complex mixtures


Summary: Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.

Top Publications

  1. Martin Pastor M. Experiments for the editing of singlet peaks and simplification of ¹H NMR spectra of complex mixtures. J Agric Food Chem. 2014;62:1190-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The experiments proposed could be valuable to facilitate the detection and/or quantification of target compounds in complex mixtures of metabolites.
  2. Libalova H, Krčková S, Uhlirova K, Milcova A, Schmuczerova J, Ciganek M, et al. Genotoxicity but not the AhR-mediated activity of PAHs is inhibited by other components of complex mixtures of ambient air pollutants. Toxicol Lett. 2014;225:350-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we compared genotoxicity and gene deregulation induced by complex mixtures containing PAHs with the effects of the comparable concentrations of individual PAHs...
  3. Han X, Price P. Determining the maximum cumulative ratios for mixtures observed in ground water wells used as drinking water supplies in the United States. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011;8:4729-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This work provides a second example of use of the MCR tool in the evaluation of mixtures that occur in the environment. ..
  4. Pieterse B, Felzel E, Winter R, van der Burg B, Brouwer A. PAH-CALUX, an optimized bioassay for AhR-mediated hazard identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as individual compounds and in complex mixtures. Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47:11651-9 pubmed publisher
  5. Zheng W, Tian D, Wang X, Tian W, Zhang H, Jiang S, et al. Support vector machine: classifying and predicting mutagenicity of complex mixtures based on pollution profiles. Toxicology. 2013;313:151-9 pubmed publisher
    Powerful, robust in silico approaches offer great promise for classifying and predicting biological effects of complex mixtures and for identifying the constituents of greatest concern...
  6. Zhang H, Wang S, Liu Y, Luo L, Liu P, Qi L, et al. Trace analysis in complex mixtures using a high-component filtering strategy with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2012;70:169-77 pubmed publisher
    Trace constituents are widely present in complex mixtures, and trace analysis is challenging because of the unpredictable matrix...
  7. Fernandes F, Sousa C, Ferreres F, Valentão P, Remião F, Pereira J, et al. Kale extract increases glutathione levels in V79 cells, but does not protect them against acute toxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide. Molecules. 2012;17:5269-88 pubmed publisher
    ..brassicae materials by pharmaceutical or food industries, may constitute an insult to health, especially to debilitated individuals, if high doses are consumed. ..
  8. Riffell J. Olfactory ecology and the processing of complex mixtures. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2012;22:236-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies show that complex stimuli are represented in unique percepts that are different from their individual constituents, and that the representation may be modulated by experience and influenced by other sensory modalities. ..
  9. Yorita Christensen K, White P. A methodological approach to assessing the health impact of environmental chemical mixtures: PCBs and hypertension in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011;8:4220-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The complexity of analyzing a large number of related exposures, where each may have different potency and range, are addressed in the context of the association between hypertension risk and exposure to PCBs. ..

More Information


  1. Gong P, Cui N, Wu L, Liang Y, Hao K, Xu X, et al. Chemicalome and metabolome matching approach to elucidating biological metabolic networks of complex mixtures. Anal Chem. 2012;84:2995-3002 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a generally applicable approach to global metabolite identification of complex compound mixtures in complex matrixes. ..
  2. Aufderheide M. An efficient approach to study the toxicological effects of complex mixtures. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2008;60:163-80 pubmed publisher used in a modified Ames assay for the detection of mutagenicity by exposing bacteria to gaseous compounds or complex mixtures. This is not only true under laboratory conditions but can also be achieved under real indoor situations.
  3. Yu W, Li Y, Deng C, Zhang X. Comprehensive two-dimensional separation in coupling of reversed-phase chromatography with capillary isoelectric focusing followed by MALDI-MS identification using on-target digestion for intact protein analysis. Electrophoresis. 2006;27:2100-10 pubmed
    ..Proteome of rat liver tissue extracts was further analyzed using the system for verification. The results have shown that the system is effective for complex proteomic analysis. ..
