haemophilus vaccines


Summary: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.

Top Publications

  1. Kim K, Lee H, Chung E, Kang J, Kim J, Kim J, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of two different Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines in Korean infants. J Korean Med Sci. 2008;23:929-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Hib conjugate vaccines appear to be safe and show good immunogenicity in Korean infants. These results will be important reference data for the implementation of Hib vaccine in the national immunization program of Korea. ..
  2. Bryant K, Marshall G, Marchant C, Pavia Ruiz N, Nolan T, Rinderknecht S, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of H influenzae type b-N meningitidis C/Y conjugate vaccine in infants. Pediatrics. 2011;127:e1375-85 pubmed publisher
    ..A phase III study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of an investigational Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (HibMenCY)...
  3. McCormick D, Molyneux E. Bacterial meningitis and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine, Malawi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:688-90 pubmed publisher
    ..influenzae type b meningitis in children in Blantyre, Malawi. Among young bacterial meningitis patients, HIV prevalence was high (36.7% during 1997-2009), and pneumococcus was the most common etiologic agent (57% in 2009). ..
  4. Verghese V, Friberg I, Cherian T, Raghupathy P, Balaji V, Lalitha M, et al. Community effect of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination in India. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28:738-40 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). By contrast, the mean of annual numbers of pneumococcal cases were 3.0 and 4.6, (P = 0.55). Even at relatively low coverage through private sector distribution, Hib vaccine has significant community impact on Hib disease. ..
  5. Griffiths U, Miners A. Economic evaluations of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine: systematic review of the literature. Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2009;9:333-46 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that there are only few studies available from resource-poor countries and some of these are of low quality. ..
  6. Watt J, Wolfson L, O Brien K, Henkle E, Deloria Knoll M, McCall N, et al. Burden of disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b in children younger than 5 years: global estimates. Lancet. 2009;374:903-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Hib disease can be almost completely eliminated through routine vaccination. We assessed the global burden of disease to help national policy makers and international donors set priorities...
  7. Espinoza F, Tregnaghi M, Gentile A, Abarca K, Casellas J, Collard A, et al. Primary and booster vaccination in Latin American children with a DTPw-HBV/Hib combination: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:297 pubmed publisher
    ..Results confirm the suitability of this new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine comprising antigens from a new source and a reduced PRP content for inclusion into routine childhood vaccination programs. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00332566. ..
  8. Marshall G, Marchant C, Blatter M, Aris E, Boutriau D, Poolman J, et al. Immune response and one-year antibody persistence after a fourth dose of a novel Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (HibMenCY) at 12 to 15 months of age. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:469-71 pubmed publisher
    ..One year later, anti-PRP concentrations > or =0.15 microg/mL, and MenC and MenY bactericidal titers > or =1:8 persisted in 100%, 96.6%, and 83.8%, respectively. The safety profile of HibMenCY was comparable to Hib. ..
  9. Esposito S, Tansey S, Thompson A, Razmpour A, Liang J, Jones T, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine compared to those of a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine given as a three-dose series with routine vaccines in healthy infants and toddlers. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:1017-26 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. O Loughlin R, Edmond K, Mangtani P, Cohen A, Shetty S, Hajjeh R, et al. Methodology and measurement of the effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine: systematic review. Vaccine. 2010;28:6128-36 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the effectiveness of Hib vaccine has been well documented so the need for future VE Hib studies is minimal. ..
  2. Gatchalian S, Ramakrishnan G, Bock H, Lefevre I, Jacquet J. Immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of three-dose primary and booster vaccination with combined diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis-hepatitis B-reduced antigen content Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in Filipino children. Hum Vaccin. 2010;6:664-72 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of primary and booster vaccination with DTPw-HBVLT/Hib2.5 vaccine containing low thiomersal and reduced quantities of Hib polysaccharide (PRP)...
  3. Kilpi T, Silfverdal S, Nilsson L, Syrjänen R, Belloni C, Desole M, et al. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of two diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated polio virus-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines administered at 3, 5 and 11-12 months of age. Hum Vaccin. 2009;5:18-25 pubmed
    ..5 degrees C) were mostly reported in less than 5% of the vaccinees. Three doses of DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib combination vaccines produced sufficient immune responses in nearly all vaccinees. ..
