brucella vaccine


Summary: A bacterial vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in man and animal. Brucella abortus vaccine is used for the immunization of cattle, sheep, and goats.

Top Publications

  1. Mallick A, Singha H, Chaudhuri P, Nadeem A, Khan S, Dar K, et al. Liposomised recombinant ribosomal L7/L12 protein protects BALB/c mice against Brucella abortus 544 infection. Vaccine. 2007;25:3692-704 pubmed
  2. Pasquevich K, Estein S, García Samartino C, Samartino C, Zwerdling A, Coria L, et al. Immunization with recombinant Brucella species outer membrane protein Omp16 or Omp19 in adjuvant induces specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as well as systemic and oral protection against Brucella abortus infection. Infect Immun. 2009;77:436-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall these results indicate that U-Omp16 or U-Omp19 would be a useful candidate for a subunit vaccine against human and animal brucellosis. ..
  3. Cook W, Williams E, Thorne E, Kreeger T, Stout G, Bardsley K, et al. Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccination in elk. I. Efficacy of reduced dosage. J Wildl Dis. 2002;38:18-26 pubmed
    ..abortus induced abortion in elk. However, the vaccine appears to be safe at this dose and additional study may reveal a more effective RB51 vaccine regimen for elk. ..
  4. Ficht T, Kahl McDonagh M, Arenas Gamboa A, Rice Ficht A. Brucellosis: the case for live, attenuated vaccines. Vaccine. 2009;27 Suppl 4:D40-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Based upon preliminary data, it is postulated that such vaccine delivery systems can be storage stable, administered orally or intranasally, and generally applicable to a number of agents...
  5. Rajasekaran P, Seleem M, Contreras A, Purwantini E, Schurig G, Sriranganathan N, et al. Brucella abortus strain RB51 leucine auxotroph as an environmentally safe vaccine for plasmid maintenance and antigen overexpression. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:7051-5 pubmed publisher
    ..abortus 2308 and elicited GFP antibodies. ..
  6. Al Mariri A. Protection of BALB/c mice against Brucella melitensis 16 M infection induced by vaccination with live Escherchia coli expression Brucella P39 protein. Vaccine. 2010;28:1766-70 pubmed publisher
    ..coli BL21pEt15b-p39 at 3 weeks prior to the challenge infection, significantly reduced the number of strain 16 M bacteria in spleens at 4 and 8 weeks post-challenge infection in all vaccinated mice (p<0.001). ..
  7. Jain Gupta N, Contreras Rodriguez A, Vemulapalli R, Witonsky S, Boyle S, Sriranganathan N. Pluronic P85 enhances the efficacy of outer membrane vesicles as a subunit vaccine against Brucella melitensis challenge in mice. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2012;66:436-44 pubmed publisher
    ..melitensis compared to saline-vaccinated mice. Further studies are warranted to find the mechanism of action of P85 that provides nonspecific protection and enhances the efficacy of OMVs as a vaccine against B. melitensis...
  8. Pasquevich K, García Samartino C, Coria L, Estein S, Zwerdling A, Ibañez A, et al. The protein moiety of Brucella abortus outer membrane protein 16 is a new bacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern that activates dendritic cells in vivo, induces a Th1 immune response, and is a promising self-adjuvanting vaccine against syste. J Immunol. 2010;184:5200-12 pubmed publisher
  9. Delpino M, Estein S, Fossati C, Baldi P, Cassataro J. Vaccination with Brucella recombinant DnaK and SurA proteins induces protection against Brucella abortus infection in BALB/c mice. Vaccine. 2007;25:6721-9 pubmed
    ..abortus strain 19 control vaccines. Altogether these results suggest that rSurA or rDnaK induce partial protection against B. abortus infection and could be useful candidates for the development of subunit vaccines against brucellosis. ..