  4. Wong C, Cociorva D, Venable J, Xu T, Yates J. Comparison of different signal thresholds on data dependent sampling in Orbitrap and LTQ mass spectrometry for the identification of peptides and proteins in complex mixtures. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2009;20:1405-14 pubmed publisher
  5. Williams T, Luna L, Guo Z, Cox N, Pirkle J, Donis R, et al. Quantification of influenza virus hemagglutinins in complex mixtures using isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Vaccine. 2008;26:2510-20 pubmed publisher
  6. Silva E, Rajapakse N, Scholze M, Backhaus T, Ermler S, Kortenkamp A. Joint effects of heterogeneous estrogenic chemicals in the E-screen--exploring the applicability of concentration addition. Toxicol Sci. 2011;122:383-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of CYP 1B1 and, consequently, a reduction in the levels of steroidal estrogens in the mixture could contribute to the shortfall from the additivity prediction that we observed. ..
  7. Coombs K. Quantitative proteomics of complex mixtures. Expert Rev Proteomics. 2011;8:659-77 pubmed publisher
    ..While these techniques still do not allow definitive identification of the entire proteome of complex mixtures, such as cells, quantitative analyses of hundreds to thousands of proteins in such complex mixtures provides ..
  8. Gennings C, Sabo R, Carney E. Identifying subsets of complex mixtures most associated with complex diseases: polychlorinated biphenyls and endometriosis as a case study. Epidemiology. 2010;21 Suppl 4:S77-84 pubmed publisher
  9. Seppälä U, Dauly C, Robinson S, Hornshaw M, Larsen J, Ipsen H. Absolute quantification of allergens from complex mixtures: a new sensitive tool for standardization of allergen extracts for specific immunotherapy. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:2113-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study shows that allergen, and/or isoallergen specific, surrogate signature peptides analyzed with HRAM MS is a sensitive and accurate tool for identification and quantification of allergens from complex allergen sources. ..
  10. Curran C, Vorhees C, Williams M, Genter M, Miller M, Nebert D. In utero and lactational exposure to a complex mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls: toxicity in pups dependent on the Cyp1a2 and Ahr genotypes. Toxicol Sci. 2011;119:189-208 pubmed publisher
    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent toxic pollutants occurring as complex mixtures in the environment...
  11. Lee A, Nakano M, Hincapie M, Kolarich D, Baker M, Hancock W, et al. The lectin riddle: glycoproteins fractionated from complex mixtures have similar glycomic profiles. OMICS. 2010;14:487-99 pubmed publisher
    ..with known glycosylation; however, a knowledge of the selectivity and specificity of lectins exposed to complex mixtures of proteins is required if they are to be used as a means of studying the glycoproteome...
  12. O Connor R, Cryan L, Wynne K, de Stefani A, Fitzgerald D, O Brien C, et al. Proteomics strategy for identifying candidate bioactive proteins in complex mixtures: application to the platelet releasate. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2010;2010:107859 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that this analytical platform is effective for the characterization of complex bioactive samples. ..
  13. Monakhova Y, Mushtakova S, Kolesnikova S, Astakhov S. Chemometrics-assisted spectrophotometric method for simultaneous determination of vitamins in complex mixtures. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2010;397:1297-306 pubmed publisher
    ..algorithm (MILCA) is applied for simultaneous chemometric determination of fat- and water-soluble vitamins in complex mixtures. The analysis is based on the decomposition of spectra of multicomponent mixtures in the UV region...
  14. Spurgeon D, Jones O, Dorne J, Svendsen C, Swain S, Sturzenbaum S. Systems toxicology approaches for understanding the joint effects of environmental chemical mixtures. Sci Total Environ. 2010;408:3725-34 pubmed publisher
  15. Sun C, Fu J, Chen J, Jiang L, Pan Y. On-line HPLC method for screening of antioxidants against superoxide anion radical from complex mixtures. J Sep Sci. 2010;33:1018-23 pubmed publisher
    A practical approach for rapidly screening antioxidants against superoxide anion radicals from complex mixtures was developed based on the quantitative difference in active compounds before and after their reaction...
  16. Le Berre E, Beno N, Ishii A, Chabanet C, Etievant P, Thomas Danguin T. Just noticeable differences in component concentrations modify the odor quality of a blending mixture. Chem Senses. 2008;33:389-95 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding confirms previous findings on perceptual blending in simple odorant mixtures and underscores the human ability to discriminate between odor percepts induced by mixtures including very similar odorant proportions. ..
  17. Zhang J, Cao H, Jing B, Almeida P, Regen S. Cholesterol-phospholipid association in fluid bilayers: a thermodynamic analysis from nearest-neighbor recognition measurements. Biophys J. 2006;91:1402-6 pubmed
    ..38 kcal/mol of phospholipid and DeltaS degrees = +1.68 +/- 1.12 cal/K mol of phospholipid. In the liquid-disordered/liquid-ordered coexistence region, changes in lipid mixing reflect changes in the phase composition of the membrane. ..
