Summary: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.

Top Publications

  1. Rolnick S, Parker E, Nordin J, Hedblom B, Wei F, Kerby T, et al. Self-report compared to electronic medical record across eight adult vaccines: do results vary by demographic factors?. Vaccine. 2013;31:3928-35 pubmed publisher comprehensively assess the validity of self-reported adult vaccination status for the eight most common adult vaccines we conducted a survey of vaccination receipt and compared it to the electronic medical record (EMR), which was ..
  2. Owen J, Sahay B, Mohamadzadeh M. New generation of oral mucosal vaccines targeting dendritic cells. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2013;17:918-24 pubmed publisher
    As most infectious organisms gain entry at mucosal surfaces, there is a great deal of interest in developing vaccines that elicit effective mucosal immune responses against pathogen challenge...
  3. Merino O, Alberdi P, Pérez de la Lastra J, De La Fuente J. Tick vaccines and the control of tick-borne pathogens. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2013;3:30 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, we review the tick-protective antigens that have been identified for the formulation of tick vaccines and the effect of these vaccines on the control of tick-borne pathogens.
  4. Fox C, Haensler J. An update on safety and immunogenicity of vaccines containing emulsion-based adjuvants. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2013;12:747-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The number of clinical safety and immunogenicity evaluations of vaccines containing emulsion adjuvants has correspondingly mushroomed...
  5. Monath T. Vaccines against diseases transmitted from animals to humans: a one health paradigm. Vaccine. 2013;31:5321-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Three frameworks for the use of vaccines in this context are described, and examples are provided of successes and failures...
  6. Berti F, Adamo R. Recent mechanistic insights on glycoconjugate vaccines and future perspectives. ACS Chem Biol. 2013;8:1653-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Glycoconjugates represent nowadays an important class of efficacious and safe commercial vaccines. It has been known for a long time that covalent linkage of poorly immunogenic carbohydrates to protein is ..
  7. Kraehenbuhl J, Neutra M. Mucosal vaccines: where do we stand?. Curr Top Med Chem. 2013;13:2609-28 pubmed
    Mucosal vaccinology is a relatively young but rapidly expanding discipline. At present the vast majority of vaccines are administered by injection, including vaccines that protect against mucosally acquired pathogens such as influenza ..
  8. Thomas S, Luxon B. Vaccines based on structure-based design provide protection against infectious diseases. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2013;12:1301-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccines elicit immune responses, provide protection against microorganisms and are considered as one of the most successful medical interventions against infectious diseases...
  9. Van Brussel I, Lee W, Rombouts M, Nuyts A, Heylen M, De Winter B, et al. Tolerogenic dendritic cell vaccines to treat autoimmune diseases: can the unattainable dream turn into reality?. Autoimmun Rev. 2014;13:138-50 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Reed S, Orr M, Fox C. Key roles of adjuvants in modern vaccines. Nat Med. 2013;19:1597-608 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccines containing novel adjuvant formulations are increasingly reaching advanced development and licensing stages, providing new tools to fill previously unmet clinical needs...
  2. Scheifele D, Ward B, Halperin S, McNeil S, Crowcroft N, Bjornson G. Approved but non-funded vaccines: accessing individual protection. Vaccine. 2014;32:766-70 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in many countries public funding of approved vaccines can be substantially delayed, limited to a portion of the at-risk population or denied altogether...
  3. Feikin D, Scott J, Gessner B. Use of vaccines as probes to define disease burden. Lancet. 2014;383:1762-70 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, traditional studies of vaccines focus on defining the vaccine effectiveness or efficacy...
  4. Barile J, Kuperminc G, Weintraub E, Mink J, Thompson W. Thimerosal exposure in early life and neuropsychological outcomes 7-10 years later. J Pediatr Psychol. 2012;37:106-18 pubmed publisher
    The authors used a public use data set to investigate associations between the receipt of thimerosal-containing vaccines and immune globulins early in life and neuropsychological outcomes assessed at 7-10 years...