More Information


  1. Cassataro J, Pasquevich K, Estein S, Laplagne D, Velikovsky C, de la Barrera S, et al. A recombinant subunit vaccine based on the insertion of 27 amino acids from Omp31 to the N-terminus of BLS induced a similar degree of protection against B. ovis than Rev.1 vaccination. Vaccine. 2007;25:4437-46 pubmed
  2. Silva T, Costa E, Paixao T, Tsolis R, Santos R. Laboratory animal models for brucellosis research. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2011;2011:518323 pubmed publisher
    ..Other animal species have been used as models for brucellosis including rats, guinea pigs, and monkeys. This paper discusses the murine and other laboratory animal models for human and animal brucellosis. ..
  3. Surendran N, Sriranganathan N, Lawler H, Boyle S, Hiltbold E, Heid B, et al. Efficacy of vaccination strategies against intranasal challenge with Brucella abortus in BALB/c mice. Vaccine. 2011;29:2749-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are necessary to address host-pathogen interaction in the lung microenvironment and elucidate immune mechanisms to enhance protection against aerosol infection. ..
  4. Garin Bastuji B, Blasco J, Grayon M, Verger J. Brucella melitensis infection in sheep: present and future. Vet Res. 1998;29:255-74 pubmed
    ..The brucellin allergic skin test can be used as a screening or complementary test in unvaccinated flocks, provided that a purified, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-free and standardized antigen preparation is used. ..
  5. Yang Y, Yin J, Guo D, Lang X, Wang X. Immunization of mice with recombinant S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase protein confers protection against Brucella melitensis infection. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2011;61:159-67 pubmed publisher
    ..melitensis 16M challenge at 4 weeks postchallenge. Our results indicated that rAdoHcyase could be a useful candidate for the development of subunit vaccines against B. melitensis...
  6. Cassataro J, Estein S, Pasquevich K, Velikovsky C, de la Barrera S, Bowden R, et al. Vaccination with the recombinant Brucella outer membrane protein 31 or a derived 27-amino-acid synthetic peptide elicits a CD4+ T helper 1 response that protects against Brucella melitensis infection. Infect Immun. 2005;73:8079-88 pubmed
    ..melitensis but less protection than was induced by rOmp31 against B. ovis. Our results indicate that rOmp31 could be a useful candidate for the development of subunit vaccines against B. melitensis and B. ovis. ..
  7. Vemulapalli R, Contreras A, Sanakkayala N, Sriranganathan N, Boyle S, Schurig G. Enhanced efficacy of recombinant Brucella abortus RB51 vaccines against B. melitensis infection in mice. Vet Microbiol. 2004;102:237-45 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that strains RB51WboA and RB51SOD/WboA are good vaccine candidates for inducing enhanced protection against B. melitensis infection. ..
  8. Martins R, Irache J, Gamazo C. Acellular vaccines for ovine brucellosis: a safer alternative against a worldwide disease. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2012;11:87-95 pubmed publisher
    ..This review is focused on the most recent and promising acellular vaccine proposals...
  9. Izadjoo M, Mense M, Bhattacharjee A, Hadfield T, Crawford R, Hoover D. A study on the use of male animal models for developing a live vaccine for brucellosis. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2008;55:145-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These data confirm the marked attenuation of WR201 relative to 16M. In addition, these studies suggest that male mice may be useful to assess the safety of live, attenuated Brucella vaccine candidates.
  10. Smither S, Perkins S, Davies C, Stagg A, Nelson M, Atkins H. Development and characterization of mouse models of infection with aerosolized Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:779-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We have developed mouse models of infection with aerosolized Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis and demonstrated their utility for the evaluation of vaccines using the model live B. melitensis vaccine strain Rev.1...
  11. Velikovsky C, Goldbaum F, Cassataro J, Estein S, Bowden R, Bruno L, et al. Brucella lumazine synthase elicits a mixed Th1-Th2 immune response and reduces infection in mice challenged with Brucella abortus 544 independently of the adjuvant formulation used. Infect Immun. 2003;71:5750-5 pubmed
  12. Arenas Gamboa A, Ficht T, Davis D, Elzer P, Wong Gonzalez A, Rice Ficht A. Enhanced immune response of red deer (Cervus elaphus) to live rb51 vaccine strain using composite microspheres. J Wildl Dis. 2009;45:165-73 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that alginate-VpB microspheres provide a method to enhance the RB51 vaccine performance in elk. ..