  4. Murphy T, Faden H, Bakaletz L, Kyd J, Forsgren A, Campos J, et al. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae as a pathogen in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28:43-8 pubmed publisher
    ..influenzae. Feasibility of vaccination for prevention of otitis media due to nontypeable H. influenzae was recently demonstrated in a clinical trial with a vaccine that included the surface virulence factor, protein D. ..
  5. Knuf M, Szenborn L, Moro M, Petit C, Bermal N, Bernard L, et al. Immunogenicity of routinely used childhood vaccines when coadministered with the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV). Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28:S97-S108 pubmed publisher
    ..No evidence of negative interference on the immune response to any of the coadministered vaccine antigens was observed when compared with the current routine practice of 7vCRM coadministration. ..
  6. Mangtani P, Mulholland K, Madhi S, Edmond K, O Loughlin R, Hajjeh R. Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in HIV-infected children: a review of the disease epidemiology and effectiveness of Hib conjugate vaccines. Vaccine. 2010;28:1677-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Until more definitive evidence is available, physicians may also need to consider a booster dose for such children irrespective of ART status. In any updating of vaccine schedules, HIV-infected children need particular consideration...
  7. Theodoratou E, Johnson S, Jhass A, Madhi S, Clark A, Boschi Pinto C, et al. The effect of Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on childhood pneumonia incidence, severe morbidity and mortality. Int J Epidemiol. 2010;39 Suppl 1:i172-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The LiST model will use this to estimate the pneumonia mortality reduction which might be observed when scaling up Hib and PC conjugate vaccination in the context of an overall package of child health interventions. ..
  8. Von Gottberg A, Cohen C, Whitelaw A, Chhagan M, Flannery B, Cohen A, et al. Invasive disease due to Haemophilus influenzae serotype b ten years after routine vaccination, South Africa, 2003-2009. Vaccine. 2012;30:565-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Following initial declines in Hib disease, national surveillance has identified increasing numbers of Hib disease episodes in fully vaccinated children...
  9. Garcia S, Lagos R, Munoz A, Picón T, Rosa R, Alfonso A, et al. Impact of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b with and without a booster dose on meningitis in four South American countries. Vaccine. 2012;30:486-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Surveillance data suggest that high coverage of Hib conjugate vaccine sustained low incidence of Hib meningitis and low prevalence of Hib carriage whether or not a booster dose was used. ..
  10. Zanella R, Bokermann S, Andrade A, Flannery B, Brandileone M. Changes in serotype distribution of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis isolates identified through laboratory-based surveillance following routine childhood vaccination against H. influenzae type b in Brazil. Vaccine. 2011;29:8937-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Changes in surveillance for H. influenzae following introduction of Hib conjugate vaccine likely contributed to increased numbers of non-b and nontypeable H. influenzae meningitis isolates received at the national reference laboratory. ..
  11. White K, Pabst L, Cullen K. Up-to-date Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination coverage during a vaccine shortage. Pediatrics. 2011;127:e707-12 pubmed publisher
  12. Michel L, Kalmeta B, McCreary M, Snyder J, Craig P, Pichichero M. Vaccine candidate P6 of nontypable Haemophilus influenzae is not a transmembrane protein based on protein structural analysis. Vaccine. 2011;29:1624-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that P6 cannot be a transmembrane protein, and therefore may not be surface exposed. We conclude that there may be another protein on the surface of NTHi that has epitopes similar if not identical to P6. ..
  13. Fitzwater S, Watt J, Levine O, Santosham M. Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines: considerations for vaccination schedules and implications for developing countries. Hum Vaccin. 2010;6:810-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we present a synthesis of data supporting various Hib vaccine schedules, with a focus on the implications for developing countries. ..
  14. Hajjeh R, Privor Dumm L, Edmond K, O Loughlin R, Shetty S, Griffiths U, et al. Supporting new vaccine introduction decisions: lessons learned from the Hib Initiative experience. Vaccine. 2010;28:7123-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper reviews the strategy adopted by the Hib Initiative and the lessons learned in the process, which provide a useful model to accelerate uptake of other new vaccines. ..