  5. Cornish K, Harris A, LeSage M, Keyler D, Burroughs D, Earley C, et al. Combined active and passive immunization against nicotine: minimizing monoclonal antibody requirements using a target antibody concentration strategy. Int Immunopharmacol. 2011;11:1809-15 pubmed publisher
    Nicotine vaccines have shown preliminary evidence of efficacy for enhancing smoking cessation rates, but the serum nicotine-specific antibody (NicAb) concentrations produced are highly variable and many subjects do not develop effective ..
  6. Turner N, Laws A, Roberts L. Assessing the effectiveness of cold chain management for childhood vaccines. J Prim Health Care. 2011;3:278-82 pubmed
    Effective immunisation programmes require a stable cold chain to maintain potency of vaccines from national stores through to delivery sites...
  7. Hirobe S, Okada N, Nakagawa S. Transcutaneous vaccines--current and emerging strategies. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2013;10:485-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The accumulation of information regarding skin characteristics and the properties of TCI devices will help refine TCI system development guidelines and thus lead to the improvement of transcutaneous vaccination. ..
  8. Senti G, Johansen P, Kundig T. Intralymphatic immunotherapy: from the rationale to human applications. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2011;352:71-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on direct administration of vaccines in general and of allergens in particular into lymph nodes with the aim to enhance immunotherapy...
  9. Shahein Y, Abouelella A, Hussein N, Hamed R, El Hakim A, Abdel Shafy S, et al. Identification of four novel Rhipicephalus annulatus upregulated salivary gland proteins as candidate vaccines. Protein J. 2013;32:392-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of these salivary genes may put forward new vaccines to control tick infestations and tick-borne diseases.
  10. He Y, Rappuoli R, De Groot A, Chen R. Emerging vaccine informatics. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2010;2010:218590 pubmed publisher
    ..Computational literature mining and databases effectively process, mine, and store large amounts of vaccine literature and data. Vaccine Ontology (VO) has been initiated to integrate various vaccine data and support automated reasoning. ..
  11. Kumar D, Beach N, Meng X, Hegde N. Use of PCR-based assays for the detection of the adventitious agent porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) in vaccines, and for confirming the identity of cell substrates and viruses used in vaccine production. J Virol Methods. 2012;179:201-11 pubmed publisher
    Safety and quality are important issues for vaccines. Whereas reversion to virulence poses a safety risk with live attenuated vaccines, the potential for the presence of adventitious agents is also an issue of vaccine quality...
  12. Benn C, Netea M, Selin L, Aaby P. A small jab - a big effect: nonspecific immunomodulation by vaccines. Trends Immunol. 2013;34:431-9 pubmed publisher
    Recent epidemiological studies have shown that, in addition to disease-specific effects, vaccines against infectious diseases have nonspecific effects on the ability of the immune system to handle other pathogens...
  13. Serre K, Cunningham A, Coughlan R, Lino A, Rot A, Hub E, et al. CD8 T cells induce T-bet-dependent migration toward CXCR3 ligands by differentiated B cells produced during responses to alum-protein vaccines. Blood. 2012;120:4552-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This model clarifies how precursors of long-lived AFCs and memory B cells acquire CXCR3 that causes their migration to inflammatory foci. ..
  14. Six A, Bellier B, Thomas Vaslin V, Klatzmann D. Systems biology in vaccine design. Microb Biotechnol. 2012;5:295-304 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccines are the most effective tools to prevent infectious diseases and to minimize their impact on humans or animals...
  15. Davis M, Butchart A, Wheeler J, Coleman M, Singer D, Freed G. Failure-to-success ratios, transition probabilities and phase lengths for prophylactic vaccines versus other pharmaceuticals in the development pipeline. Vaccine. 2011;29:9414-6 pubmed publisher
    Research and development of prophylactic vaccines carries a high risk of failure. In the past, industry experts have asserted that vaccines are riskier to produce than other pharmaceuticals. This assertion has not been critically examined...
  16. Hegde N, Kaveri S, Bayry J. Recent advances in the administration of vaccines for infectious diseases: microneedles as painless delivery devices for mass vaccination. Drug Discov Today. 2011;16:1061-8 pubmed publisher
    ..There is renewed interest in the discovery of novel vaccines and adjuvants owing to emerging and reemerging diseases and the burden and complexity of chronic infectious ..
  17. Garcia Fuentes M, Alonso M. Chitosan-based drug nanocarriers: where do we stand?. J Control Release. 2012;161:496-504 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we offer our perspective on the plausible advances in this area in the near future. ..
