escherichia coli vaccines


Summary: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat both enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections.

Top Publications

  1. Nagy B, Fekete P. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in veterinary medicine. Int J Med Microbiol. 2005;295:443-54 pubmed
    ..Attention is paid to recently described new virulence factors and to new genetic vectors in ETEC bacteria. Applications of our knowledge in the diagnosis and prevention of ETEC diarrhoea in animals will also be discussed. ..
  2. Bozic F, Lackovic G, Kovsca Janjatovic A, Smolec O, Valpotic I. Levamisole synergizes experimental F4ac+ Escherichia coli oral vaccine in stimulating ileal Peyer's patch T cells in weaned pigs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2006;29:199-204 pubmed
  3. Svennerholm A, Tobias J. Vaccines against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2008;7:795-804 pubmed publisher
    ..Against this background, intense efforts are in progress to try to improve the immunogenicity of different available candidate vaccines, as well as to develop new types of ETEC vaccines. ..
  4. Agin T, Zhu C, Johnson L, Thate T, Yang Z, Boedeker E. Protection against hemorrhagic colitis in an animal model by oral immunization with isogeneic rabbit enteropathogenic Escherichia coli attenuated by truncating intimin. Infect Immun. 2005;73:6608-19 pubmed
    ..coli strains shows promise for the development of effective vaccines to prevent EHEC infection in humans and animals. ..
  5. Roy K, Hamilton D, Ostmann M, Fleckenstein J. Vaccination with EtpA glycoprotein or flagellin protects against colonization with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in a murine model. Vaccine. 2009;27:4601-8 pubmed publisher
    ..EtpA and/or flagellin could be valuable subunit antigens in the formulation of a broadly protective ETEC vaccine. ..
  6. Roberts J, Kaack M, Baskin G, Chapman M, Hunstad D, Pinkner J, et al. Antibody responses and protection from pyelonephritis following vaccination with purified Escherichia coli PapDG protein. J Urol. 2004;171:1682-5 pubmed
    ..coli expressing P fimbriae. Purified PapDG is a tractable vaccine candidate that in our small study demonstrated the ability to elicit adequate serum antibody levels to prevent E. coli mediated pyelonephritis. ..
  7. McNeilly T, Mitchell M, Rosser T, McAteer S, Low J, Smith D, et al. Immunization of cattle with a combination of purified intimin-531, EspA and Tir significantly reduces shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 following oral challenge. Vaccine. 2010;28:1422-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Protection correlates with systemic and mucosal antibody responses to the defined antigens and validates the targeting of these colonization factors. ..
  8. Bozic F, Bilic V, Valpotic I. Levamisole mucosal adjuvant activity for a live attenuated Escherichia coli oral vaccine in weaned pigs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2003;26:225-31 pubmed
    ..control pigs, implying that levamisole exerts its potentiating activity in the MLN by augmenting both recruitment and activation of cells that participate in cell-mediated immunity. ..
  9. Moriel D, Bertoldi I, Spagnuolo A, Marchi S, Rosini R, Nesta B, et al. Identification of protective and broadly conserved vaccine antigens from the genome of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:9072-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The gene encoding the most protective antigen was detected in most of the E. coli isolates, highly conserved in sequence and found to be exported by a type II secretion system which seems to be nonfunctional in nonpathogenic strains. ..

More Information


  1. Funatogawa K, Ide T, Kirikae F, Saruta K, Nakano M, Kirikae T. Use of immunoglobulin enriched bovine colostrum against oral challenge with enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in mice. Microbiol Immunol. 2002;46:761-6 pubmed
  2. Zhang C, Zhang W. Escherichia coli K88ac fimbriae expressing heat-labile and heat-stable (STa) toxin epitopes elicit antibodies that neutralize cholera toxin and STa toxin and inhibit adherence of K88ac fimbrial E. coli. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:1859-67 pubmed publisher
    ..coli fimbriae could serve as a platform for the development of broad-spectrum vaccines against ETEC. ..
  3. Vilte D, Larzábal M, Garbaccio S, Gammella M, Rabinovitz B, Elizondo A, et al. Reduced faecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cattle following systemic vaccination with ?-intimin C??? and EspB proteins. Vaccine. 2011;29:3962-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These promising results suggest that systemic immunization of cattle with intimin and EspB could be a feasible strategy to reduce EHEC O157:H7 faecal shedding in cattle. ..