  15. Chang A, Adlowitz D, Yellamatty E, Pichichero M. Haemophilus influenzae outer membrane protein P6 molecular characterization may not differentiate all strains of H. Influenzae from H. haemolyticus. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:3756-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Further testing using RapID NH and multilocus sequence analysis may not help identify some isolates. Translated OMP P6 gene sequences are not conserved among all isolates presumed to be H. influenzae...
  16. Marchant C, Miller J, Marshall G, Blatter M, Aris E, Friedland L, et al. Randomized trial to assess immunogenicity and safety of Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:48-52 pubmed publisher
    ..meningitidis serogroups C and Y. ..
  17. Nolan T, Richmond P, Marshall H, McVernon J, Alexander K, Mesaros N, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of an investigational combined haemophilus influenzae type B-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:190-6 pubmed publisher
    ..HibMenCY-TT induced noninferior Hib and MenC responses compared with monovalent Hib and MenC conjugates with a comparable safety profile. Bactericidal antibodies against MenC/Y were induced after 2 doses of HibMenCY-TT. ..
  18. Agnandji S, Asante K, Lyimo J, Vekemans J, Soulanoudjingar S, Owusu R, et al. Evaluation of the safety and immunogenicity of the RTS,S/AS01E malaria candidate vaccine when integrated in the expanded program of immunization. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:1076-87 pubmed publisher
    ..RTS,S/AS01(E) integrated in the EPI showed a favorable safety and immunogenicity evaluation. Trial registration. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00436007 . GlaxoSmithKline study ID number: 106369 (Malaria-050). ..
  19. Habermehl P, Leroux Roels G, Sänger R, Mächler G, Boutriau D. Combined Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (HibMenC) or serogroup C and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate (and HibMenCY) vaccines are well-tolerated and immunogenic when administered according to the 2,3,4 months schedule . Hum Vaccin. 2010;6:640-51 pubmed
    ..study 792014 and 100381;www.clinicaltrial.govID:NCT00129116)..
  20. Ojo L, O Loughlin R, Cohen A, Loo J, Edmond K, Shetty S, et al. Global use of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine. Vaccine. 2010;28:7117-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional efforts are still needed to increase vaccine adoption in lower middle income countries [20/31 (65%) by the end of 2009]. ..
  21. Gupta M, Kumar R, Deb A, Bhattacharya S, Bose A, John J, et al. Multi-center surveillance for pneumonia & meningitis among children (<2 yr) for Hib vaccine probe trial preparation in India. Indian J Med Res. 2010;131:649-58 pubmed
    ..There is a significant burden of pneumonia and meningitis among children in India. Continued strengthening of laboratory capacity and bacterial surveillance systems are necessary. ..
  22. Zinke M, Kappes R, Kindler K, Paulus Koschik A, Goering U, Disselhoff J, et al. Immune memory to hepatitis B virus in 4-9-year old children vaccinated in infancy with four doses of hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine. Hum Vaccin. 2009;5:592-8 pubmed
    ..The HBV vaccine challenge dose was well tolerated. These studies show that primary and booster vaccination with combined DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib (Infanrix hexa) induces sustained immune memory against hepatitis B up to age 9 years. ..
  23. Asante K, Abdulla S, Agnandji S, Lyimo J, Vekemans J, Soulanoudjingar S, et al. Safety and efficacy of the RTS,S/AS01E candidate malaria vaccine given with expanded-programme-on-immunisation vaccines: 19 month follow-up of a randomised, open-label, phase 2 trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011;11:741-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The 0, 1, 2 month vaccine schedule has been selected for phase 3 candidate vaccine assessment. Program for Appropriate Technology in Health Malaria Vaccine Initiative; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals. ..
  24. Minz S, Balraj V, Lalitha M, Murali N, Cherian T, Manoharan G, et al. Incidence of Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis in India. Indian J Med Res. 2008;128:57-64 pubmed
    ..There are limited data from prospective population incidence studies of Hib in Asia, and no data available from India. We therefore carried out this study to assess the burden of Hib meningitis in India...