  18. Jun L, Jie L, Dongping Y, Xin Y, Taiming L, Rongyue C, et al. Effects of nasal immunization of multi-target preventive vaccines on atherosclerosis. Vaccine. 2012;30:1029-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that multifaceted vaccine combining lipid-regulating with anti-inflammation was a potential remedy, especially for atherosclerosis with complicated etiology. ..
  19. De Gregorio E, Rappuoli R. Vaccines for the future: learning from human immunology. Microb Biotechnol. 2012;5:149-55 pubmed publisher
    Conventional vaccines have been extremely successful in preventing infections by pathogens expressing relatively conserved antigens through antibody-mediated effector mechanisms...
  20. Qadri F, Bhuiyan T, Sack D, Svennerholm A. Immune responses and protection in children in developing countries induced by oral vaccines. Vaccine. 2013;31:452-60 pubmed publisher
    Oral mucosal vaccines have great promise for generating protective immunity against intestinal infections for the benefit of large numbers of people especially young children...
  21. Mrozek Budzyn D, Majewska R, Kieltyka A, Augustyniak M. Neonatal exposure to Thimerosal from vaccines and child development in the first 3 years of life. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2012;34:592-7 pubmed publisher
    Despite the common use of Thimerosal as a preservative in childhood vaccines since the 1930s, there are not many studies on ethylmercury toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics in infants...
  22. Lorca Oró C, Lopez Olvera J, Fernández Sirera L, Solanes D, Navarro N, García Bocanegra I, et al. Evaluation of the efficacy of commercial vaccines against bluetongue virus serotypes 1 and 8 in experimentally infected red deer (Cervus elaphus). Vet Microbiol. 2012;154:240-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The results obtained in the present study confirm that monovalent BTV-1 and BTV-8 vaccines are safe and effective to prevent BTV infection in red deer...
  23. Srivastav A, Kass P, McGill L, Farver T, Kent M. Comparative vaccine-specific and other injectable-specific risks of injection-site sarcomas in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2012;241:595-602 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare associations between vaccine types and other injectable drugs with development of injection-site sarcomas in cats...
  24. Brearley L, Eggers R, Steinglass R, Vandelaer J. Applying an equity lens in the Decade of Vaccines. Vaccine. 2013;31 Suppl 2:B103-7 pubmed publisher
    Addressing inequities in immunisation must be the main priority for the Decade of Vaccines. Children who remain unreached are those who need vaccination - and other health services - most...
  25. Thompson A, Staats H. Cytokines: the future of intranasal vaccine adjuvants. Clin Dev Immunol. 2011;2011:289597 pubmed publisher
    Due to its potential as an effective, needle-free route of immunization for use with subunit vaccines, nasal immunization continues to be evaluated as a route of immunization in both research and clinical studies...
  26. Vitetta E, Smallshaw J, Schindler J. Pilot phase IB clinical trial of an alhydrogel-adsorbed recombinant ricin vaccine. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:1697-9 pubmed
    ..Without adjuvant it is safe and immunogenic in mice, rabbits, and humans. Based on our studies in mice, we now report the results of a small clinical trial with Alhydrogel-adsorbed RiVax. ..
  27. Iraola V, Gallego M, López Matas M, Morales M, Bel I, Garcia N, et al. Immunogenicity of Phleum pratense depigmented allergoid vaccines: experimental study in rabbits. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2012;22:35-40 pubmed
    ..The immunogenicity of modified allergen vaccines has not been fully elucidated, and the mechanisms involved are not well understood...
  28. Burchett H, Mounier Jack S, Griffiths U, Biellik R, Ongolo Zogo P, Chavez E, et al. New vaccine adoption: qualitative study of national decision-making processes in seven low- and middle-income countries. Health Policy Plan. 2012;27 Suppl 2:ii5-16 pubmed publisher
    As more new and improved vaccines become available, decisions on which to adopt into routine programmes become more frequent and complex...
  29. Parizi L, Githaka N, Logullo C, Konnai S, Masuda A, Ohashi K, et al. The quest for a universal vaccine against ticks: cross-immunity insights. Vet J. 2012;194:158-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, an alternative control strategy is urgently needed. Vaccines against ticks have been shown to be functionally feasible, as highlighted by the success of Bm86 vaccines against ..
