N, Yacouba H, Maiga I, Chaibou I, Hinsa I, et al. From Agadez to Zinder: estimating coverage of the MenAfriVac™ conjugate vaccine against meningococcal serogroup A in Niger, September 2010 - January 2012. Vaccine. 2013;31:1597-603 pubmed publisher
    ..Priorities for the future should include incorporating meningitis A vaccination into the existing immunization schedule and assessing its impact at a population level. ..
  13. Kristiansen P, Diomande F, Wei S, Ouédraogo R, Sangare L, Sanou I, et al. Baseline meningococcal carriage in Burkina Faso before the introduction of a meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011;18:435-43 pubmed publisher
    ..5-1,2-2/F5-8, belonging to the ST-23 complex (47%). All serogroup A isolates were ST-2859 of the ST-5 complex with P1.20,9/F3-1. This study forms a solid basis for evaluating the impact of MenAfriVac introduction on serogroup A carriage...
  14. Memish Z, Dbaibo G, Montellano M, Verghese V, Jain H, Dubey A, et al. Immunogenicity of a single dose of tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y conjugate vaccine administered to 2- to 10-year-olds is noninferior to a licensed-ACWY polysaccharide vaccine with an acceptable safety profile. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:e56-62 pubmed publisher
    ..ACWY-TT was immunogenic in children between 2 to 10 years of age with a clinically acceptable safety profile that resembled licensed Men-PS. These data support a positive benefit/risk ratio for the ACWY-TT vaccine. ..
  15. Koeberling O, Delany I, Granoff D. A critical threshold of meningococcal factor H binding protein expression is required for increased breadth of protective antibodies elicited by native outer membrane vesicle vaccines. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011;18:736-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a critical threshold of increased fHbp expression is required for NOMV vaccines to elicit broad serum bactericidal responses, and the antibodies conferring protection are directed primarily at fHbp. ..
  16. Novak R, Kambou J, Diomandé F, Tarbangdo T, Ouédraogo Traoré R, Sangare L, et al. Serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccination in Burkina Faso: analysis of national surveillance data. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12:757-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that fully implementing the PsA-TT vaccine could end epidemic meningitis of serogroup A in sub-Saharan Africa. None. ..
  17. Snape M, Philip J, John T, Robinson H, Kelly S, Gossger N, et al. Bactericidal antibody persistence 2 years after immunization with 2 investigational serogroup B meningococcal vaccines at 6, 8 and 12 months and immunogenicity of preschool booster doses: a follow-on study to a randomized clinical trial. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013;32:1116-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Bactericidal antibodies wane after infant immunization with rMenB or 4CMenB, but there is an anamnestic response to a booster dose. Booster doses of 4CMenB may be required to maintain immune protection through childhood and adolescence. ..
  18. Gossger N, Snape M, Yu L, Finn A, Bona G, Esposito S, et al. Immunogenicity and tolerability of recombinant serogroup B meningococcal vaccine administered with or without routine infant vaccinations according to different immunization schedules: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2012;307:573-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In the absence of an effective vaccine, serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) remains a major cause of invasive disease in early childhood in developed countries...
  19. Beernink P, Shaughnessy J, Braga E, Liu Q, Rice P, Ram S, et al. A meningococcal factor H binding protein mutant that eliminates factor H binding enhances protective antibody responses to vaccination. J Immunol. 2011;186:3606-14 pubmed publisher
  20. Pajon R, Beernink P, Granoff D. Design of meningococcal factor H binding protein mutant vaccines that do not bind human complement factor H. Infect Immun. 2012;80:2667-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The three new fHbp mutants from variant group 2, which do not bind human fH, retained important epitopes for eliciting bactericidal antibodies and may be promising vaccine candidates. ..
  21. De Wals P, Deceuninck G, Lefebvre B, Boulianne N, De Serres G. Effectiveness of serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine: a 7-year follow-up in Quebec, Canada. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:566-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In 2002, 1 C-MCV dose was routinely offered to children 12 months of age...
  22. Gill C, Baxter R, Anemona A, Ciavarro G, Dull P. Persistence of immune responses after a single dose of Novartis meningococcal serogroup A, C, W-135 and Y CRM-197 conjugate vaccine (Menveo®) or Menactra® among healthy adolescents. Hum Vaccin. 2010;6:881-7 pubmed
    ..The proportion of subjects with hSBA titers ?8 was significantly higher among recipients of MenACWY-CRM than MCV4 for serogroups A, W-135 and Y. ..