  13. Mallick A, Singha H, Khan S, Anwar T, Ansari M, Khalid R, et al. Escheriosome-mediated delivery of recombinant ribosomal L7/L12 protein confers protection against murine brucellosis. Vaccine. 2007;25:7873-84 pubmed
    ..Altogether the present study is a clear indicative of the possible use of escheriosome-based delivery of rL7/L12 protein to induce protective immune responses against experimental murine brucellosis...
  14. Kahl McDonagh M, Arenas Gamboa A, Ficht T. Aerosol infection of BALB/c mice with Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus and protective efficacy against aerosol challenge. Infect Immun. 2007;75:4923-32 pubmed
  15. Al Mariri A, Tibor A, Mertens P, De Bolle X, Michel P, Godefroid J, et al. Protection of BALB/c mice against Brucella abortus 544 challenge by vaccination with bacterioferritin or P39 recombinant proteins with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides as adjuvant. Infect Immun. 2001;69:4816-22 pubmed
    ..Intriguingly, no protection was detected after BFR vaccination. All other groups did not demonstrate any protection. ..
  16. Magnani D, Harms J, Durward M, Splitter G. Nondividing but metabolically active gamma-irradiated Brucella melitensis is protective against virulent B. melitensis challenge in mice. Infect Immun. 2009;77:5181-9 pubmed publisher
    ..melitensis. ..
  17. Kreeger T, Cook W, Edwards W, Elzer P, Olsen S. Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccination in elk. II. Failure of high dosage to prevent abortion. J Wildl Dis. 2002;38:27-31 pubmed
    ..Strain 2308 was recovered from fetuses and nonviable calves in all groups. Based on the results of this and other studies, the use of strain RB51 to prevent abortion in elk cannot be recommended. ..
  18. Adone R, Francia M, Pistoia C, Petrucci P, Pesciaroli M, Pasquali P. Protective role of antibodies induced by Brucella melitensis B115 against B. melitensis and Brucella abortus infections in mice. Vaccine. 2012;30:3992-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study assessing the efficacy of antibodies directed to antigens other than O-PS in the course of brucellosis infection. ..
  19. He Y, Vemulapalli R, Schurig G. Recombinant Ochrobactrum anthropi expressing Brucella abortus Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase protects mice against B. abortus infection only after switching of immune responses to Th1 type. Infect Immun. 2002;70:2535-43 pubmed
    ..anthropi strain 49237 and the recombinant O. anthropi strain 49237SOD induced protection in mice. However, the protection conferred by strain 49237SOD was significantly better than that induced by the parental strain, 49237...
  20. Hu X, Chen S, Li J, Yu D, Yi Zhang -, Cai H. An IL-15 adjuvant enhances the efficacy of a combined DNA vaccine against Brucella by increasing the CD8+ cytotoxic T cell response. Vaccine. 2010;28:2408-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that plasmid-delivered IL-15 increases the efficacy of the Brucella DNA vaccine. ..
  21. Gopaul K, Sells J, Bricker B, Crasta O, Whatmore A. Rapid and reliable single nucleotide polymorphism-based differentiation of Brucella live vaccine strains from field strains. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:1461-4 pubmed publisher
    The reliable differentiation of live Brucella vaccine strains from field isolates is an important element in brucellosis control programs...
  22. Grillo M, Manterola L, de Miguel M, Muñoz P, Blasco J, Moriyon I, et al. Increases of efficacy as vaccine against Brucella abortus infection in mice by simultaneous inoculation with avirulent smooth bvrS/bvrR and rough wbkA mutants. Vaccine. 2006;24:2910-6 pubmed
    ..abortus S19 vaccination. Thus, the simultaneous use of live bvrS and wbkA B. abortus mutants seems a promising approach to overcome the problems of the S19 andRB51 vaccines. ..