  30. El Ridi R, Tallima H. Vaccine-induced protection against murine schistosomiasis mansoni with larval excretory-secretory antigens and papain or type-2 cytokines. J Parasitol. 2013;99:194-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Improvement of ESP selection, singly or in a combination, and immunization regimen, namely ESP and type-2 cytokine dose and injection site and schedule, could lead to a sterilizing schistosomiasis vaccine in the foreseeable future...
  31. van Kooyk Y, Unger W, Fehres C, Kalay H, Garcia Vallejo J. Glycan-based DC-SIGN targeting vaccines to enhance antigen cross-presentation. Mol Immunol. 2013;55:143-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we discuss the capacity of glycan-based vaccines to enhance antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses in human skin and mouse model systems.
  32. Thomann Harwood L, Kaeuper P, Rossi N, Milona P, Herrmann B, McCullough K. Nanogel vaccines targeting dendritic cells: contributions of the surface decoration and vaccine cargo on cell targeting and activation. J Control Release. 2013;166:95-105 pubmed publisher
    ..cells (DCs) play crucial roles in initiating and promoting immune defences, providing a pivotal target for vaccines. Although nanoparticle/nanogel-based delivery vehicles are showing potential for delivering vaccines to the ..
  33. Esterlis I, Hannestad J, Perkins E, Bois F, D Souza D, Tyndale R, et al. Effect of a nicotine vaccine on nicotine binding to ?2*-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in vivo in human tobacco smokers. Am J Psychiatry. 2013;170:399-407 pubmed publisher
    ..This likely contributes to maintenance of smoking dependence and cessation difficulty. Developing nicotine vaccines could improve treatments...
  34. McCluskie M, Pryde D, Gervais D, Stead D, Zhang N, Benoit M, et al. Enhancing immunogenicity of a 3'aminomethylnicotine-DT-conjugate anti-nicotine vaccine with CpG adjuvant in mice and non-human primates. Int Immunopharmacol. 2013;16:50-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Anti-nicotine vaccines offer a novel mechanism of action whereby anti-nicotine antibodies (Ab) in circulation prevent nicotine from ..
  35. Wilson J, Keller S, Manganiello M, Cheng C, Lee C, Opara C, et al. pH-Responsive nanoparticle vaccines for dual-delivery of antigens and immunostimulatory oligonucleotides. ACS Nano. 2013;7:3912-25 pubmed publisher
    Protein subunit vaccines offer important potential advantages over live vaccine vectors but generally elicit weaker and shorter-lived cellular immune responses...
  36. Li N, Peng L, Chen X, Nakagawa S, Gao J. Transcutaneous vaccines: novel advances in technology and delivery for overcoming the barriers. Vaccine. 2011;29:6179-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, chemokines promoted the migration of Langerhans cells and the transcutaneous adjuvants enhancing the immune responses at certain levels are also discussed for the development of novel transcutaneous vaccines.
  37. Poscia A, Santoro A, Collamati A, Giannetti G, de Belvis A, Ricciardi W, et al. [Availability and quality of vaccines information on the Web: a systematic review and implication in Public Health]. Ann Ig. 2012;24:113-21 pubmed
    ..The great number of anti-vaccination movements on Italian Web should improve public health strategies in terms of "Evidence-Based prevention". ..
  38. Wilson K, Hawken S. Incidence of adverse events in premature children following 2-month vaccination. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2012;8:592-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This in turn results in an increased immune response and risk of immediate adverse reactions. Future studies of immune response in premature children should examine the impact of weight at the time of immunization. ..
  39. Karande P, Mitragotri S. Transcutaneous immunization: an overview of advantages, disease targets, vaccines, and delivery technologies. Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng. 2010;1:175-201 pubmed publisher
    ..We will also briefly discuss the challenges that need to be overcome to translate early laboratory successes in transcutaneous immunization into the development of effective clinical prophylactics. ..
  40. Demento S, Cui W, Criscione J, Stern E, Tulipan J, Kaech S, et al. Role of sustained antigen release from nanoparticle vaccines in shaping the T cell memory phenotype. Biomaterials. 2012;33:4957-64 pubmed publisher
    Particulate vaccines are emerging promising technologies for the creation of tunable prophylactics against a wide variety of conditions...