  18. Wang D, Austin C. Determination of complex mixtures of volatile organic compounds in ambient air: an overview. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2006;386:1089-98 pubmed
    ..In general, canister methods provide superior precision and accuracy and are particulary useful for the analysis of complex mixtures of VOCs. Details of canister methods are reviewed in a companion paper.
  19. Wang D, Austin C. Determination of complex mixtures of volatile organic compounds in ambient air: canister methodology. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2006;386:1099-120 pubmed
    ..Examples of difficulties that commonly arise when processing canister samples are illustrated, and solutions to these problems are provided. ..
  20. Martin F. Complex mixtures that may contain mutagenic and/or genotoxic components: a need to assess in vivo target-site effect(s) associated with in vitro-positive(s). Chemosphere. 2007;69:841-8 pubmed
    ..However, a protocol to assess the effect(s) of complex mixtures in vivo following a positive test finding in vitro remains difficult...
  21. Cologna S, Russell W, Lim P, Vigh G, Russell D. Combining isoelectric point-based fractionation, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to improve peptide detection and protein identification. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2010;21:1612-9 pubmed publisher
    ..spectrometry-compatible isoelectric trapping device that provides isoelectric point (pI)-based separations of complex mixtures of peptides...
  22. Rice G, Teuschler L, Bull R, Simmons J, Feder P. Evaluating the similarity of complex drinking-water disinfection by-product mixtures: overview of the issues. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2009;72:429-36 pubmed publisher
    Humans are exposed daily to complex mixtures of environmental chemical contaminants, which arise as releases from sources such as engineering procedures, degradation processes, and emissions from mobile or stationary sources...
  23. West G, Tucker C, Xu T, Park S, Han X, Yates J, et al. Quantitative proteomics approach for identifying protein-drug interactions in complex mixtures using protein stability measurements. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:9078-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The other eight protein targets discovered here, which include several proteins involved in glucose metabolism, create a new framework in which to investigate the molecular basis of CsA side effects in humans. ..
  24. Tarantini A, Maitre A, Lefebvre E, Marques M, Marie C, Ravanat J, et al. Relative contribution of DNA strand breaks and DNA adducts to the genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene as a pure compound and in complex mixtures. Mutat Res. 2009;671:67-75 pubmed publisher
    ..our data emphasize that (i) a combination of analytical approaches is required to assess the genotoxicity of complex mixtures and (ii) risk assessment based on additivity consideration such as toxic equivalent factors may be misleading. ..
  25. Houghten R, Pinilla C, Giulianotti M, Appel J, Dooley C, Nefzi A, et al. Strategies for the use of mixture-based synthetic combinatorial libraries: scaffold ranking, direct testing in vivo, and enhanced deconvolution by computational methods. J Comb Chem. 2008;10:3-19 pubmed
  26. Barkat S, Le Berre E, Coureaud G, Sicard G, Thomas Danguin T. Perceptual blending in odor mixtures depends on the nature of odorants and human olfactory expertise. Chem Senses. 2012;37:159-66 pubmed publisher
    Our olfactory system is confronted with complex mixtures of odorants, often recognized as single entities due to odor blending (e.g., coffee). In contrast, we are also able to discriminate odors from complex mixtures (e.g., off-odors)...
  27. Sexton K, Hattis D. Assessing cumulative health risks from exposure to environmental mixtures - three fundamental questions. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115:825-32 pubmed
  28. Mielzynska D, Siwinska E, Kapka L, Szyfter K, Knudsen L, Merlo D. The influence of environmental exposure to complex mixtures including PAHs and lead on genotoxic effects in children living in Upper Silesia, Poland. Mutagenesis. 2006;21:295-304 pubmed
    ..The sources of that exposure may be outdoor and indoor. Emissions from coal-burning stoves are important contributors to the total exposure to PAHs and Pb in Silesian children. ..
  29. Kusznierewicz B, Piasek A, Bartoszek A, Namiesnik J. The optimisation of analytical parameters for routine profiling of antioxidants in complex mixtures by HPLC coupled post-column derivatisation. Phytochem Anal. 2011;22:392-402 pubmed publisher
    ..approach, enabling rapid measurements of antioxidative potential along with profiling antioxidants in complex mixtures. To employ the commercially available post-column derivatisation device for the on-line detection of ..