  4. Roy K, Kansal R, Bartels S, Hamilton D, Shaaban S, Fleckenstein J. Adhesin degradation accelerates delivery of heat-labile toxin by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:29771-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Antibodies raised against the passenger domain of EatA impair ETEC delivery of labile toxin to epithelial cells suggesting that EatA may be an effective target for vaccine development. ..
  5. Dean Nystrom E, Gansheroff L, Mills M, Moon H, O Brien A. Vaccination of pregnant dams with intimin(O157) protects suckling piglets from Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection. Infect Immun. 2002;70:2414-8 pubmed
    ..These results establish intimin(O157) as a viable candidate for an EHEC O157:H7 antitransmission vaccine. ..
  6. Jertborn M, Ahren C, Svennerholm A. Dose-dependent circulating immunoglobulin A antibody-secreting cell and serum antibody responses in Swedish volunteers to an oral inactivated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccine. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2001;8:424-8 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that measurements of circulating IgA ASCs can be used not only for qualitative but also for quantitative assessments of the immunogenicity of individual fimbrial antigens in various preparations of ETEC vaccine. ..
  7. Svennerholm A, Lundgren A. Recent progress toward an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccine. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2012;11:495-507 pubmed publisher
    ..They also discuss possibilities of enhancing immune responses to candidate ETEC vaccines, particularly in children. ..
  8. Walker R, Steele D, Aguado T. Analysis of strategies to successfully vaccinate infants in developing countries against enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) disease. Vaccine. 2007;25:2545-66 pubmed
    ..However, a Product Development Partnership to overcome this hurdle could accelerate the time lines towards when control of ETEC disease in DCs is substantially closer. ..
  9. van Diemen P, Dziva F, Abu Median A, Wallis T, van den Bosch H, Dougan G, et al. Subunit vaccines based on intimin and Efa-1 polypeptides induce humoral immunity in cattle but do not protect against intestinal colonisation by enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 or O26:H-. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2007;116:47-58 pubmed
    ..These studies highlight the need for further studies to develop and test novel vaccines or treatments for control of this important foodborne pathogen. ..
  10. Durant L, Metais A, Soulama Mouze C, Genevard J, Nassif X, Escaich S. Identification of candidates for a subunit vaccine against extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect Immun. 2007;75:1916-25 pubmed
    ..The five protective antigens could constitute the basis for a preventive subunit vaccine against diseases caused by ExPEC strains. ..
  11. Moxley R, Smith D, Luebbe M, Erickson G, Klopfenstein T, Rogan D. Escherichia coli O157:H7 vaccine dose-effect in feedlot cattle. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2009;6:879-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are consistent with previous estimates of vaccine efficacy against fecal shedding, and agree with our previous finding that efficacy of two or three doses of this vaccine product exhibit a dose-response. ..
  12. Russo T, Beanan J, Olson R, Genagon S, Macdonald U, Cope J, et al. A killed, genetically engineered derivative of a wild-type extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli strain is a vaccine candidate. Vaccine. 2007;25:3859-70 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these studies support the concept that formalin-killed genetically engineered ExPEC derivatives are whole cell vaccine candidates to prevent infections due to ExPEC. ..
  13. Sack D, Shimko J, Torres O, Bourgeois A, Francia D, Gustafsson B, et al. Randomised, double-blind, safety and efficacy of a killed oral vaccine for enterotoxigenic E. Coli diarrhoea of travellers to Guatemala and Mexico. Vaccine. 2007;25:4392-400 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the new oral ETEC vaccine reduces the rate of more severe episodes of traveller's diarrhoea (TD) due to VPO-ETEC, but it did not reduce the overall rate of ETEC diarrhoea or of travellers' diarrhoea due to other causes. ..
  14. Daley A, Randall R, Darsley M, Choudhry N, Thomas N, Sanderson I, et al. Genetically modified enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccines induce mucosal immune responses without inflammation. Gut. 2007;56:1550-6 pubmed
    ..Genetically modified ETEC vaccines are safe and induce significant mucosal IgA responses to important colonisation factors. Mucosal IgA responses were clearly seen in WGLF, which is useful for evaluating oral vaccines. ..