  41. Linhart B, Valenta R. Vaccines for allergy. Curr Opin Immunol. 2012;24:354-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy...
  42. van der Maaden K, Jiskoot W, Bouwstra J. Microneedle technologies for (trans)dermal drug and vaccine delivery. J Control Release. 2012;161:645-55 pubmed publisher
    ..section of this review is devoted to the use of microneedles for the delivery of therapeutic proteins and vaccines. Finally, we give our view on research and development that is needed to render microneedle-based (trans)dermal ..
  43. Gowda C, Dempsey A. The rise (and fall?) of parental vaccine hesitancy. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2013;9:1755-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, potential strategies to mitigate the rising tide of parent vaccine reluctance and refusal are discussed. ..
  44. Otsuka N, Han H, Toyoizumi Ajisaka H, Nakamura Y, Arakawa Y, Shibayama K, et al. Prevalence and genetic characterization of pertactin-deficient Bordetella pertussis in Japan. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31985 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations suggested that human host factors (genetic factors and immune status) that select for Prn(-) strains have arisen and that Prn expression is not essential for fitness under these conditions. ..
  45. Larson H, Smith D, Paterson P, Cumming M, Eckersberger E, Freifeld C, et al. Measuring vaccine confidence: analysis of data obtained by a media surveillance system used to analyse public concerns about vaccines. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13:606-13 pubmed publisher
    The intensity, spread, and effects of public opinion about vaccines are growing as new modes of communication speed up information sharing, contributing to vaccine hesitancy, refusals, and disease outbreaks...
  46. Vemula S, Ahi Y, Swaim A, Katz J, Donis R, Sambhara S, et al. Broadly protective adenovirus-based multivalent vaccines against highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses for pandemic preparedness. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62496 pubmed publisher
    ..Newer vaccine approaches for pandemic preparedness against these viruses are needed, given the limitations of vaccines currently approved for H5N1 viruses in terms of their production timelines and the ability to induce protective ..
  47. Gonsioroski A, Bezerra I, Utiumi K, Driemeier D, Farias S, da Silva Vaz I, et al. Anti-tick monoclonal antibody applied by artificial capillary feeding in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus females. Exp Parasitol. 2012;130:359-63 pubmed publisher
    ..However, resistance to acaricides reflects the need for alternative tick control methods, among which vaccines have gained increasing relevance...
  48. Goronzy J, Weyand C. Understanding immunosenescence to improve responses to vaccines. Nat Immunol. 2013;14:428-36 pubmed publisher
  49. Watson D, Endsley A, Huang L. Design considerations for liposomal vaccines: influence of formulation parameters on antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to liposome associated antigens. Vaccine. 2012;30:2256-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In the last 15 years, liposome vaccine technology has matured and now several vaccines containing liposome-based adjuvants have been approved for human use or have reached late stages of clinical ..
  50. Trumpfheller C, Longhi M, Caskey M, Idoyaga J, Bozzacco L, Keler T, et al. Dendritic cell-targeted protein vaccines: a novel approach to induce T-cell immunity. J Intern Med. 2012;271:183-92 pubmed publisher
    Current vaccines primarily work by inducing protective antibodies. However, in many infections like HIV, malaria and tuberculosis as well as cancers, there remains a need for durable and protective T-cell immunity...
  51. Dorea J, Farina M, Rocha J. Toxicity of ethylmercury (and Thimerosal): a comparison with methylmercury. J Appl Toxicol. 2013;33:700-11 pubmed publisher
    ..almost every human and animal (domestic and farmed) that has been immunized with thimerosal-containing vaccines has been exposed to etHg...
  52. Rappuoli R, Mandl C, Black S, De Gregorio E. Vaccines for the twenty-first century society. Nat Rev Immunol. 2011;11:865-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccines have been one of the major revolutions in the history of mankind and, during the twentieth century, they eliminated most of the childhood diseases that used to cause millions of deaths...
  53. Gilbert S. T-cell-inducing vaccines - what's the future. Immunology. 2012;135:19-26 pubmed publisher
    ..century vaccine development has moved from the use of attenuated or killed micro-organisms to protein sub-unit vaccines, with vaccine immunogenicity assessed by measuring antibodies induced by vaccination...