  25. Kitchin N, Southern J, Morris R, Hemme F, Thomas S, Watson M, et al. Evaluation of a diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine given concurrently with meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine at 2, 3 and 4 months of age. Arch Dis Child. 2007;92:11-6 pubmed
    ..Coadministration of MCC vaccine can influence the Hib response, and the MCC response to a tetanus conjugate can be influenced by the nature of the coadministered DTP-Hib vaccine. ..
  26. Di Fabio J, de Quadros C. Considerations for combination vaccine development and use in the developing world. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33 Suppl 4:S340-5 pubmed
    ..to deliver them? Can vaccines become affordable for countries with low incomes? And what is really needed to achieve the goal of providing developing countries with new vaccines of epidemiologic significance in a timely fashion? ..
  27. Kyaw M, Christie P, Jones I, Campbell H. The changing epidemiology of bacterial meningitis and invasive non-meningitic bacterial disease in scotland during the period 1983-99. Scand J Infect Dis. 2002;34:289-98 pubmed
  28. Aristegui J, Usonis V, Coovadia H, Riedemann S, Win K, Gatchalian S, et al. Facilitating the WHO expanded program of immunization: the clinical profile of a combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine. Int J Infect Dis. 2003;7:143-51 pubmed
    ..This should facilitate widespread coverage of hepatitis B and Hib vaccinations and their rapid incorporation into the EPI. ..
  29. Zhou F, Bisgard K, Yusuf H, Deuson R, Bath S, Murphy T. Impact of universal Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination starting at 2 months of age in the United States: an economic analysis. Pediatrics. 2002;110:653-61 pubmed
    ..The national Hib vaccination program is highly cost beneficial and results in substantial cost savings. ..
  30. Campos J, Hernando M, Román F, Perez Vazquez M, Aracil B, Oteo J, et al. Analysis of invasive Haemophilus influenzae infections after extensive vaccination against H. influenzae type b. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:524-9 pubmed
    ..In the post-Hib vaccination era, most invasive infections were due to noncapsulated strains and occurred in the extreme ages of life in patients with predisposing conditions. ..
  31. Watt J, Levine O, Santosham M. Global reduction of Hib disease: what are the next steps? Proceedings of the meeting Scottsdale, Arizona, September 22-25, 2002. J Pediatr. 2003;143:S163-87 pubmed
    ..In areas where Hib disease burden is not well characterized, additional work will be needed to understand the epidemiology of Hib disease and to communicate the value of Hib conjugate vaccine. ..
  32. Husain E, Chawla R, Dobson S, Dele Davies H. Epidemiology and outcome of bacterial meningitis in Canadian children: 1998-1999. Clin Invest Med. 2006;29:131-5 pubmed
    ..We describe the epidemiology and outcome of bacterial meningitis in Canadian children six years after the introduction of Hib conjugate vaccine and prior to the introduction of the conjugate Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccine...
  33. McVernon J, Ramsay M, Mclean A. Understanding the impact of Hib conjugate vaccine on transmission, immunity and disease in the United Kingdom. Epidemiol Infect. 2008;136:800-12 pubmed
    ..The contribution of herd immunity to disease control was reinforced. Possible intervention strategies will be explored in subsequent work. ..
  34. Olivier C, Belohradsky B, Stojanov S, Bonnet E, Petersen G, Liese J. Immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of a seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) concurrently administered with a fully liquid DTPa-IPV-HBV-Hib combination vaccine in healthy infants. Vaccine. 2008;26:3142-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, PCV7 did not show any relevant influence on the immunogenicity and safety of the concurrently administered DTPa-IPV-HBV-Hib vaccine. ..
  35. Granoff D. Assessing efficacy of Haemophilus influenzae type b combination vaccines. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33 Suppl 4:S278-87 pubmed
    ..These alternative serologic approaches offer a strong scientific and regulatory rationale for licensure of effective DTaP-based Hib combination vaccines. ..
  36. Rudan I, Boschi Pinto C, Biloglav Z, Mulholland K, Campbell H. Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86:408-16 pubmed
    ..Although based on limited available evidence, recent studies have identified Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and respiratory syncytial virus as the main pathogens associated with childhood pneumonia. ..