  23. Vesikari T, Karvonen A, Bianco V, Van der Wielen M, Miller J. Tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y conjugate vaccine is well tolerated and immunogenic when co-administered with measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine during the second year of life: An open, randomized controlled trial. Vaccine. 2011;29:4274-84 pubmed publisher
    ..ACWY-TT can be co-administered with MMRV without affecting immunogenicity or safety profiles of either vaccine. This study has been registered at NCT00474266. ..
  24. Sow S, Okoko B, Diallo A, Viviani S, Borrow R, Carlone G, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of a meningococcal A conjugate vaccine in Africans. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:2293-304 pubmed publisher
    ..Funded by the Meningitis Vaccine Project through a grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; numbers, ISRCTN78147026 and ISRCTN87739946.). ..
  25. LaForce F, Okwo Bele J. Eliminating epidemic Group A meningococcal meningitis in Africa through a new vaccine. Health Aff (Millwood). 2011;30:1049-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The vaccine's low cost--less than fifty cents per dose--makes it possible for the affected countries themselves to purchase vaccines for future birth cohorts. ..
  26. Bai X, Findlow J, Borrow R. Recombinant protein meningococcal serogroup B vaccine combined with outer membrane vesicles. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2011;11:969-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The novel vaccine Bexsero (previously 4CMenB) has been developed and proven safe and immunogenic in clinical trials...
  27. Kristiansen P, Diomande F, Ba A, Sanou I, Ouédraogo A, Ouédraogo R, et al. Impact of the serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac, on carriage and herd immunity. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56:354-63 pubmed publisher
    ..It is not known whether MenAfriVac has an impact on NmA carriage...
  28. Altmann D, Aseffa A, Bash M, Basta N, Borrow R, Broome C, et al. Priorities for research on meningococcal disease and the impact of serogroup A vaccination in the African meningitis belt. Vaccine. 2013;31:1453-7 pubmed publisher and on the web site of the Centers for Disease Control ( ..
  29. Koeberling O, Seubert A, Santos G, Colaprico A, Ugozzoli M, Donnelly J, et al. Immunogenicity of a meningococcal native outer membrane vesicle vaccine with attenuated endotoxin and over-expressed factor H binding protein in infant rhesus monkeys. Vaccine. 2011;29:4728-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the mutant NOMV vaccine elicited broadly protective serum antibodies in a non-human infant primate model that is more relevant for predicting human antibody responses than mice. ..
  30. Vesikari T, Esposito S, Prymula R, Ypma E, Kohl I, Toneatto D, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of an investigational multicomponent, recombinant, meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB) administered concomitantly with routine infant and child vaccinations: results of two randomised trials. Lancet. 2013;381:825-35 pubmed
    ..This breakthrough vaccine offers an innovative solution to the major remaining cause of bacterial meningitis in infant and toddlers. Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics. ..
  31. Deasy A, Read R. Challenges for development of meningococcal vaccines in infants and children. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2011;10:335-43 pubmed publisher
    ..It will then go on to consider strategies for optimizing the protection of infants against meningococcal disease. ..
  32. Vogel U, Taha M, Vazquez J, Findlow J, Claus H, Stefanelli P, et al. Predicted strain coverage of a meningococcal multicomponent vaccine (4CMenB) in Europe: a qualitative and quantitative assessment. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13:416-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Monitoring of antigen expression, however, will be needed in the future. Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics. ..
  33. Pina L, Bassily E, Machmer A, Hou V, Reinhardt A. Safety and immunogenicity of a quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine in infants and toddlers: three multicenter phase III studies. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012;31:1173-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Serious adverse events were uncommon. MenACWY-D was safe and immunogenic when given in 2 doses to infants and toddlers; this vaccine can be given with other common childhood immunizations. ..
  34. Cohn A, Harrison L. Meningococcal vaccines: current issues and future strategies. Drugs. 2013;73:1147-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Serogroup B meningococcal vaccines are protein-based vaccines, with the first approved in early 2013...
  35. Memish Z, Goubeaud A, Broker M, Malerczyk C, Shibl A. Invasive meningococcal disease and travel. J Infect Public Health. 2010;3:143-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This review presents the global epidemiology of meningococcal disease, and discusses prophylaxis options including meningococcal ACWY vaccines...