  15. Roy K, Hamilton D, Allen K, Randolph M, Fleckenstein J. The EtpA exoprotein of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli promotes intestinal colonization and is a protective antigen in an experimental model of murine infection. Infect Immun. 2008;76:2106-12 pubmed publisher
    ..EtpA and other TPS proteins may be viable targets for ETEC vaccine development. ..
  16. Smith D, Moxley R, Peterson R, Klopfenstein T, Erickson G, Bretschneider G, et al. A two-dose regimen of a vaccine against type III secreted proteins reduced Escherichia coli O157:H7 colonization of the terminal rectum in beef cattle in commercial feedlots. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2009;6:155-61 pubmed publisher
    ..04), and pens with fewer cattle (OR = 0.22, p = 0.05). We concluded that the two-dose vaccine regimen effectively reduced the probability for E. coli O157:H7 colonization of the terminal rectum of commercially fed cattle at harvest. ..
  17. Savarino S, Hall E, Bassily S, Brown F, Youssef F, Wierzba T, et al. Oral, inactivated, whole cell enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli plus cholera toxin B subunit vaccine: results of the initial evaluation in children. PRIDE Study Group. J Infect Dis. 1999;179:107-14 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the oral ETEC vaccine was safe and immunogenic in 2- to 12-year-old children, justifying further evaluation in infants. ..
  18. Taxt A, Aasland R, Sommerfelt H, Nataro J, Puntervoll P. Heat-stable enterotoxin of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli as a vaccine target. Infect Immun. 2010;78:1824-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review the molecular and biological properties of ST and discuss strategies for developing an ETEC vaccine that incorporates immunogenic and nontoxic derivatives of the ST toxin. ..
  19. Tobias J, Holmgren J, Hellman M, Nygren E, Lebens M, Svennerholm A. Over-expression of major colonization factors of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, alone or together, on non-toxigenic E. coli bacteria. Vaccine. 2010;28:6977-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the described type of recombinant bacteria over-expressing major CFs of ETEC, alone or in combination, may be useful as candidate strains for use in an oral whole-cell CF-ETEC vaccine...
  20. Harro C, Chakraborty S, Feller A, Denearing B, Cage A, Ram M, et al. Refinement of a human challenge model for evaluation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccines. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011;18:1719-27 pubmed publisher
    ..After the second challenge, participants exhibited blunted anti-LPS and -LTB responses but a booster response to CFA/I. This ETEC model should prove useful in the future evaluation of ETEC vaccine candidates. ..
  21. Zhang W, Sack D. Progress and hurdles in the development of vaccines against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in humans. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2012;11:677-94 pubmed publisher
    ..A key problem is the development of a vaccine that is both practical and inexpensive so that it can be affordable for use in poor countries where it is needed. ..
  22. Qadri F, Ahmed T, Ahmed F, Begum Y, Sack D, Svennerholm A. Reduced doses of oral killed enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli plus cholera toxin B subunit vaccine is safe and immunogenic in Bangladeshi infants 6-17 months of age: dosing studies in different age groups. Vaccine. 2006;24:1726-33 pubmed
    ..05-0.001). This study thus demonstrates that reduced doses of the ETEC vaccine is immunogenic in children and infants as well as safe in infants down to 6 months of age. ..
  23. Paton J, Rogers T, Morona R, Paton A. Oral administration of formaldehyde-killed recombinant bacteria expressing a mimic of the Shiga toxin receptor protects mice from fatal challenge with Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli. Infect Immun. 2001;69:1389-93 pubmed
    ..Thus, administration of this agent early in the course of human STEC disease may prevent progression to life-threatening complications. ..
  24. Turner A, Beavis J, Stephens J, Greenwood J, Gewert C, Thomas N, et al. Construction and phase I clinical evaluation of the safety and immunogenicity of a candidate enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccine strain expressing colonization factor antigen CFA/I. Infect Immun. 2006;74:1062-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This live attenuated bacterial vaccine is safe and immunogenic in healthy adult volunteers...
