anthrax vaccines


Summary: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.

Top Publications

  1. Flick Smith H, Waters E, Walker N, Miller J, Stagg A, Green M, et al. Mouse model characterisation for anthrax vaccine development: comparison of one inbred and one outbred mouse strain. Microb Pathog. 2005;38:33-40 pubmed
    ..An assessment of protection in the TO mouse against aerosol challenge with the fully virulent strain of B. anthracis, Ames, was also made. ..
  2. Boyaka P, Tafaro A, Fischer R, Leppla S, Fujihashi K, McGhee J. Effective mucosal immunity to anthrax: neutralizing antibodies and Th cell responses following nasal immunization with protective antigen. J Immunol. 2003;170:5636-43 pubmed
    ..The functional significance of the anti-PA Ab responses was established in an in vitro macrophage toxicity assay in which both plasma and mucosal secretions neutralized the lethal effects of Bacillus anthracis toxin. ..
  3. Gorantala J, Grover S, Goel D, Rahi A, Jayadev Magani S, Chandra S, et al. A plant based protective antigen [PA(dIV)] vaccine expressed in chloroplasts demonstrates protective immunity in mice against anthrax. Vaccine. 2011;29:4521-33 pubmed publisher
    The currently available anthrax vaccines are limited by being incompletely characterized, potentially reactogenic and have an expanded dosage schedule. Plant based vaccines offer safe alternative for vaccine production...
  4. Gorse G, Keitel W, Keyserling H, Taylor D, Lock M, Alves K, et al. Immunogenicity and tolerance of ascending doses of a recombinant protective antigen (rPA102) anthrax vaccine: a randomized, double-blinded, controlled, multicenter trial. Vaccine. 2006;24:5950-9 pubmed
    ..The TNA response after two injections of the 75 microg dose of rPA102 was similar to the response after two injections of AVA. The third rPA102 vaccination substantially increased the antibody response. ..
  5. Enstone J, Wale M, Nguyen Van Tam J, Pearson J. Adverse medical events in British service personnel following anthrax vaccination. Vaccine. 2003;21:1348-54 pubmed
    ..The anthrax vaccine resulted in mild side-effects in 11%, and no serious side-effects were observed. Acceptors of vaccine did not have significantly more medical consultations following vaccination than their unvaccinated counterparts. ..
  6. Doolan D, Freilich D, Brice G, Burgess T, Berzins M, Bull R, et al. The US capitol bioterrorism anthrax exposures: clinical epidemiological and immunological characteristics. J Infect Dis. 2007;195:174-84 pubmed
    ..anthracis spores resulted in stimulation of the immune system and possibly subclinical infection, and the greater the exposure, the more complete the immune response. The significance of low-level exposure should not be underestimated. ..
  7. Hermanson G, Whitlow V, Parker S, Tonsky K, Rusalov D, Ferrari M, et al. A cationic lipid-formulated plasmid DNA vaccine confers sustained antibody-mediated protection against aerosolized anthrax spores. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:13601-6 pubmed
    ..Preclinical evaluation of this cationic lipid-formulated bivalent PA and LF vaccine is complete, and the vaccine has received U.S. Food and Drug Administration Investigational New Drug allowance. ..
  8. Kwok W, Yang J, James E, Bui J, Huston L, Wiesen A, et al. The anthrax vaccine adsorbed vaccine generates protective antigen (PA)-Specific CD4+ T cells with a phenotype distinct from that of naive PA T cells. Infect Immun. 2008;76:4538-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The data also demonstrated the feasibility of using class II tetramers to analyze CD4(+) cell responses and lineage development after vaccination. ..
  9. Gat O, Grosfeld H, Ariel N, Inbar I, Zaide G, Broder Y, et al. Search for Bacillus anthracis potential vaccine candidates by a functional genomic-serologic screen. Infect Immun. 2006;74:3987-4001 pubmed
    ..We list more than 30 novel B. anthracis immunoreactive virulence-related proteins which could be useful in diagnosis, pathogenesis studies, and future anthrax vaccine development. ..