  23. Pasquali P, Rosanna A, Pistoia C, Petrucci P, Ciuchini F. Brucella abortus RB51 induces protection in mice orally infected with the virulent strain B. abortus 2308. Infect Immun. 2003;71:2326-30 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that oral inoculation of mice with B. abortus RB51 is able to give a protective immunity against an oral infection with virulent strains, and this protection seems to rely on an immune response at the mucosal level. ..
  24. Goel D, Bhatnagar R. Intradermal immunization with outer membrane protein 25 protects Balb/c mice from virulent B. abortus 544. Mol Immunol. 2012;51:159-68 pubmed publisher
    ..This can be a possible reason behind the protection observed in mice after rOmp25 immunization. Thus, our study proposes recombinant Omp25 to be a potential subunit vaccine candidate against brucellosis...
  25. Sanakkayala N, Sokolovska A, Gulani J, HogenEsch H, Sriranganathan N, Boyle S, et al. Induction of antigen-specific Th1-type immune responses by gamma-irradiated recombinant Brucella abortus RB51. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005;12:1429-36 pubmed
    ..abortus challenge in mice. ..
  26. Cassataro J, Velikovsky C, de la Barrera S, Estein S, Bruno L, Bowden R, et al. A DNA vaccine coding for the Brucella outer membrane protein 31 confers protection against B. melitensis and B. ovis infection by eliciting a specific cytotoxic response. Infect Immun. 2005;73:6537-46 pubmed
    ..The protective response could be related to the induction of CD8(+) T cells that eliminate Brucella-infected cells via the perforin pathway...
  27. Rajasekaran P, Surendran N, Seleem M, Sriranganathan N, Schurig G, Boyle S. Over-expression of homologous antigens in a leucine auxotroph of Brucella abortus strain RB51 protects mice against a virulent B. suis challenge. Vaccine. 2011;29:3106-10 pubmed publisher
  28. Monreal D, Grillo M, Gonzalez D, Marin C, De Miguel M, Lopez Goni I, et al. Characterization of Brucella abortus O-polysaccharide and core lipopolysaccharide mutants and demonstration that a complete core is required for rough vaccines to be efficient against Brucella abortus and Brucella ovis in the mouse model. Infect Immun. 2003;71:3261-71 pubmed
    ..ovis, S19, RB51, and the wbkA and per mutants afforded similar levels of protection. These results suggest that rough Brucella vaccines should carry a complete core for maximal effectiveness. ..
  29. Sáez D, Fernandez P, Rivera A, Andrews E, Oñate A. Oral immunization of mice with recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase of Brucella abortus triggers protective immunity. Vaccine. 2012;30:1283-90 pubmed publisher
    ..lactis pSEC:SOD was co-administered with L. lactis pSEC:scIL-12. These results indicated that vaccines based on lactococci-derived live carriers are promising interventions against B. abortus infections...
  30. Moriyon I, Grillo M, Monreal D, Gonzalez D, Marin C, López Goñi I, et al. Rough vaccines in animal brucellosis: structural and genetic basis and present status. Vet Res. 2004;35:1-38 pubmed
    ..Possible uses of rough vaccines also include boosting immunity by revaccination but solid evidence on its effectiveness, safety and practicality is not available. ..
  31. Olsen S, Holland S. Safety of revaccination of pregnant bison with Brucella abortus strain RB51. J Wildl Dis. 2003;39:824-9 pubmed
    ..Our data also reaffirms the potential for B. abortus field strains to persist in bison until attainment of reproductive age, despite extensive use of vaccination and serologic testing...
  32. Fu S, Xu J, Li X, Xie Y, Qiu Y, Du X, et al. Immunization of mice with recombinant protein CobB or AsnC confers protection against Brucella abortus infection. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29552 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, the present study showed that CobB or AsnC protein could be useful antigen candidates for the development of subunit vaccines against brucellosis with adequate immunogenicity and protection efficacy...