  25. Wenneras C, Qadri F, Bardhan P, Sack R, Svennerholm A. Intestinal immune responses in patients infected with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and in vaccinees. Infect Immun. 1999;67:6234-41 pubmed
    ..Still, a correlation between numbers of CF-specific B cells in blood sampled from patients early during infection and numbers of duodenal B cells collected 1 week later was apparent (r = 0.70; n = 10; P = 0.03). ..
  26. Horne C, Vallance B, Deng W, Finlay B. Current progress in enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli vaccines. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2002;1:483-93 pubmed
    ..Several lines of investigation indicate the feasibility of such strategies and justify further development of a vaccine targeting these significant intestinal pathogens. ..
  27. Boedeker E. Vaccines for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: current status. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2005;21:15-9 pubmed
  28. Zhu C, Feng S, Thate T, Kaper J, Boedeker E. Towards a vaccine for attaching/effacing Escherichia coli: a LEE encoded regulator (ler) mutant of rabbit enteropathogenic Escherichia coli is attenuated, immunogenic, and protects rabbits from lethal challenge with the wild-type virulent strain. Vaccine. 2006;24:3845-55 pubmed
    ..It remains to be determined whether such regulatory mutants can protect against infection with A/E bacteria of differing serotypes affecting different hosts. ..
  29. Judge N, Mason H, O Brien A. Plant cell-based intimin vaccine given orally to mice primed with intimin reduces time of Escherichia coli O157:H7 shedding in feces. Infect Immun. 2004;72:168-75 pubmed
    ..Here we show that these mice generated an intimin-specific mucosal immune response when primed parenterally and then boosted orally and also exhibited a reduced duration of E. coli O157:H7 fecal shedding after challenge. ..
  30. Radford K, Higgins D, Pasquini S, Cheadle E, Carta L, Jackson A, et al. A recombinant E. coli vaccine to promote MHC class I-dependent antigen presentation: application to cancer immunotherapy. Gene Ther. 2002;9:1455-63 pubmed
    ..coli LLO/OVA provided an even stronger anti-tumour response against B16-OVA. Altogether, our data highlight the potential of this system as a novel and efficient strategy for tumour immunotherapy. ..
  31. Vandemaele F, Ververken C, Bleyen N, Geys J, D Hulst C, Addwebi T, et al. Immunization with the binding domain of FimH, the adhesin of type 1 fimbriae, does not protect chickens against avian pathogenic Escherichia coli. Avian Pathol. 2005;34:264-72 pubmed
    ..No protective effects of the FimH156 could be detected, confirming the results of the first experiment. Thus, although the FimH156 induced a strong immune response, it was unable to protect chickens against APEC. ..
  32. Chaiyotwittayakun A, Burton J, Weber P, Kizilkaya K, Cardoso F, Erskine R. Hyperimmunization of steers with J5 Escherichia coli bacterin: effects on isotype-specific serum antibody responses and cross reactivity with heterogeneous gram-negative bacteria. J Dairy Sci. 2004;87:3375-85 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that multiple booster doses of J5 E. coli bacterin may be required to elicit high levels of cross-reactive serum IgG(2) antibodies. ..
  33. Thornton A, Thomson D, Loneragan G, Fox J, Burkhardt D, Emery D, et al. Effects of a siderophore receptor and porin proteins-based vaccination on fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in experimentally inoculated cattle. J Food Prot. 2009;72:866-9 pubmed
    ..coli 0157:H7 and may be a useful prehavest intervention strategy. Future research must be conducted on natural prevalence in feedlot operations to further evaluate the efficacy of this novel vaccine. ..
  34. McLaren C, Lissemore K, Duffield T, Leslie K, Kelton D, Grexton B. The association of herd milk production and management with a return-over-feed index in Ontario dairy herds. J Dairy Sci. 2005;88:419-25 pubmed
    ..59/d per cow higher ROF. Production-related variables accounted for more variation in the ROF index than management variables, and the latter, e.g., use of monensin, only marginally increased R2 of production-based regression models. ..
  35. Peighambari S, Hunter D, Shewen P, Gyles C. Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of two Escherichia coli cya crp mutants as vaccines for broilers. Avian Dis. 2002;46:287-97 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the mutant O2 strain provided moderate protection against airsacculitis. ..