  30. Lorentz H, Heynen M, Kay L, Dominici C, Khan W, Ng W, et al. Contact lens physical properties and lipid deposition in a novel characterized artificial tear solution. Mol Vis. 2011;17:3392-405 pubmed
    ..This solution was stable and did not adversely affect the physical parameters of the soft contact lenses incubated within it and showed that lipid deposition was responsive to changes in ATS composition. ..
  31. Wen Y, Ehsan S, Marshall W. Simultaneous mobilization of macro- and trace elements (MTEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds from soil with a nonionic surfactant and [S,S]-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) in admixture: PAH compounds. J Hazard Mater. 2012;199-200:240-6 pubmed publisher
    ..What resulted was a soil that had been cleaned and a limited quantity of innocuous wash water. ..
  32. Lau B, Abdullah N, Aminudin N, Lee H. Chemical composition and cellular toxicity of ethnobotanical-based hot and cold aqueous preparations of the tiger's milk mushroom (Lignosus rhinocerotis). J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;150:252-62 pubmed publisher
  33. Kamiya T, Izumi M, Hara H, Adachi T. Propolis suppresses CdCl?-induced cytotoxicity of COS7 cells through the prevention of intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation. Biol Pharm Bull. 2012;35:1126-31 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate for the first time the utility of propolis for Cd-related COS7 cytotoxicity, and these novel findings are considered to contribute to the control of ROS-derived disorders. ..
  34. Zainal Mokhtar K, Mohamad Saleh J. An oil fraction neural sensor developed using electrical capacitance tomography sensor data. Sensors (Basel). 2013;13:11385-406 pubmed publisher
    ..On average, the proposed oil fraction neural sensor has shown to be able to give a mean absolute error of 3.05% for various ECT sensor sizes. ..
  35. Wyss S, Werner I. A multifunctional test mixture for chiral cyclodextrin GC columns. Pharmeur Bio Sci Notes. 2012;2012:72-86 pubmed
    ..Column changes can be observed and system performance can be monitored by means of this test mixture, which is therefore a base for reliable results. Furthermore, this publication is thought to be a start-up aid for chiral GC. ..
  36. Shaebani M, Sarabadani J, Wolf D. Nonadditivity of fluctuation-induced forces in fluidized granular media. Phys Rev Lett. 2012;108:198001 pubmed
    ..The simulation results are qualitatively consistent with the theoretical predictions based on mode coupling calculations. These results shed new light on the underlying mechanisms of collective behaviors in fluidized granular media. ..
  37. Zhao S, Zhong X, Tie C, Chen D. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for analysis of complex samples. Proteomics. 2012;12:2991-3012 pubmed publisher
    ..Sample preparation methods, coatings for capillary inner wall, online processing strategies, and other aspects are also reviewed in each category. ..
  38. Wang Q, Xie L, Zhu B, Zheng Y, Cao S. Harmful gas recognition exploiting a CTL sensor array. Sensors (Basel). 2013;13:13509-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, experimental results show high sensitivity, long-term stability and good linearity of the sensor array, which combined with simplicity, make our system a promising application in this field. ..
  39. KHANDAKER M, Utsaha K, Morris T. Fracture toughness of titanium-cement interfaces: effects of fibers and loading angles. Int J Nanomedicine. 2014;9:1689-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the study are essential for fatigue testing and finite-element analysis of implant-cement interfaces to evaluate the performance of orthopedic and orthodontic implants. ..
  40. Parisis N, Krasinska L, Harker B, Urbach S, Rossignol M, Camasses A, et al. Initiation of DNA replication requires actin dynamics and formin activity. EMBO J. 2017;36:3212-3231 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, actin dynamics and formins control DNA replication by multiple direct and indirect mechanisms. ..
  41. Esch R, Codina R. Fungal raw materials used to produce allergen extracts. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2017;118:399-405 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, clinicians should understand the limitations of currently available fungal extracts. ..
  42. Pages G, Bonny A, Gilard V, Malet Martino M. Pulsed Field Gradient NMR with Sigmoid Shape Gradient Sampling To Produce More Detailed Diffusion Ordered Spectroscopy Maps of Real Complex Mixtures: Examples with Medicine Analysis. Anal Chem. 2016;88:3304-9 pubmed publisher
    NMR diffusion measurements are based on signal attenuation. In the case of complex mixtures for which some molecules are diffusing quickly while others are significantly slower, it is challenging to obtain a diffusion ordered spectroscopy ..