  33. Berkelman R. Human illness associated with use of veterinary vaccines. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37:407-14 pubmed
  34. Perkins S, Smither S, Atkins H. Towards a Brucella vaccine for humans. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2010;34:379-94 pubmed publisher
    ..This review highlights the considerations that are needed in the journey to develop a human vaccine, including animal models, and includes an assessment of the current status of novel vaccine candidates. ..
  35. Pasquevich K, Ibañez A, Coria L, García Samartino C, Estein S, Zwerdling A, et al. An oral vaccine based on U-Omp19 induces protection against B. abortus mucosal challenge by inducing an adaptive IL-17 immune response in mice. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16203 pubmed publisher
    ..They also indicate different and important new aspects i) IL-17 does not contribute to reduce the bacterial burden in non vaccinated mice and ii) IL-17 plays a central role in vaccine mediated anti-Brucella mucosal immunity. ..
  36. Goel D, Rajendran V, Ghosh P, Bhatnagar R. Cell mediated immune response after challenge in Omp25 liposome immunized mice contributes to protection against virulent Brucella abortus 544. Vaccine. 2013;31:1231-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study emphasizes on the importance of liposome encapsulating Omp25 immunization in conferring protection against B. abortus 544 challenge in Balb/c mice with a single dose immunization regimen. ..
  37. Gupta V, Radhakrishnan G, Harms J, Splitter G. Invasive Escherichia coli vaccines expressing Brucella melitensis outer membrane proteins 31 or 16 or periplasmic protein BP26 confer protection in mice challenged with B. melitensis. Vaccine. 2012;30:4017-22 pubmed publisher
    ..melitensis since the E. coli delivery system is non-pathogenic and can deliver antigens to antigen-presenting cells promoting cellular immune responses. ..
  38. Lowry J, Isaak D, Leonhardt J, Vernati G, Pate J, Andrews G. Vaccination with Brucella abortus recombinant in vivo-induced antigens reduces bacterial load and promotes clearance in a mouse model for infection. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17425 pubmed publisher
    ..abortus challenge in mice, as well as other hosts. Additional studies are being undertaken to clarify the role of Mdh and other IVI antigens in B. abortus virulence and induction of protective immunity. ..
  39. Olsen S, Stoffregen W. Essential role of vaccines in brucellosis control and eradication programs for livestock. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2005;4:915-28 pubmed
  40. Elzer P, Edmonds M, Hagius S, Walker J, Gilsdorf M, Davis D. Safety of Brucella abortus strain RB51 in Bison. J Wildl Dis. 1998;34:825-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, SRB51 did not induce abortions following vaccination in the second month of gestation. ..
  41. Vemulapalli R, He Y, Cravero S, Sriranganathan N, Boyle S, Schurig G. Overexpression of protective antigen as a novel approach to enhance vaccine efficacy of Brucella abortus strain RB51. Infect Immun. 2000;68:3286-9 pubmed
    ..The presence of the plasmid alone in strain RB51 did not alter its vaccine efficacy. Also, overexpression of SOD did not alter the attenuation characteristic of strain RB51. ..
  42. He Y, Vemulapalli R, Zeytun A, Schurig G. Induction of specific cytotoxic lymphocytes in mice vaccinated with Brucella abortus RB51. Infect Immun. 2001;69:5502-8 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that B. abortus strain RB51 vaccination of mice induces specific CTLs and suggest that CD3+ CD4+ and CD3+ CD8+ T cells play a synergistic role in the anti-Brucella activity. ..
  43. Al Mariri A, Tibor A, Lestrate P, Mertens P, De Bolle X, Letesson J. Yersinia enterocolitica as a vehicle for a naked DNA vaccine encoding Brucella abortus bacterioferritin or P39 antigen. Infect Immun. 2002;70:1915-23 pubmed
    ..abortus 544 infection pointed out the crucial role of anti-LPS antibodies in protection. The best protection was conferred by a serotype O:9 strain carrying pCIP39, confirming the importance of the P39 T-cell antigen in this mechanism. ..