  36. Krug M, Hausleitner D, Taddey R, Volkers P, Kobe B, Cussler K. [Serological test methods as replacement for infection trials in piglets to test the potency of E. coli vaccines for sows (dams)]. ALTEX. 2005;22:111-6 pubmed
    ..Thus the enzyme immunoassays appear to be suitable to detect antibodies against four important adhesion antigens, and can be used to replace the distressing infection trials in piglets. ..
  37. Harris J, Roy K, Woo Rasberry V, Hamilton D, Kansal R, Qadri F, et al. Directed evaluation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli autotransporter proteins as putative vaccine candidates. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1428 pubmed publisher
  38. Chakraborty S, Harro C, Denearing B, Ram M, Feller A, Cage A, et al. Characterization of Mucosal Immune Responses to Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Vaccine Antigens in a Human Challenge Model: Response Profiles after Primary Infection and Homologous Rechallenge with Strain H10407. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2016;23:55-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We anticipate that this study will help provide an immunological benchmark for the evaluation of ETEC vaccines and immunization regimens in the future. ..
  39. Verdonck F, Joensuu J, Stuyven E, De Meyer J, Muilu M, Pirhonen M, et al. The polymeric stability of the Escherichia coli F4 (K88) fimbriae enhances its mucosal immunogenicity following oral immunization. Vaccine. 2008;26:5728-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the mucosal immunogenicity of soluble virulence factors can be increased by the construction of stable polymeric structures and therefore help in the development of effective mucosal vaccines. ..
  40. Liu C, Chen Z, Tan C, Liu W, Xu Z, Zhou R, et al. Immunogenic characterization of outer membrane porins OmpC and OmpF of porcine extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2012;337:104-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the selection analysis indicated that gene ompC may be subject to strong immune pressure. Our results demonstrated that OmpC is a promising vaccine target against ExPEC infections in swine...
  41. Hur J, Lee J. Protection against neonatal Escherichia coli diarrhea by vaccination of sows with a novel multivalent vaccine candidate expressing E. coli adhesins associated with neonatal pig colibacillosis. Res Vet Sci. 2013;94:198-204 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that immunization of sows with the candidate vaccine irrespective of administration routes can effectively protect their piglets against neonatal E. coli diarrhea. ..
  42. Nagano T, Kitahara R, Nagai S. An attenuated mutant of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli serovar O78: a possible live vaccine strain for prevention of avian colibacillosis. Microbiol Immunol. 2012;56:605-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that AESN1331 is a suitable candidate for a live vaccine strain to protect chickens from colibacillosis caused by avian E. coli O78. ..
  43. Hur J, Lee J. Comparative evaluation of a vaccine candidate expressing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) adhesins for colibacillosis with a commercial vaccine using a pig model. Vaccine. 2012;30:3829-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that immunization of sows with the candidate vaccine can effectively protect their young pigs against colibacillosis. ..
  44. Zhang X, He K, Zhang S, Lu W, Zhao P, Luan X, et al. Subcutaneous and intranasal immunization with Stx2B-Tir-Stx1B-Zot reduces colonization and shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in mice. Vaccine. 2011;29:3923-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the perspective for the use of Stx2B-Tir-Stx1B-Zot to prevent colonization and shedding of E. coli O157:H7. ..
  45. Aref N, Saeed A. Design and characterization of highly immunogenic heat-stable enterotoxin of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K99(+). J Immunol Methods. 2011;366:100-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These levels of high STa binding and neutralizing antibodies titers propose the potential use of this conjugate for the development of immunotherapeutic reagents and/or STa-based vaccine against ETEC K99(+). ..
  46. Mercado E. [Control of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) in cattle]. Medicina (B Aires). 2006;66 Suppl 3:33-6 pubmed
    ..The HUS is endemic in Argentina, and the factors leading to this epidemiological situation remain unknown. However, intervention strategies undoubtedly will contribute to reduce the incidence of this zoonosis. ..
  47. Morimoto K, Kanda N, Shinde S, Isobe N. Effect of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccine on innate immune function of bovine mammary gland infused with lipopolysaccharide. J Dairy Sci. 2012;95:5067-5074 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that vaccination suppresses the innate immune reaction after intramammary LPS infusion; however, the elevated antibody titer was unlikely to be responsible for the modification of the innate immune reaction. ..