  54. Pelosi A, Shepherd R, Walmsley A. Delivery of plant-made vaccines and therapeutics. Biotechnol Adv. 2012;30:440-8 pubmed publisher
    ..biopharmaceuticals for parenteral delivery to humans approaches, improved strategies for delivery of plant-made vaccines and therapeutics are required to ensure their further development and to fulfil the prospect of supplying a ..
  55. Rosales Mendoza S, Govea Alonso D, Monreal Escalante E, Fragoso G, Sciutto E. Developing plant-based vaccines against neglected tropical diseases: where are we?. Vaccine. 2012;31:40-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Although vaccine candidates have been proposed to prevent some NTDs, no vaccine is available at the market yet. Vaccines against NTDs should be low-cost and needle-free to reduce the logistic cost of their administration...
  56. Haynes B, Kelsoe G, Harrison S, Kepler T. B-cell-lineage immunogen design in vaccine development with HIV-1 as a case study. Nat Biotechnol. 2012;30:423-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach, which should be applicable to many infectious agents, holds promise for the construction of vaccines that can drive B cells along rare but desirable maturation pathways.
  57. Loughlin A, Marchant C, Adams W, Barnett E, Baxter R, Black S, et al. Causality assessment of adverse events reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). Vaccine. 2012;30:7253-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Experts knowledgeable about vaccines and clinical outcomes, reviewed each VAERS report and available medical records...
  58. Thakur A, Pedersen L, Jungersen G. Immune markers and correlates of protection for vaccine induced immune responses. Vaccine. 2012;30:4907-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccines have been a major innovation in the history of mankind and still have the potential to address the challenges posed by chronic intracellular infections including tuberculosis, HIV and malaria which are leading causes of high ..
  59. Mahapatro A, Singh D. Biodegradable nanoparticles are excellent vehicle for site directed in-vivo delivery of drugs and vaccines. J Nanobiotechnology. 2011;9:55 pubmed publisher
    ..are gaining increased attention for their ability to serve as a viable carrier for site specific delivery of vaccines, genes, drugs and other biomolecules in the body...
  60. Plotkin S, Plotkin S. The development of vaccines: how the past led to the future. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2011;9:889-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Those predictions have often been correct, as indicated by the decline of many infections for which vaccines have been made over the past 200 years.
  61. Ropeik D. How society should respond to the risk of vaccine rejection. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2013;9:1815-8 pubmed publisher
    While vaccine acceptance remains high in general, fear of vaccines has grown dramatically in the past several years in many developed countries...
  62. Kunisawa J, Kurashima Y, Kiyono H. Gut-associated lymphoid tissues for the development of oral vaccines. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2012;64:523-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we describe the immunological features of GALT and the current status of antigen delivery system candidates for successful oral vaccine. ..
  63. Kennedy R, Poland G. The top five "game changers" in vaccinology: toward rational and directed vaccine development. OMICS. 2011;15:533-7 pubmed publisher
    ..on a global, systems level, and (3) directly apply the new knowledge gained to the development of next-generation vaccines with improved safety profiles, enhanced efficacy, and even targeted utility in select populations...
  64. Dicko A, Touré S, Traore M, Sagara I, Toure O, Sissoko M, et al. Increase in EPI vaccines coverage after implementation of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infant with Sulfadoxine -pyrimethamine in the district of Kolokani, Mali: results from a cluster randomized control trial. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:573 pubmed publisher
    ..with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) against clinical disease and the absence of its interaction with routine vaccines of the Expanded Immunization Programme (EPI) have been established, there are still some concerns regarding the ..
  65. Beaumier C, Gillespie P, Hotez P, Bottazzi M. New vaccines for neglected parasitic diseases and dengue. Transl Res. 2013;162:144-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Preventative and therapeutic NTD vaccines are needed as long-term solutions...
  66. Hess R, Weber F, Watson K, Schmitt S. Regulatory, biosafety and safety challenges for novel cells as substrates for human vaccines. Vaccine. 2012;30:2715-27 pubmed publisher
    In the development of novel substrates used for production of human vaccines there has been significant progress made in recent years...