  37. Hla K, Thein S, Aye A, Han H, Bock H, David M, et al. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity profiles of a novel pentavalent diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine: a randomized dose-ranging trial of the Hib tetanus-conjugate content. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;25:706-12 pubmed
    ..5 microg of polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) conjugated to tetanus toxoid (trials Hib-052/064)...
  38. Baqui A, El Arifeen S, Saha S, Persson L, Zaman K, Gessner B, et al. Effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type B conjugate vaccine on prevention of pneumonia and meningitis in Bangladeshi children: a case-control study. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26:565-71 pubmed
    ..The study documented that significant fractions of pneumonia and meningitis in Bangladeshi children age <2 years can be prevented by the Hib conjugate vaccine. ..
  39. Rossi I, Zuber P, Dumolard L, Walker D, Watt J. Introduction of Hib vaccine into national immunization programmes: a descriptive analysis of global trends. Vaccine. 2007;25:7075-80 pubmed
  40. McConnell A, Tan B, Scheifele D, Halperin S, Vaudry W, Law B, et al. Invasive infections caused by haemophilus influenzae serotypes in twelve Canadian IMPACT centers, 1996-2001. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26:1025-31 pubmed
    ..In 1996-2001, two-thirds of H. influenzae invasive disease in the 12 IMPACT centers was caused by non-b serotypes, which were associated with significant morbidity and mortality. ..
  41. Cowgill K, Ndiritu M, Nyiro J, Slack M, Chiphatsi S, Ismail A, et al. Effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b Conjugate vaccine introduction into routine childhood immunization in Kenya. JAMA. 2006;296:671-8 pubmed
    ..This impact was not observed until the third year after vaccine introduction. ..
  42. Johnson N, Ruggeberg J, Balfour G, Lee Y, Liddy H, Irving D, et al. Haemophilus influenzae type b reemergence after combination immunization. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:937-41 pubmed
    ..001, respectively). Hib was found in 2.1% (95% CI 0.7%-6.0%) of study participants. Our data support an association between DTaP-Hib vaccine combinations and clinical Hib disease through an effect on antibody concentration and avidity. ..
  43. Kalies H, Verstraeten T, Grote V, Meyer N, Siedler A, Schmitt H, et al. Four and one-half-year follow-up of the effectiveness of diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussis/Haemophilus influenzae type b and diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus/H. influenzae type b combination vaccines . Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23:944-50 pubmed
    ..A study in Germany based on approximately 2 years of follow-up, estimated vaccine effectiveness (VE) of DTaP/Hib and DTaP-inactivated poliovirus/Hib combination vaccines against invasive Hib disease to be high...
  44. Ortega Barria E, Kanra G, Leroux G, Bravo L, Safary A, Lefevre I. The immunogenicity and reactogenicity of DTPw-HBV/Hib 2.5 combination vaccine: results from four phase III multicenter trials across three continents. Vaccine. 2007;25:8432-40 pubmed
    ..5 was also similar to that of the reference vaccine regimen. These results confirm the previously established immunogenicity and safety of reduced dose PRP conjugated vaccine regimens. ..
  45. Southern J, Crowley Luke A, Borrow R, Andrews N, Miller E. Immunogenicity of one, two or three doses of a meningococcal C conjugate vaccine conjugated to tetanus toxoid, given as a three-dose primary vaccination course in UK infants at 2, 3 and 4 months of age with acellular pertussis-containing DTP/Hib vacc. Vaccine. 2006;24:215-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that a reduced number of doses of MCC-TT would be adequate in infancy if given concomitantly with an acellular pertussis-containing vaccine. ..
  46. Trotter C, McVernon J, Andrews N, Burrage M, Ramsay M. Antibody to Haemophilus influenzae type b after routine and catch-up vaccination. Lancet. 2003;361:1523-4 pubmed
    ..A second catch-up campaign in children aged 6 months to 4 years should be highly effective in boosting immunity and reducing disease in the short term. ..
  47. Heath P, Booy R, McVernon J, Bowen Morris J, Griffiths H, Slack M, et al. Hib vaccination in infants born prematurely. Arch Dis Child. 2003;88:206-10 pubmed
    ..Overall, vaccination with Hib conjugate vaccines affords a high level of protection to premature babies. ..