  44. Erdenebaatar J, Bayarsaikhan B, Watarai M, Makino S, Shirahata T. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to differentiate the antibody responses of animals infected with Brucella species from those of animals infected with Yersinia enterocolitica O9. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2003;10:710-4 pubmed
    ..A field trial in Mongolia showed cattle, sheep, goat, reindeer, camel, and human sera without infection could be distinguished from Brucella-infected animals by conventional serological tests. ..
  45. Yingst S, Hoover D. T cell immunity to brucellosis. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2003;29:313-31 pubmed
    ..We also point out areas of research on T cell responses that may allow exploitation of cutting edge vaccine technologies for the next generation vaccine for brucellosis. ..
  46. Pontes D, Dorella F, Ribeiro L, Miyoshi A, Le Loir Y, Gruss A, et al. Induction of partial protection in mice after oral administration of Lactococcus lactis producing Brucella abortus L7/L12 antigen. J Drug Target. 2003;11:489-93 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, the vaccinated mice showed a partial protective immunity against B. abortus virulent strain (S2308) challenged by intraperitoneal inoculation. ..
  47. Minas A, Minas M, Stournara A, Tselepidis S. The "effects" of Rev-1 vaccination of sheep and goats on human brucellosis in Greece. Prev Vet Med. 2004;64:41-7 pubmed
    ..The association of the vaccination coverage of animals and incidence of brucellosis in humans was not linear; the decrease in human brucellosis incidence was observed when the vaccination coverage of animals was >30%. ..
  48. Cloeckaert A, Jacques I, Grillo M, Marin C, Grayon M, Blasco J, et al. Development and evaluation as vaccines in mice of Brucella melitensis Rev.1 single and double deletion mutants of the bp26 and omp31 genes coding for antigens of diagnostic significance in ovine brucellosis. Vaccine. 2004;22:2827-35 pubmed
    ..1 strain. Thus, these Rev.1 bp26 or omp31 deletion mutants are promising vaccine candidates against B. melitensis and B. ovis infections and will be further evaluated in sheep. ..
  49. Ashford D, di Pietra J, Lingappa J, Woods C, Noll H, Neville B, et al. Adverse events in humans associated with accidental exposure to the livestock brucellosis vaccine RB51. Vaccine. 2004;22:3435-9 pubmed
  50. Oñate A, Donoso G, Moraga Cid G, Folch H, Céspedes S, Andrews E. An RNA vaccine based on recombinant Semliki Forest virus particles expressing the Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase protein of Brucella abortus induces protective immunity in BALB/c mice. Infect Immun. 2005;73:3294-300 pubmed
    ..abortus virulent strain 2308. These findings indicated that an SFV-based vector carrying the SOD gene has potential for use as a vaccine to induce resistance against B. abortus infections. ..
  51. Adone R, Ciuchini F, Marianelli C, Tarantino M, Pistoia C, Marcon G, et al. Protective properties of rifampin-resistant rough mutants of Brucella melitensis. Infect Immun. 2005;73:4198-204 pubmed
    ..In addition, all B. melitensis mutants were able to stimulate good production of gamma interferon. The characteristics of these strains encourage further evaluation of them as alternative vaccines to Rev1 in primary host species. ..
  52. Luo D, Li P, Xing L, Zhao G, Shi W, Zhang S, et al. DNA vaccine encoding L7/L12-P39 of Brucella abortus induces protective immunity in BALB/c mice. Chin Med J (Engl). 2006;119:331-4 pubmed
  53. Luo D, Ni B, Li P, Shi W, Zhang S, Han Y, et al. Protective immunity elicited by a divalent DNA vaccine encoding both the L7/L12 and Omp16 genes of Brucella abortus in BALB/c mice. Infect Immun. 2006;74:2734-41 pubmed
    ..Additionally, a divalent genetic vaccine based on the L7/L12 and Omp16 genes can elicit a stronger cellular immune response and better immunoprotection than the relevant univalent vaccines can. ..