  36. Borrow R, Abad R, Trotter C, van der Klis F, Vazquez J. Effectiveness of meningococcal serogroup C vaccine programmes. Vaccine. 2013;31:4477-86 pubmed publisher
    ..If herd protection wanes following catch-up campaigns, many children may become vulnerable to infection. This has led many to question whether an adolescent booster is also required. ..
  37. Moran E, Burden R, Labrie J, Wen Z, Wang X, Zollinger W, et al. Analysis of the bactericidal response to an experimental Neisseria meningitidis vesicle vaccine. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:659-65 pubmed publisher
    ..meningitidis strains, the outer membrane antigen NadA was primarily responsible for protection. The outer membrane antigens fHbp and OpcA were also effective in removing some bactericidal activity from the sera. ..
  38. Safadi M, McIntosh E. Epidemiology and prevention of meningococcal disease: a critical appraisal of vaccine policies. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2011;10:1717-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Vaccination policies to prevent meningococcal disease in different regions of the world should be based on quality information from enhanced surveillance systems...
  39. Gill C, Ram S, Welsch J, DeTora L, Anemona A. Correlation between serum bactericidal activity against Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y measured using human versus rabbit serum as the complement source. Vaccine. 2011;30:29-34 pubmed publisher
    ..However, for various practical and logistical reasons, many meningococcal vaccines in use today were licensed based on a modified SBA assay that used baby rabbit serum as the complement ..
  40. Donnelly J, Medini D, Boccadifuoco G, Biolchi A, Ward J, Frasch C, et al. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of meningococcal antigens to evaluate the potential strain coverage of protein-based vaccines. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:19490-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This assay allows typing of large panels of strains and prediction of coverage of protein-based meningococcal vaccines. Similar assays may be used for protein-based vaccines against other bacteria.
  41. Harris S, Zhu D, Murphy E, McNeil L, Wang X, Mayer L, et al. Preclinical evidence for the potential of a bivalent fHBP vaccine to prevent Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Disease. Hum Vaccin. 2011;7 Suppl:68-74 pubmed
    ..These promising findings suggest that a bivalent fHBP vaccine may be capable of providing protection against meningococcal disease caused by both serogroup C and B...
  42. Pajon R, Fergus A, Koeberling O, Caugant D, Granoff D. Meningococcal factor H binding proteins in epidemic strains from Africa: implications for vaccine development. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1302 pubmed publisher
    ..Little is known about the vaccine-potential of fHbp for control of meningococcal epidemics in Africa, which typically are caused by non-group B strains...
  43. Memish Z, Shibl A. Consensus building and recommendations based on the available epidemiology of meningococcal disease in Gulf Cooperation Council States. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2011;9:60-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These experts provided an update on epidemiology and current vaccination practices in the GCC States, and discussed new approaches to more effective disease prevention. ..
  44. Knuf M, Pantazi Chatzikonstantinou A, Pfletschinger U, Tichmann Schumann I, Maurer H, Maurer L, et al. An investigational tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine co-administered with Infanrix™ hexa is immunogenic, with an acceptable safety profile in 12-23-month-old children. Vaccine. 2011;29:4264-73 pubmed publisher
    ..ACWY-TT and DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib co-administration during the second year would facilitate introduction of ACWY-TT into routine toddler vaccination schedules. ..
  45. Richmond P, Marshall H, Nissen M, Jiang Q, Jansen K, Garcés Sanchez M, et al. Safety, immunogenicity, and tolerability of meningococcal serogroup B bivalent recombinant lipoprotein 2086 vaccine in healthy adolescents: a randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12:597-607 pubmed
    ..Recombinant lipoprotein 2086 vaccine is a promising candidate for broad protection against invasive meningococcus serogroup B disease. Wyeth, Pfizer. ..
  46. Su E, Snape M. A combination recombinant protein and outer membrane vesicle vaccine against serogroup B meningococcal disease. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2011;10:575-88 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, we will review recent advances in the development of these vaccines, focussing particularly on one of the 'next generation' MenB vaccines, 4CMenB...
  47. Callaghan M, Lewis S, Sadarangani M, Bailey S, Chan H, Ferguson D, et al. Potential of recombinant opa proteins as vaccine candidates against hyperinvasive meningococci. Infect Immun. 2011;79:2810-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study indicates the potential of Opa proteins to provide broad coverage against multiple meningococcal hyperinvasive lineages. ..