  48. Tregnaghi M, Lopez P, Rocha C, Rivera L, David M, Ruttimann R, et al. A new DTPw-HB/Hib combination vaccine for primary and booster vaccination of infants in Latin America. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2006;19:179-88 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that the new DTPw-HB/Hib pentavalent combination vaccine provides an efficient and reliable way of implementing WHO recommendations for controlling hepatitis B and Hib infections on a worldwide basis. ..
  49. Kalies H, Grote V, Verstraeten T, Hessel L, Schmitt H, Von Kries R. The use of combination vaccines has improved timeliness of vaccination in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;25:507-12 pubmed
    ..Combination vaccines are usually advocated for reducing the number of injections. In Germany, however, the use of combination vaccines has also significantly improved timeliness of immunizations. ..
  50. Santos J, Martin A, De Leon T, Rivera L, Gaitán M, del Rio C, et al. DTPw-HB and Hib primary and booster vaccination: combined versus separate administration to Latin American children. Vaccine. 2002;20:1887-93 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the combination of DTPw-HB and Hib vaccines provides an effective means for increasing vaccine coverage in childhood vaccination programmes. ..
  51. Zepp F, Schuind A, Meyer C, Sänger R, Kaufhold A, Willems P. Safety and reactogenicity of a novel DTPa-HBV-IPV combined vaccine given along with commercial Hib vaccines in comparison with separate concomitant administration of DTPa, Hib, and OPV vaccines in infants. Pediatrics. 2002;109:e58 pubmed
    ..The combination DTPa-HBV-IPV vaccine administered concomitantly with Hib vaccine at separate sites was at least as safe as coadministration of individual DTPa, Hib, and OPV vaccines in terms of the defined endpoints for safety. ..
  52. Madhi S, Petersen K, Khoosal M, Huebner R, Mbelle N, Mothupi R, et al. Reduced effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in children with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002;21:315-21 pubmed
  53. Slack M, Schapira D, Thwaites R, Burrage M, Southern J, Andrews N, et al. Immune response of premature infants to meningococcal serogroup C and combined diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussis-Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines. J Infect Dis. 2001;184:1617-20 pubmed
    ..Hib IgG was associated with age at third immunization (P<.001). When combined with the DTaP vaccine used in this study, the Hib GMC of premature infants was extremely low. The SBA GMT to MCC was similar to that of term infants. ..
  54. Romero Steiner S, Spear W, Brown N, Holder P, Hennessy T, Gomez De Leon P, et al. Measurement of serum bactericidal activity specific for Haemophilus influenzae type b by using a chromogenic and fluorescent metabolic indicator. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2004;11:89-93 pubmed
    ..These semiautomated methodologies result in increased sample throughput and collection of data in digital formats that can be exported to data analysis programs for determination of SBA titers...
  55. Spanjaard L, van den Hof S, de Melker H, Vermeer de Bondt P, van der Ende A, Rijkers G. [Increase in the number of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b infections]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2005;149:2738-42 pubmed
    ..Subsequently, immunity decreases and susceptibility to invasive infection increases. Careful surveillance of invasive Hib infections in The Netherlands remains important. ..
  56. Cerquetti M, Cardines R, Ciofi degli Atti M, Giufre M, Bella A, Sofia T, et al. Presence of multiple copies of the capsulation b locus in invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) strains isolated from children with Hib conjugate vaccine failure. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:819-23 pubmed
    ..10%; P = .0379), which suggests that amplification of the capb locus may be a contributory factor in vaccine failure. The presence of multiple-copy strains was associated with disease other than meningitis...
  57. Southern J, McVernon J, Gelb D, Andrews N, Morris R, Crowley Luke A, et al. Immunogenicity of a fourth dose of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine and antibody persistence in young children from the United Kingdom who were primed with acellular or whole-cell pertussis component-containing Hib combinations i. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2007;14:1328-33 pubmed
    ..15 microg/ml in about 90% of individuals. A booster dose of Hib vaccine given after the first year of life should provide long-lasting protection. ..
  58. Platonov A, Griffiths U, Voeykova M, Platonova O, Shakhanina I, Chistyakova G, et al. Economic evaluation of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination in Moscow, Russian Federation. Vaccine. 2006;24:2367-76 pubmed
    ..Given these factors, Hib vaccine at US dollar 5 per dose would not be a cost-effective option in Moscow at the present time. ..