  48. Hill D, Beeching N. Travelers' diarrhea. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2010;23:481-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite this travelers' diarrhea remains one of the most common illnesses in travelers. Continued focus on intervention strategies may ultimately lead to decreased incidence. ..
  49. Hu Y, Song J, Zhao B. [Construction and immunization of an attenuated vaccine candidate enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O45 ]. Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2009;25:181-8 pubmed
    ..Oral immunization can induce specific immune responses in mice and pig, and this mutant strain could be used as an attenuated vaccine candidate against PEPEC O45. ..
  50. Bellot P, Tiels P, Melkebeek V, Devriendt B, Goddeeris B, Cox E. Maltose-binding protein is a potential carrier for oral immunizations. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2013;152:101-8 pubmed publisher
  51. Oliveira A, Cardoso S, Almeida F, de Oliveira L, Pitondo Silva A, Soares S, et al. Oral immunization with attenuated Salmonella vaccine expressing Escherichia coli O157:H7 intimin gamma triggers both systemic and mucosal humoral immunity in mice. Microbiol Immunol. 2012;56:513-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The live recombinant vaccine reported herein may contribute to the efforts of reducing animal intestinal mucosa colonization. ..
  52. Straube E, Nimmich W, Broschewitz U, Naumann G, Hacker K. Effect of immunization with Escherichia coli K1 antigen on the course of experimental infection of the urinary tract of the rat. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1987;265:408-19 pubmed
    ..Renal inflammatory activity in rats after retrograde infection was significantly reduced after vaccination of the animals with K1-BSA conjugate within six weeks of infection. ..
  53. Fernandes Filho T, Fávaro C, Ingberman M, Beirão B, Inoue A, Gomes L, et al. Effect of spray Escherichia coli vaccine on the immunity of poultry. Avian Dis. 2013;57:671-6 pubmed
    ..The assessment of cellular dynamics by flow cytometry made it possible to elucidate the operation mechanism of the live E. coli vaccine. ..
  54. Gohar A, Abdeltawab N, Fahmy A, Amin M. Development of safe, effective and immunogenic vaccine candidate for diarrheagenic Escherichia coli main pathotypes in a mouse model. BMC Res Notes. 2016;9:80 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, this is the first combined vaccine against the five main diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes that is cost-effective with promise for further testing in humans. ..
  55. Ruan X, Zhang W. Oral immunization of a live attenuated Escherichia coli strain expressing a holotoxin-structured adhesin-toxoid fusion (1FaeG-FedF-LTA?:5LTB) protected young pigs against enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) infection. Vaccine. 2013;31:1458-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, presenting antigens in a holotoxin structure to target host local mucosal immunity can be used in vaccine development against other enteric diseases. ..
  56. Behrens R, Cramer J, Jelinek T, Shaw H, von Sonnenburg F, Wilbraham D, et al. Efficacy and safety of a patch vaccine containing heat-labile toxin from Escherichia coli against travellers' diarrhoea: a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled field trial in travellers from Europe to Mexico and Guatemala. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14:197-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Future vaccines against travellers' diarrhoea might need to include several antigens against various diarrhoeal pathogens, and might need to be able to generate mucosal and higher systemic immunity. ..
  57. Oanh T, Nguyen V, De Greve H, Goddeeris B. Protection of piglets against Edema disease by maternal immunization with Stx2e toxoid. Infect Immun. 2012;80:469-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Challenge with Stx2e toxin resulted in clinical signs of edema disease and death of all control piglets from nonimmunized sows, whereas none of the piglets from immunized sows developed clinical signs of ED...
  58. de Souza Campos Fernandes R, Quintana Flores V, Sousa de Macedo Z, Medina Acosta E. Coproantibodies to the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli vaccine candidates BfpA and EspB in breastfed and artificially fed children. Vaccine. 2003;21:1725-31 pubmed
  59. Landman W, Cornelissen R. [Escherichia coli salpingitis and peritonitis in layer chickens: an overview]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2006;131:814-22 pubmed
    ..Autovaccines are often used as prevention because in practice effective protection is only achieved against homologous E. coli serotypes...
  60. Liu J, Sun Y, Feng S. [Construction and immunization of a enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 attenuated]. Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2007;23:211-7 pubmed
    ..Oral immunization can induce specific immune responses, and this mutant strain could be used as an attenuated vaccine candidate against EHEC O157. ..