More Information


  1. Keitel W. Recombinant protective antigen 102 (rPA102): profile of a second-generation anthrax vaccine. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2006;5:417-30 pubmed
    ..Future licensure of these and other candidate vaccines will depend on their safety and immunogenicity profiles in humans, and their ability to confer protection in animal models of inhalational anthrax. ..
  2. Wang J, Ying T, Wang H, Shi Z, Li M, He K, et al. 2-D reference map of Bacillus anthracis vaccine strain A16R proteins. Proteomics. 2005;5:4488-95 pubmed
    ..Maps and information about all identified proteins are available on the Internet at and ..
  3. Shivachandra S, Li Q, Peachman K, Matyas G, Leppla S, Alving C, et al. Multicomponent anthrax toxin display and delivery using bacteriophage T4. Vaccine. 2007;25:1225-35 pubmed
    ..These features offer novel avenues to develop customized multicomponent vaccines against anthrax and other pathogenic diseases. ..
  4. Ariel N, Zvi A, Makarova K, Chitlaru T, Elhanany E, Velan B, et al. Genome-based bioinformatic selection of chromosomal Bacillus anthracis putative vaccine candidates coupled with proteomic identification of surface-associated antigens. Infect Immun. 2003;71:4563-79 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that a combination of the bioinformatic and proteomic strategies may be useful in promoting the development of next generation anthrax vaccine. ..
  5. Aulinger B, Roehrl M, Mekalanos J, Collier R, Wang J. Combining anthrax vaccine and therapy: a dominant-negative inhibitor of anthrax toxin is also a potent and safe immunogen for vaccines. Infect Immun. 2005;73:3408-14 pubmed
    ..In the present report, we describe the improved potency of anthrax vaccines through the use of a dominant-negative inhibitory (DNI) mutant to replace PA in PA or PA-PGA vaccines...
  6. Bielinska A, Janczak K, Landers J, Makidon P, Sower L, Peterson J, et al. Mucosal immunization with a novel nanoemulsion-based recombinant anthrax protective antigen vaccine protects against Bacillus anthracis spore challenge. Infect Immun. 2007;75:4020-9 pubmed
    ..This potentially could lead to a needle-free anthrax vaccine requiring fewer doses and having fewer side effects than the currently available human vaccine. ..
  7. Garmory H, Titball R, Griffin K, Hahn U, Böhm R, Beyer W. Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium expressing a chromosomally integrated copy of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen gene protects mice against an anthrax spore challenge. Infect Immun. 2003;71:3831-6 pubmed
    ..These mice were protected against intraperitoneal challenge with 100 or 1,000 50% lethal doses of B. anthracis strain STI. This work contributes to the development of a Salmonella-based orally delivered anthrax vaccine. ..
  8. Ariel N, Zvi A, Grosfeld H, Gat O, Inbar Y, Velan B, et al. Search for potential vaccine candidate open reading frames in the Bacillus anthracis virulence plasmid pXO1: in silico and in vitro screening. Infect Immun. 2002;70:6817-27 pubmed
    ..The latter ORFs are currently being evaluated to determine their vaccine potential. ..
  9. Watson J, Koya V, Leppla S, Daniell H. Expression of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen in transgenic chloroplasts of tobacco, a non-food/feed crop. Vaccine. 2004;22:4374-84 pubmed
  10. Jiang G, Joshi S, Peek L, Brandau D, Huang J, Ferriter M, et al. Anthrax vaccine powder formulations for nasal mucosal delivery. J Pharm Sci. 2006;95:80-96 pubmed
    ..In combination with noninvasive intranasal delivery, such powder formulations may offer an attractive approach for mass biodefense immunization. ..
  11. Baillie L. Past, imminent and future human medical countermeasures for anthrax. J Appl Microbiol. 2006;101:594-606 pubmed
    ..A better understanding of basic issues, such as survival in nature and pathogenesis in humans, will facilitate the development of new modalities to eliminate the threat posed by this organism. ..
  12. Cowan G, Atkins H, Johnson L, Titball R, Mitchell T. Immunisation with anthrolysin O or a genetic toxoid protects against challenge with the toxin but not against Bacillus anthracis. Vaccine. 2007;25:7197-205 pubmed
    ..Histopathological investigation following lethal i.v. challenge with ALO revealed acute pathology in the lungs with occlusion of alveolar vessels by fibrin deposits. ..