  59. Gatchalian S, Reyes M, Bernal N, Lefevre I, David M, Han H, et al. A new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine is immunogenic and safe when administered according to the EPI (Expanded Programme for Immunization) schedule and following hepatitis B vaccination at birth. Hum Vaccin. 2005;1:198-203 pubmed
    ..A birth dose of HBV is important to maximize protection against hepatitis B in endemic regions where the EPI schedule is in place. ..
  60. Lewis R, Kisakye A, Gessner B, Duku C, Odipio J, Iriso R, et al. Action for child survival: elimination of Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis in Uganda. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86:292-301 pubmed
    ..To guide immunization policy, we determined the public health benefit of introducing Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in Uganda and estimated the vaccine effectiveness...
  61. Blanchard Rohner G, Pollard A. Sustaining immunity after immunization against encapsulated bacteria. Hum Vaccin. 2008;4:309-12 pubmed
    ..Understanding the generation of long-term immunity, by protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines, is essential to reduce infant mortality through the improvement of vaccine formulation and scheduling...
  62. Dagan R, Poolman J, Zepp F. Combination vaccines containing DTPa-Hib: impact of IPV and coadministration of CRM197 conjugates. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2008;7:97-115 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations underline the need to carefully evaluate upcoming pediatric conjugate vaccines for possible interference effects on the coadministered antigens, with particular attention to hepatitis B and Hib-tetanus toxoid. ..
  63. Akumu A, English M, Scott J, Griffiths U. Economic evaluation of delivering Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in routine immunization services in Kenya. Bull World Health Organ. 2007;85:511-8 pubmed
    ..82 per dose. Hib vaccine is a highly cost-effective intervention in Kenya. It would be cost-saving if the vaccine price was below half of its present level. ..
  64. Huebner R, Nicol M, Mothupi R, Kayhty H, Mbelle N, Khomo E, et al. Dose response of CRM197 and tetanus toxoid-conjugated Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines. Vaccine. 2004;23:802-6 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that doses of these vaccines of > or =1.25 microg may be sufficient to stimulate an immune response that offers both short and longer term protection from invasive Hib disease. ..
  65. Schouls L, van der Ende A, Van de Pol I, Schot C, Spanjaard L, Vauterin P, et al. Increase in genetic diversity of Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) strains after introduction of Hib vaccination in The Netherlands. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:2741-9 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that after the introduction of the Hib vaccine young children no longer constitute the reservoir for Hib and that they are infected by adults carrying genetically diverse Hib strains...
  66. Heath P, Ramsay M. Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine--booster campaign. BMJ. 2003;326:1158-9 pubmed
  67. McVernon J, Andrews N, Slack M, Ramsay M. Risk of vaccine failure after Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) combination vaccines with acellular pertussis. Lancet. 2003;361:1521-3 pubmed
    ..More cases than controls received all three doses of their infant primary course as DTaP-Hib, compared with two or three doses of another Hib vaccine (conditional odds ratio 6.77 [95% CI 3.26-14.07])...
  68. Ribeiro G, Reis J, Cordeiro S, Lima J, Gouveia E, Petersen M, et al. Prevention of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis and emergence of serotype replacement with type a strains after introduction of Hib immunization in Brazil. J Infect Dis. 2003;187:109-16 pubmed
    ..However, these findings highlight the need to maintain surveillance as the use of conjugate vaccines expands worldwide...
  69. Heininger U, Sanger R, Jacquet J, Schuerman L. Booster immunization with a hexavalent diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, inactivated poliovirus vaccine and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate combination vaccine in the second year of life: safety, immunogenicity and persis. Vaccine. 2007;25:1055-63 pubmed
  70. Lim F, Han H, Jacquet J, Bock H. Primary vaccination of infants against hepatitis B can be completed using a combined hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliomyelitis-Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2007;36:801-6 pubmed
    ..We investigated whether a combined hexavalent vaccine, DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib, could replace the separate administration of DTPa-IPV/Hib and HBV for the final vaccination at 5 months of age (Trial DTPa-HBV-IPV-075)...