  48. Anderson A, Jansen K, Eiden J. New frontiers in meningococcal vaccines. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2011;10:617-34 pubmed publisher
    Challenges remain in developing effective meningococcal vaccines and vaccination programs in both the industrialized and developing worlds...
  49. Andrews S, Pollard A. A vaccine against serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis: dealing with uncertainty. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14:426-34 pubmed publisher
  50. Keiser P, Biggs Cicatelli S, Moran E, Schmiel D, Pinto V, Burden R, et al. A phase 1 study of a meningococcal native outer membrane vesicle vaccine made from a group B strain with deleted lpxL1 and synX, over-expressed factor H binding protein, two PorAs and stabilized OpcA expression. Vaccine. 2011;29:1413-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Depletion assays show contributions to bactericidal activity from antibodies to lipooligosaccharide (LOS), fHbp v.1 and OpcA. ..
  51. Bermal N, Huang L, Dubey A, Jain H, Bavdekar A, Lin T, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of a tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y conjugate vaccine in adolescents and adults. Hum Vaccin. 2011;7:239-47 pubmed
    ..The results of this study indicate that ACWY-TT could be used as a third conjugate vaccine in the protection of adolescents against meningococcal disease. ..
  52. Poolman J, Borrow R. Hyporesponsiveness and its clinical implications after vaccination with polysaccharide or glycoconjugate vaccines. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2011;10:307-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These data have implications for the development of new multivalent vaccines. ..
  53. Johnson S, Tan L, van der Veen S, Caesar J, Goicoechea de Jorge E, Harding R, et al. Design and evaluation of meningococcal vaccines through structure-based modification of host and pathogen molecules. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002981 pubmed publisher
    ..provide a catalogue of non-functional fHbps from all variant groups that can be included in new generation meningococcal vaccines, and establish proof-in-principle for clinical studies to compare their efficacy with wild-type fHbps.
  54. Borrow R. Advances with vaccination against Neisseria meningitidis. Trop Med Int Health. 2012;17:1478-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The future now holds a distinct possibility, globally, for substantially decreasing meningococcal disease, regardless of infecting serogroup. ..
  55. Arnold R, Galloway Y, McNicholas A, O Hallahan J. Effectiveness of a vaccination programme for an epidemic of meningococcal B in New Zealand. Vaccine. 2011;29:7100-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Between July 2004 and December 2008 an estimated 210 epidemic strain cases (95% CI 100-380), six deaths and 15-30 cases of severe sequelae were avoided in New Zealand due to the introduction of the MeNZB vaccine...
  56. Pinto V, Moran E, Cruz F, Wang X, Fridman A, Zollinger W, et al. An experimental outer membrane vesicle vaccine from N. meningitidis serogroup B strains that induces serum bactericidal activity to multiple serogroups. Vaccine. 2011;29:7752-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together these results suggest that this experimental vaccine may provide protection against both serogroup B and non-serogroup B N. meningitidis strains. ..
  57. Dbaibo G, Van der Wielen M, Reda M, Medlej F, Tabet C, Boutriau D, et al. The tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine is immunogenic with a clinically acceptable safety profile in subjects previously vaccinated with a tetravalent polysaccharide vaccine. Int J Infect Dis. 2012;16:e608-15 pubmed publisher
    ..MenACWY-TT had an acceptable safety profile in both groups. These results suggest that MenACWY-TT could be used in vaccination programs irrespective of the pre-vaccination status with polysaccharide vaccine. ..
  58. Caron F, Delbos V, Houivet E, Deghmane A, Leroy J, Hong E, et al. Evolution of immune response against Neisseria meningitidis B:14:P1.7,16 before and after the outer membrane vesicle vaccine MenBvac. Vaccine. 2012;30:5059-62 pubmed publisher
    ..1% 6 weeks after the completion of the schedule, but declined to 39.7% one year later. This level is lower than the targeted 60% level and suggests only short-term persistence of response against B:14:P1.7,16 using this schedule...
  59. Ishola D, Borrow R, Findlow H, Findlow J, Trotter C, Ramsay M. Prevalence of serum bactericidal antibody to serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis in England a decade after vaccine introduction. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:1126-30 pubmed publisher
  60. Frasch C, Preziosi M, LaForce F. Development of a group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac(TM). Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2012;8:715-24 pubmed publisher
    ..We summarize the laboratory and clinical studies leading to prequalification of MenAfriVac(TM). The 2011 epidemic season ended with no reported case of group A meningitis in vaccinated individuals. ..