  13. Shakya K, Hugh Jones M, Elzer P. Evaluation of immune response to orally administered Sterne strain 34F2 anthrax vaccine. Vaccine. 2007;25:5374-7 pubmed
  14. Kumar R, Chow C, Bartels J, Clermont G, Vodovotz Y. A mathematical simulation of the inflammatory response to anthrax infection. Shock. 2008;29:104-11 pubmed
    ..Rather, our simulations suggest that an optimal strategy would require both vaccination and antibiotic administration. ..
  15. Ascenzi P, Visca P, Ippolito G, Spallarossa A, Bolognesi M, Montecucco C. Anthrax toxin: a tripartite lethal combination. FEBS Lett. 2002;531:384-8 pubmed
    ..Inhibitors targeting different steps of toxin activity have recently been developed. Anthrax toxin has also been exploited as a therapeutic agent against cancer. ..
  16. Williamson E, Hodgson I, Walker N, Topping A, Duchars M, Mott J, et al. Immunogenicity of recombinant protective antigen and efficacy against aerosol challenge with anthrax. Infect Immun. 2005;73:5978-87 pubmed
    ..anthracis. These data provide some preliminary evidence for the existence of immune correlates of protection against anthrax infection in rhesus macaques immunized with rPA. ..
  17. Turnbull P, Tindall B, Coetzee J, Conradie C, Bull R, Lindeque P, et al. Vaccine-induced protection against anthrax in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis). Vaccine. 2004;22:3340-7 pubmed
    ..At least one well-separated booster does appear to be desirable. Vaccination of rhino also appears to be justified from the limited data obtained...
  18. Hewetson J, Little S, Ivins B, Johnson W, Pittman P, Brown J, et al. An in vivo passive protection assay for the evaluation of immunity in AVA-vaccinated individuals. Vaccine. 2008;26:4262-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This analytical method may provide additional opportunities to compare the efficacy of improved anthrax vaccines with the licensed vaccine.
  19. Marano N, Plikaytis B, Martin S, Rose C, Semenova V, Martin S, et al. Effects of a reduced dose schedule and intramuscular administration of anthrax vaccine adsorbed on immunogenicity and safety at 7 months: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2008;300:1532-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Intramuscular administration significantly reduced the occurrence of injection site AEs. Trial Registration Identifier: NCT00119067. ..
  20. Hudson M, Beyer W, Böhm R, Fasanella A, Garofolo G, Golinski R, et al. Bacillus anthracis: balancing innocent research with dual-use potential. Int J Med Microbiol. 2008;298:345-64 pubmed publisher
    ..networking activities between anthrax research groups in Europe and to harmonise protocols for testing anthrax vaccines and therapeutics...
  21. Zhang Y, Qiu J, Zhou Y, Farhangfar F, Hester J, Lin A, et al. Plasmid-based vaccination with candidate anthrax vaccine antigens induces durable type 1 and type 2 T-helper immune responses. Vaccine. 2008;26:614-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate that anthrax antigens other than PA might be suitable for the generation of durable immune responses against anthrax. ..
  22. Niu M, Ball R, Woo E, Burwen D, Knippen M, Braun M. Adverse events after anthrax vaccination reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 1990-2007. Vaccine. 2009;27:290-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Continued monitoring of VAERS and analysis of potential associations between AVA vaccination and rare, serious events is warranted. ..
  23. Friedlander A, Little S. Advances in the development of next-generation anthrax vaccines. Vaccine. 2009;27 Suppl 4:D28-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Attempts to broaden the protection afforded by PA-based vaccines have focused on adding other B. anthracis components, including spore and capsule antigens. ..
  24. Abboud N, Chow S, Saylor C, Janda A, Ravetch J, Scharff M, et al. A requirement for Fc?R in antibody-mediated bacterial toxin neutralization. J Exp Med. 2010;207:2395-405 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings highlight a new parameter for evaluating vaccine responses and the possibility of harnessing optimal Fc?R interactions in the design of passive immunization strategies. ..