  61. Lasaro M, Luiz W, Sbrogio Almeida M, Nishimura L, Guth B, Ferreira L. Combined vaccine regimen based on parenteral priming with a DNA vaccine and administration of an oral booster consisting of a recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine strain for immunization against infection with human-derived ent. Infect Immun. 2004;72:6480-91 pubmed
    ..We propose, therefore, that the DNA primer-Salmonella booster regimen represents an alternative for the development of vaccines requiring both mucosal and systemic antibody responses for immunological protection. ..
  62. Valpotic H, Kovsca Janjatovic A, Lackovic G, Bozic F, Dobranić V, Svoboda D, et al. Increased number of intestinal villous M cells in levamisole -pretreated weaned pigs experimentally infected with F4ac? enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain. Eur J Histochem. 2010;54:e18 pubmed publisher
    ..The fact that levamisole may affect the M cells frequency by increasing their numbers, makes it an interesting adjuvant to study development of an effective M cell-targeted vaccine against porcine PWC. ..
  63. Wieser A, Romann E, Magistro G, Hoffmann C, Nörenberg D, Weinert K, et al. A multiepitope subunit vaccine conveys protection against extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli in mice. Infect Immun. 2010;78:3432-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides evidence that a novel vaccine design encompassing distinct epitopes of virulence-associated ExPEC proteins may represent a means for providing a protective and pathogen-specific vaccine. ..
  64. Zhang W, Francis D. Genetic fusions of heat-labile toxoid (LT) and heat-stable toxin b (STb) of porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli elicit protective anti-LT and anti-STb antibodies. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:1223-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This study indicates that the LT(192)-STb fusion enhanced anti-STb immunogenicity and suggests the LT(192)-STb fusion antigen can be used in future vaccine development against porcine ETEC diarrhea. ..
  65. Van der Stede Y, Cox E, Verdonck F, Vancaeneghem S, Goddeeris B. Reduced faecal excretion of F4+-E coli by the intramuscular immunisation of suckling piglets by the addition of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides. Vaccine. 2003;21:1023-32 pubmed
    ..coli infection. This protection was most obvious for 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) and indicates its potential use in veterinary vaccines against enteropathogens. ..
  66. Wan C, Zhou Y, Yu Y, Peng L, Zhao W, Zheng X. B-cell epitope KT-12 of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7: a novel peptide vaccine candidate. Microbiol Immunol. 2011;55:247-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that the synthesized antigenic peptide KT-12 is be a potential vaccine candidate against EHEC O157:H7. ..
  67. Bozić F, Lacković G, Stokes C, Valpotić I. Recruitment of intestinal CD45RA+ and CD45RC+ cells induced by a candidate oral vaccine against porcine post-weaning colibacillosis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2002;86:137-46 pubmed
    ..This was accompanied with the impaired protection of the vaccinated pigs from challenge-induced PWC. ..
  68. Wileman B, Thomson D, Olson K, Jaeger J, Pacheco L, Bolte J, et al. Escherichia coli O157:H7 shedding in vaccinated beef calves born to cows vaccinated prepartum with Escherichia coli O157:H7 SRP vaccine. J Food Prot. 2011;74:1599-604 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The findings of this study indicate that the timing of vaccination of calves against E. coli O157:H7 may be an important consideration for maximizing the field efficacy of this vaccine. ..
  69. Devriendt B, Verdonck F, Summerfield A, Goddeeris B, Cox E. Targeting of Escherichia coli F4 fimbriae to Fcgamma receptors enhances the maturation of porcine dendritic cells. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;135:188-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these results clearly demonstrate that FcgammaR engagement enhances the maturation of porcine MoDC, which may suggest that antigen targeting to FcgammaR on DC could improve vaccine design against infections. ..
  70. Uchida T. STX-liposome conjugates as candidate vaccines. Drugs Today (Barc). 2003;39:673-93 pubmed
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    ..These results suggest that C280 gamma-Intimin and EspB are good candidate antigens to be incorporated into mucosal vaccines against this important pathogen. ..
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    ..As well, 100% of the mice vaccinated with this preparation were subsequently protected from a lethal dose of Stx2 holotoxin. These results support further evaluation of a Stx2 B-subunit-based human EHEC vaccine. ..