  43. Li Z, Liu Y, Kim H, Hales J, Jang S, Luo J, et al. High-optical-quality blends of anionic polymethine salts and polycarbonate with enhanced third-order non-linearities for silicon-organic hybrid devices. Adv Mater. 2012;24:OP326-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Such guest-host materials may be attractive candidates for all-optical signal-processing applications. ..
  44. Matthews J, Chen F, Milward M, Ling M, Chapple I. Neutrophil superoxide production in the presence of cigarette smoke extract, nicotine and cotinine. J Clin Periodontol. 2012;39:626-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest potential neutrophil-mediated mechanisms by which smoking may initiate and maintain oxidative stress at periodontally healthy sites and participate in disease progression, by reducing innate immune responses. ..
  45. Bergeron D, Fitzgerald R, Zimmerman B, Cessna J. The effect of impurities on calculated activity in the triple-to-double coincidence ratio liquid scintillation method. Appl Radiat Isot. 2012;70:2170-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The trends predicted by the model are tested experimentally using a series of mixed (241)Am/(3)H and (63)Ni/(3)H sources. An "impurity surface" is derived to facilitate an intuitive grasp of impurity phenomena in TDCR. ..
  46. Hirata N, Ishibashi K, Sato W, Nagi Miura N, Adachi Y, Ohta S, et al. ?-mannosyl linkages inhibit CAWS arteritis by negatively regulating dectin-2-dependent signaling in spleen and dendritic cells. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2013;35:594-604 pubmed publisher
    ..The ?-mannosyl linkages of Candida mannan is a key molecule for the immunotoxicity. CAWS727, which conatins ?-mannosyl linkages, competitively bound to lectin receptors, and resulted in reductions in the inflammatory response. ..
  47. Yang J, Lin J, Weng S, Chen J, Yang J, Amagaya S, et al. Crude extract of Euphorbia formosana inhibits the migration and invasion of DU145 human prostate cancer cells: The role of matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 inhibition via the MAPK signaling pathway. Mol Med Rep. 2013;7:1403-8 pubmed publisher
  48. Kwok Q, Acheson B, Turcotte R, Janes A, Marlair G. Fire and explosion hazards related to the industrial use of potassium and sodium methoxides. J Hazard Mater. 2013;250-251:484-90 pubmed publisher
    ..It was found that these chemicals can become self-reactive close to room temperature under specific conditions and can generate explosible dusts. ..
  49. Lombardi V, Etcheverría I, Carrera I, Cacabelos R, Chacón A. Prevention of chronic experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in mice treated with FR91. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2012;2012:826178 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that FR91 may act as a chemopreventive agent against inflammation in mice DSS-induced colitis. ..
  50. Dawson D, Genco N, Bensinger H, Guinn D, Il Giovine Z, Wayne Schultz T, et al. Evaluation of an asymmetry parameter for curve-fitting in single-chemical and mixture toxicity assessment. Toxicology. 2012;292:156-61 pubmed publisher
    ..9970 were removed from the analyses. Subsequent review of the combined effects obtained via the 4PL and the 5PL-1P functions resulted in a change in the interpretation of combined effect in 39/216 (18%) cases. ..
  51. Li K, Xu F, Gong X. Isolation, Purification and Quantification of Ginsenoside F? and F? Isomeric Compounds from Crude Extracts of Flower Buds of Panax ginseng. Molecules. 2016;21:315 pubmed publisher
    ..All the method validations showed acceptable limits. The results indicate a new source to obtain ginsenoside F? and F?, and show that the method developed here appears to be reliable for simultaneously preparing them from CEFBPG. ..
  52. Gélinas M, Juneau P, Gagné F. Early biochemical effects of Microcystis aeruginosa extracts on juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2012;161:261-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, no biotransformation processes or detoxification of GST was triggered. Our findings show early sign of biochemical effects of MC-LR in young trout. ..
  53. Arafa N, Hamuda H, Melek S, Darwish S. The effectiveness of Echinacea extract or composite glucosamine, chondroitin and methyl sulfonyl methane supplements on acute and chronic rheumatoid arthritis rat model. Toxicol Ind Health. 2013;29:187-201 pubmed publisher
    ..The composite GCM is needed for further studies over the dose and duration to assess its preventive effects against the bacterial OMP arthrogenicity. ..