  25. Merkel T, Perera P, Kelly V, Verma A, Llewellyn Z, Waldmann T, et al. Development of a highly efficacious vaccinia-based dual vaccine against smallpox and anthrax, two important bioterror entities. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18091-6 pubmed publisher
  26. Pajewski N, Parker S, Poland G, Ovsyannikova I, Song W, Zhang K, et al. The role of HLA-DR-DQ haplotypes in variable antibody responses to anthrax vaccine adsorbed. Genes Immun. 2011;12:457-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies will be required to replicate these findings and to explore the role of host genetic variation outside of the HLA region. ..
  27. Semenova V, Schiffer J, Steward Clark E, Soroka S, Schmidt D, Brawner M, et al. Validation and long term performance characteristics of a quantitative enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for human anti-PA IgG. J Immunol Methods. 2012;376:97-107 pubmed publisher essential for comparative analyses of anti-toxin immune responses in anthrax cases, recipients of PA-based anthrax vaccines and for evaluation of anti-PA based immunotherapies...
  28. Smith K, Crowe S, Garman L, GUTHRIDGE C, Muther J, McKee E, et al. Human monoclonal antibodies generated following vaccination with AVA provide neutralization by blocking furin cleavage but not by preventing oligomerization. Vaccine. 2012;30:4276-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These fully human antibodies provide insight into the neutralizing response to AVA for future subunit vaccine and passive immunotherapeutic cocktail design. ..
  29. Glomski I, Corre J, Mock M, Goossens P. Cutting Edge: IFN-gamma-producing CD4 T lymphocytes mediate spore-induced immunity to capsulated Bacillus anthracis. J Immunol. 2007;178:2646-50 pubmed
    ..These results are the first evidence of protective cellular immunity against capsulated B. anthracis and suggest that future antianthrax vaccines should strive to augment cellular adaptive immunity. ..
  30. Wagner L, Verma A, Meade B, Reiter K, Narum D, Brady R, et al. Structural and immunological analysis of anthrax recombinant protective antigen adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:1465-73 pubmed publisher
    New anthrax vaccines currently under development are based on recombinant protective antigen (rPA) and formulated with aluminum adjuvant...
  31. Quinn C, Sabourin C, Niemuth N, Li H, Semenova V, Rudge T, et al. A three-dose intramuscular injection schedule of anthrax vaccine adsorbed generates sustained humoral and cellular immune responses to protective antigen and provides long-term protection against inhalation anthrax in rhesus macaques. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:1730-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Vaccinated animals surviving inhalation anthrax developed high-magnitude anamnestic anti-PA IgG and TNA responses. ..
  32. Hering D, Thompson W, Hewetson J, Little S, Norris S, Pace Templeton J. Validation of the anthrax lethal toxin neutralization assay. Biologicals. 2004;32:17-27 pubmed
    ..The work was performed in accordance with the FDA's Bioanalytical Method Validation Guidance for Industry and the FDA's Good Laboratory Practice for Nonclinical Laboratory Studies (21 CFR Part 58). ..
  33. Duc L, Hong H, Atkins H, Flick Smith H, Durrani Z, Rijpkema S, et al. Immunization against anthrax using Bacillus subtilis spores expressing the anthrax protective antigen. Vaccine. 2007;25:346-55 pubmed
    ..Intracellular expression of PA failed to confer protective immunity. The highest levels of protective immunity were achieved when PA was displayed on the spore surface as well as in the germinating spore. ..
  34. Little S, Webster W, Norris S, Andrews G. Evaluation of an anti-rPA IgG ELISA for measuring the antibody response in mice. Biologicals. 2004;32:62-9 pubmed
  35. Chabot D, Scorpio A, Tobery S, Little S, Norris S, Friedlander A. Anthrax capsule vaccine protects against experimental infection. Vaccine. 2004;23:43-7 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, some protection was also observed when protective antigen was conjugated to itself. ..
  36. Little S, Ivins B, Webster W, Fellows P, Pitt M, Norris S, et al. Duration of protection of rabbits after vaccination with Bacillus anthracis recombinant protective antigen vaccine. Vaccine. 2006;24:2530-6 pubmed
    ..Neither gender nor challenge dose were identified as having a statistically significant effect on survival. Booster vaccinations with rPA may be required for the long-term protection of rabbits against anthrax. ..