  54. Kahl McDonagh M, Ficht T. Evaluation of protection afforded by Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis unmarked deletion mutants exhibiting different rates of clearance in BALB/c mice. Infect Immun. 2006;74:4048-57 pubmed
    ..A distinct correlation between persistence of the vaccine strain and protection against infection was corroborated. ..
  55. Cassataro J, Velikovsky C, Bruno L, Estein S, de la Barrera S, Bowden R, et al. Improved immunogenicity of a vaccination regimen combining a DNA vaccine encoding Brucella melitensis outer membrane protein 31 (Omp31) and recombinant Omp31 boosting. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2007;14:869-74 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, pCIOmp31 priming followed by rOmp31 boosting led to moderately improved protection against a challenge with B. ovis or B. melitensis...
  56. Olsen S, Boyle S, Schurig G, Sriranganathan N. Immune responses and protection against experimental challenge after vaccination of bison with Brucella abortus strain RB51 or RB51 overexpressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase genes. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:535-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data also suggest that the RB51 vaccine is a currently available management tool that could be utilized to help reduce brucellosis in free-ranging bison...
  57. Moustafa D, Garg V, Jain N, Sriranganathan N, Vemulapalli R. Immunization of mice with gamma-irradiated Brucella neotomae and its recombinant strains induces protection against virulent B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis challenge. Vaccine. 2011;29:784-94 pubmed publisher
    ..abortus 2308, B. melitensis 16 M, and B. suis 1330. These results demonstrate that the avirulent B. neotomae is a promising platform for developing a safe and effective vaccine for human brucellosis...
  58. Surendran N, Hiltbold E, Heid B, Sriranganathan N, Boyle S, Zimmerman K, et al. Live Brucella abortus rough vaccine strain RB51 stimulates enhanced innate immune response in vitro compared to rough vaccine strain RB51SOD and virulent smooth strain 2308 in murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Vet Microbiol. 2011;147:75-82 pubmed publisher
    ..05) DC maturation and function compared to either strain RB51SOD or smooth virulent strain 2308, based on costimulatory marker expression and cytokine production. ..
  59. Oliveira S, Giambartolomei G, Cassataro J. Confronting the barriers to develop novel vaccines against brucellosis. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2011;10:1291-305 pubmed publisher
  60. DelVecchio V, Alefantis T, Ugalde R, Comerci D, Marchesini M, Khan A, et al. Identification of protein candidates for developing bacterial ghost vaccines against Brucella. Methods Biochem Anal. 2006;49:363-77 pubmed
  61. Bhattacharjee A, Izadjoo M, Zollinger W, Nikolich M, Hoover D. Comparison of protective efficacy of subcutaneous versus intranasal immunization of mice with a Brucella melitensis lipopolysaccharide subunit vaccine. Infect Immun. 2006;74:5820-5 pubmed
  62. Yu D, Hu X, Cai H. A combined DNA vaccine encoding BCSP31, SOD, and L7/L12 confers high protection against Brucella abortus 2308 by inducing specific CTL responses. DNA Cell Biol. 2007;26:435-43 pubmed
    ..The success of our combined DNA vaccine in a mouse model suggests its potential efficacy against brucellosis infection in large animals. ..
  63. Singha H, Mallick A, Jana C, Isore D, Goswami T, Srivastava S, et al. Escheriosomes entrapped DNA vaccine co-expressing Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and IL-18 confers protection against Brucella abortus. Microbes Infect. 2008;10:1089-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the present study show that co-expression of IL-18 along with SOD polarized the antigen specific immune responses toward Th-1 direction, a desirable feature to control intracellular pathogens. ..
  64. Gorvel J. Brucella: a Mr "Hide" converted into Dr Jekyll. Microbes Infect. 2008;10:1010-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Why such a reemerging disease is so difficult to fight, evidence shows that the pathogenic bacterium has developed strategies to hide from immune recognition...