  67. Cruz L, Tacken P, Pots J, Torensma R, Buschow S, Figdor C. Comparison of antibodies and carbohydrates to target vaccines to human dendritic cells via DC-SIGN. Biomaterials. 2012;33:4229-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we used two strategies to target vaccines components to DC-SIGN: 1) carbohydrates as natural receptor ligands and 2) receptor-specific antibodies (Abs)...
  68. Weinberger B, Grubeck Loebenstein B. Vaccines for the elderly. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18 Suppl 5:100-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, most vaccines are less immunogenic and efficient in the elderly because of age-related changes in the immune system...
  69. He Y, Cao Z, De Groot A, Brusic V, Schonbach C, Petrovsky N. Computational vaccinology and the ICoVax 2012 workshop. BMC Bioinformatics. 2013;14 Suppl 4:I1 pubmed publisher
    ..This Editorial provides a list of major challenges for the future of computational vaccinology and identifies developing themes that will expand and evolve over the next few years. ..
  70. Cló E, Kracun S, Nudelman A, Jensen K, Liljeqvist J, Olofsson S, et al. Characterization of the viral O-glycopeptidome: a novel tool of relevance for vaccine design and serodiagnosis. J Virol. 2012;86:6268-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The methods presented provide new insight into viral immunity and new targets for immunodiagnostic and therapeutic measures. ..
  71. Anand S, Rajagopal V, Kaliraj P. Brugia malayi thioredoxin peroxidase as a potential vaccine candidate antigen for lymphatic filariasis. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2012;167:1351-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, there was a clear dichotomy in the cytokine production by infected versus EN individuals. Our findings suggest that BmTPX may be a suitable antigen candidate for lymphatic filariasis, but a further study is still required...
  72. Guerrero F, Miller R, Perez de Leon A. Cattle tick vaccines: many candidate antigens, but will a commercially viable product emerge?. Int J Parasitol. 2012;42:421-7 pubmed publisher
    ..on what constitutes a good target antigen and vaccine, and what might influence the market success of candidate vaccines. The previous experience with Bm86-based vaccines offers perspective on marketing and producer acceptance aspects ..
  73. Dakshinamoorthy G, Samykutty A, Munirathinam G, Reddy M, Kalyanasundaram R. Multivalent fusion protein vaccine for lymphatic filariasis. Vaccine. 2013;31:1616-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Combination drug treatments are highly efficient in controlling the infection. However, there are no effective vaccines available for human or animal lymphatic filariasis despite the identification of several subunit vaccines...
  74. Forbes E, de Cassan S, Llewellyn D, Biswas S, Goodman A, Cottingham M, et al. T cell responses induced by adenoviral vectored vaccines can be adjuvanted by fusion of antigen to the oligomerization domain of C4b-binding protein. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44943 pubmed publisher
    Viral vectored vaccines have been shown to induce both T cell and antibody responses in animals and humans...
  75. Ota M, Idoko O, Ogundare E, Afolabi M. Human immune responses to vaccines in the first year of life: biological, socio-economic and ethical issues - a viewpoint. Vaccine. 2013;31:2483-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Vaccines have become the most effective public health intervention strategy to curtail the prevalence of these infectious ..
  76. Boukhebza H, Bellon N, Limacher J, Inchauspe G. Therapeutic vaccination to treat chronic infectious diseases: current clinical developments using MVA-based vaccines. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2012;8:1746-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The Modified Virus Ankara (MVA) poxvirus strain has been one of the vaccines subsequently developed to prevent smallpox infection and was selected by the US government in their Biodefense ..
  77. Phan H, Floss D, Conrad U. Veterinary vaccines from transgenic plants: highlights of two decades of research and a promising example. Curr Pharm Des. 2013;19:5601-11 pubmed
    ..and new concepts for the purification of recombinant proteins prompted the application of plant-derived vaccines for veterinary purposes...
  78. Gasparini R, Amicizia D, Lai P, Rossi S, Panatto D. Effectiveness of adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines (Inflexal V ® and Fluad ® ) in preventing hospitalization for influenza and pneumonia in the elderly: a matched case-control study. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2013;9:144-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines available in Italy in preventing hospitalization for influenza and pneumonia, a matched case-control study was ..