  37. Mikszta J, Sullivan V, Dean C, Waterston A, Alarcon J, Dekker J, et al. Protective immunization against inhalational anthrax: a comparison of minimally invasive delivery platforms. J Infect Dis. 2005;191:278-88 pubmed
    ..The novel vaccine/device combinations described here have the potential to improve the efficacy of rPA and other biodefense vaccines. ..
  38. Friedlander A, Welkos S, Ivins B. Anthrax vaccines. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2002;271:33-60 pubmed
    The only impetus for the development of new anthrax vaccines is to protect humans against the intentional use of Bacillus anthracis as a bioterrorist or warfare agent...
  39. McConnell M, Hanna P, Imperiale M. Adenovirus-based prime-boost immunization for rapid vaccination against anthrax. Mol Ther. 2007;15:203-10 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that adenovirus-based prime-boost vaccination can provide rapid protection from anthrax and that this approach may be an effective strategy for immunizing against bacterial as well as viral pathogens. ..
  40. Kaur M, Bhatnagar R. Recent progress in the development of anthrax vaccines. Recent Pat Biotechnol. 2011;5:148-59 pubmed
    ..A number of approaches are being investigated to substitute or supplement the existing anthrax vaccines. These relied on expression of Protective antigen (PA), the key protective immunogen; in bacterial or plant ..
  41. Brown B, Cox J, Gillis A, VanCott T, Marovich M, Milazzo M, et al. Phase I study of safety and immunogenicity of an Escherichia coli-derived recombinant protective antigen (rPA) vaccine to prevent anthrax in adults. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13849 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report we describe a phase I clinical trial testing the safety and immunogenicity of an anthrax vaccine using recombinant Escherichia coli-derived, B. anthracis protective antigen (rPA)...
  42. Whiting G, Rijpkema S, Adams T, Corbel M. Characterisation of adsorbed anthrax vaccine by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Vaccine. 2004;22:4245-51 pubmed
    ..The use of proteomics can provide useful information on the antigenic make up of this vaccine and the consistency of vaccine production. ..
  43. Devera T, Aye L, Lang G, Joshi S, Ballard J, Lang M. CD1d-dependent B-cell help by NK-like T cells leads to enhanced and sustained production of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin-neutralizing antibodies. Infect Immun. 2010;78:1610-7 pubmed publisher
  44. Brookmeyer R, Johnson E, Bollinger R. Public health vaccination policies for containing an anthrax outbreak. Nature. 2004;432:901-4 pubmed
  45. Cybulski R, Sanz P, O Brien A. Anthrax vaccination strategies. Mol Aspects Med. 2009;30:490-502 pubmed publisher
    ..anthracis organism, are under active investigation. This review seeks to summarize work that has been done to build on the current PA-based vaccine methodology and to evaluate the search for future anthrax prophylaxis strategies...
  46. Schwartz M. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde: a short history of anthrax. Mol Aspects Med. 2009;30:347-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Infection of animals can be prevented by the administration of vaccines, the first of which was developed by Pasteur after an historical testing at Pouilly-le-Fort which marked the beginning of the science of vaccines. ..
  47. Cote C, Rossi C, Kang A, Morrow P, Lee J, Welkos S. The detection of protective antigen (PA) associated with spores of Bacillus anthracis and the effects of anti-PA antibodies on spore germination and macrophage interactions. Microb Pathog. 2005;38:209-25 pubmed
    ..Thus, anti-PA Ab-mediated, anti-spore activities may play a role in protection during the early stages of an anthrax infection. ..
  48. Abboud N, Casadevall A. Immunogenicity of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen domains and efficacy of elicited antibody responses depend on host genetic background. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15:1115-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that the variability observed in vaccination studies with PA-derived vaccines is a result of host heterogeneity and implies a need to develop other antigens as vaccine candidates. ..
  49. Omland K, Brys A, Lansky D, Clement K, Lynn F. Interlaboratory comparison of results of an anthrax lethal toxin neutralization assay for assessment of functional antibodies in multiple species. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15:946-53 pubmed publisher
    ..lethal toxin neutralization assay (TNA) will likely be used to correlate the protection offered by new anthrax vaccines in animal models to the immunogenicity that will be provided in humans...
  50. Smith M, Koser M, Xiao S, Siler C, McGettigan J, Calkins C, et al. Rabies virus glycoprotein as a carrier for anthrax protective antigen. Virology. 2006;353:344-56 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that a viral envelope protein can carry a bacterial protein and that a viral carrier can display whole polypeptides compared to the limited epitope presentation of previous viral systems. ..
  51. Gorse G, Keitel W, Keyserling H, Taylor D, Lock M, Alves K, et al. Response to letter to the editor "Zink TK. Vaccine 2007;25(15):2766-7". Vaccine. 2007;25:7285-7 pubmed
  52. Langley W, Bradley K, Li Z, Smith M, Schnell M, Steinhauer D. Induction of neutralizing antibody responses to anthrax protective antigen by using influenza virus vectors: implications for disparate immune system priming pathways. J Virol. 2010;84:8300-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In some cases, such toxin-neutralizing activity was notably high, indicating that the mechanisms by which immunity is primed by live influenza virus vectors may have beneficial properties. ..
  53. Stokes M, Titball R, Neeson B, Galen J, Walker N, Stagg A, et al. Oral administration of a Salmonella enterica-based vaccine expressing Bacillus anthracis protective antigen confers protection against aerosolized B. anthracis. Infect Immun. 2007;75:1827-34 pubmed
    ..Thus, we demonstrate for the first time the efficacy of an oral S. enterica-based vaccine against aerosolized B. anthracis spores. ..
  54. Little S, Ivins B, Fellows P, Pitt M, Norris S, Andrews G. Defining a serological correlate of protection in rabbits for a recombinant anthrax vaccine. Vaccine. 2004;22:422-30 pubmed
    ..0015) of protection against a B. anthracis aerosol spore challenge in rabbits. ..
  55. Zink T. Gorse GJ, et al. "Immunogenicity and tolerance of ascending doses of a recombinant protective antigen (rPA102) anthrax vaccine: a randomized, double-blinded, controlled, multicenter trial" [Vaccine 24 (2006) 5950-5959]. Vaccine. 2007;25:2766-7 pubmed
  56. Grunow R, Porsch Ozcürümez M, Splettstoesser W, Buckendahl A, Hahn U, Beyer W, et al. Monitoring of ELISA-reactive antibodies against anthrax protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and toxin-neutralising antibodies in serum of individuals vaccinated against anthrax with the PA-based UK anthrax vaccine. Vaccine. 2007;25:3679-83 pubmed
    The human anthrax vaccines currently licensed contain the protective antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis as main antigen together with traces of some other bacillus components, e.g. lethal factor (LF)...
  57. Vitale L, Blanset D, Lowy I, O Neill T, Goldstein J, Little S, et al. Prophylaxis and therapy of inhalational anthrax by a novel monoclonal antibody to protective antigen that mimics vaccine-induced immunity. Infect Immun. 2006;74:5840-7 pubmed
    ..neutralizing antibody response to the protective antigen (PA) component of anthrax toxin elicited by approved anthrax vaccines is an accepted correlate for vaccine-mediated protection against anthrax...
  58. Crowe S, Garman L, Engler R, Farris A, Ballard J, Harley J, et al. Anthrax vaccination induced anti-lethal factor IgG: fine specificity and neutralizing capacity. Vaccine. 2011;29:3670-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Findings from these studies have important implications for vaccine design and immunotherapeutic development. ..
  59. Splino M, Patocka J, Prymula R, Chlibek R. Anthrax vaccines. Ann Saudi Med. 2005;25:143-9 pubmed
    ..In Russia, live spore vaccine (STI) has been used in a two-dose schedule. Current anthrax vaccines show considerable local and general reactogenicity (erythema, induration, soreness, fever)...
  60. Campbell J, Clement K, Wasserman S, Donegan S, Chrisley L, Kotloff K. Safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a recombinant protective antigen anthrax vaccine given to healthy adults. Hum Vaccin. 2007;3:205-11 pubmed
    ..This recombinant Protective Antigen anthrax vaccine, when given with the adjuvant Alhydrogel to healthy adults in two intramuscular injections four weeks apart, is very well-tolerated and highly immunogenic. ..
  61. Peachman K, Rao M, Alving C, Burge R, Leppla S, Rao V, et al. Correlation between lethal toxin-neutralizing antibody titers and protection from intranasal challenge with Bacillus anthracis Ames strain spores in mice after transcutaneous immunization with recombinant anthrax protective antigen. Infect Immun. 2006;74:794-7 pubmed
    ..Future experiments with rabbits and nonhuman primates should confirm the significance of protection by this vaccine strategy. ..
  62. Baillie L. Is new always better than old?: The development of human vaccines for anthrax. Hum Vaccin. 2009;5:806-16 pubmed
    ..If we are to respond effectively to emerging biological threats we need to develop processes that generate protective vaccines in a meaningful time frame and yield products in months not decades! ..
  63. Weiss S, Kobiler D, Levy H, Marcus H, Pass A, Rothschild N, et al. Immunological correlates for protection against intranasal challenge of Bacillus anthracis spores conferred by a protective antigen-based vaccine in rabbits. Infect Immun. 2006;74:394-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, this study emphasizes that regardless of the immunization regimen or the time of challenge, neutralizing antibody titers are better predictors of protection than total anti-PA titers. ..
  64. Nguyen M, Terzyan S, Ballard J, James J, Farris A. The major neutralizing antibody responses to recombinant anthrax lethal and edema factors are directed to non-cross-reactive epitopes. Infect Immun. 2009;77:4714-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This work increases understanding of the immunogenicity of EF and LF and offers perspective for the development of new strategies for vaccination against anthrax...
  65. Nguyen M, Crowe S, Kurella S, Teryzan S, Cao B, Ballard J, et al. Sequential B-cell epitopes of Bacillus anthracis lethal factor bind lethal toxin-neutralizing antibodies. Infect Immun. 2009;77:162-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study paves the way for a more effective anthrax vaccine by identifying discontinuous peptide epitopes of LF. ..
  66. Berthold I, Pombo M, Wagner L, Arciniega J. Immunogenicity in mice of anthrax recombinant protective antigen in the presence of aluminum adjuvants. Vaccine. 2005;23:1993-9 pubmed
  67. Baillie L, Huwar T, Moore S, Mellado Sanchez G, Rodriguez L, Neeson B, et al. An anthrax subunit vaccine candidate based on protective regions of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen and lethal factor. Vaccine. 2010;28:6740-8 pubmed publisher
    Studies have confirmed the key role of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) in the US and UK human anthrax vaccines. However, given the tripartite nature of the toxin, other components, including lethal factor (LF), are also likely ..
  68. Wattiau P, Govaerts M, Frangoulidis D, Fretin D, Kissling E, Van Hessche M, et al. Immunologic response of unvaccinated workers exposed to anthrax, Belgium. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1637-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Of 66 workers, approximately 10% had circulating antibodies or T lymphocytes that reacted with anthrax protective antigen. Individual immunity varied from undetectable to high. ..
  69. Scorpio A, Blank T, Day W, Chabot D. Anthrax vaccines: Pasteur to the present. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006;63:2237-48 pubmed
    ..Due to animal vaccinations, the rate of infection has dropped dramatically. Anthrax vaccines have progressed from uncharacterized whole-cell vaccines in 1881, to pXO2-negative spores in the 1930s, to ..
  70. Galloway D, Baillie L. DNA vaccines against anthrax. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2004;4:1661-7 pubmed
    ..The anthrax 'model' constitutes an important experimental system for genetic immunisation technology development. ..
  71. Little S, Webster W, Ivins B, Fellows P, Norris S, Andrews G. Development of an in vitro-based potency assay for anthrax vaccine. Vaccine. 2004;22:2843-52 pubmed
    ..An advantage of the proposed in vitro-based potency assay is that it will not need stringent biosafety containment measures as required by the current guinea pig potency assay. ..
  72. Baillie L, Rodriguez A, Moore S, Atkins H, Feng C, Nataro J, et al. Towards a human oral vaccine for anthrax: the utility of a Salmonella Typhi Ty21a-based prime-boost immunization strategy. Vaccine. 2008;26:6083-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of employing a mucosal prime with a licensed Salmonella Typhi vaccine strain followed by a parenteral protein boost to stimulate rapid protective immunity against anthrax. ..